Moscow Time (Russian: моско́вское вре́мя) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia, and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg. It is the second-westernmost of the eleven time zones of Russia. It has been set to UTC+03:00 permanently on 26 October 2014; before that date it had been set to UTC+04:00 year-round since 27 March 2011.
Moscow Time is used to schedule trains, ships, etc. throughout Russia, but airplane travel is scheduled using local time. Trains are going to follow local time by 1 August. Times in Russia are often announced throughout the country on radio stations as Moscow Time, which is also registered in telegrams, etc. Descriptions of time zones in Russia are often based on Moscow Time rather than UTC. For example, Yakutsk (UTC+09:00) is said to be MSK+6 in Russia.
Until the October Revolution, the official time in Moscow corresponded to UTC+02:30:17 (according to the longitude of the Astronomical Observatory of Moscow State University). In 1919 the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR introduced the system of time zones in the country, while Moscow was assigned to the second administrative time zone, the time of which should correspond to UTC+02:00. Other zones east of the 37.5° meridian to Arkhangelsk, Vologda, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Ivanovo, Vladimir, Ryazan, Tula, Lipetsk, Voronezh and Rostov-on-Don were also included in the second belt.
In accordance with the 16 June 1930 Decree of the Council of People's Commissars, the Decree Time was introduced by adding one hour to the time in each time zone of the USSR, so that Moscow Time became three hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Until 2011, during the winter, between the last Sunday of October and the last Sunday of March, Moscow Standard Time (MSK, МСК) was three hours ahead of UTC, or UTC+03:00; during the summer, Moscow Time shifted forward an additional hour ahead of Moscow Standard Time to become Moscow Summer Time (MSD), making it UTC+04:00.
In 2011, the Russian government proclaimed that daylight saving time would in future be observed all year round, thus effectively displacing standard time—an action which the government claimed emerged from health concerns attributed to the annual shift back-and-forth between standard time and daylight saving time. On 27 March 2011, Muscovites set their clocks forward for a final time, effectively observing MSD, or UTC+04:00, permanently.
On 29 March 2014, after the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol—two federal subjects established by Russia on the Crimean Peninsula—switched their time to MSK.
On 1 July 2014, the State Duma passed a bill repealing the 2011 change, putting Moscow Time on permanent UTC+03:00.
Most of the European part of Russia (west of the Ural Mountains) uses Moscow Time. In Kaliningrad Oblast, Kaliningrad time (UTC+02:00) is used. Samara Oblast and Udmurtia use Samara time (UTC+04:00) and Perm Krai, Bashkortostan and Orenburg Oblast use Yekaterinburg time (UTC+05:00). In the Crimean Federal District, the disputed region of Crimea between Russia and Ukraine, the Moscow Time is also observed, as well as in the separatist territories of the Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic, which since 2014 control part of the Ukrainian Donetsk Oblast and Luhansk Oblast.
Prior to 26 October 2014, Moscow Time was UTC+03:00. Daylight saving time was used in the summer, advancing it to UTC+04:00.
UTC+03:00 was also formerly used in European parts of what was then the USSR:
Moscow Summer Time (UTC+04:00), was first applied in 1981 and was used:
In 1922–1930 and 1991–1992, Moscow observed EET (UTC+02:00). Daylight saving time (UTC+03:00) was observed in the summer of 1991, and the city and region reverted to UTC+03:00 by the summer of 1992.
The time in Moscow has been as follows (the list of DST usage is probably not accurate here):
|From 1 January 1880||UTC+2:30:17|
|From 3 July 1916||UTC+2:31:19|
|From 1 July 1917||UTC+2:31:19 with DST|
|From 1 July 1919||UTC+3 with DST|
|From 16 August 1919||UTC+3|
|From 14 February 1921||UTC+3 with DST|
|From 1 October 1921||UTC+3|
|From 1 October 1922||UTC+2 (EET)|
|From 21 June 1930||UTC+3|
|From 1 April 1981||UTC+3 with DST|
|From 31 March 1991||UTC+2 with DST|
|From 19 January 1992||UTC+3 with DST|
|From 27 March 2011||UTC+4|
|From 26 October 2014||UTC+3|
Beslan Airport (Ossetian: Аэропорт Беслӕн, Russian: Аэропорт Беслан) (IATA: OGZ, ICAO: URMO), also known as Vladikavkaz International Airport, is a civilian airport in the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, Russia located 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) northeast of Beslan and 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from Vladikavkaz. It is a small airport servicing medium-sized airliners. It has parking places for five large aircraft and nine smaller ones. In 2017, 349,684 passengers are transited in this airport.
The airport has two terminals, one domestic and one international. The international terminal serves occasional charter flights to Antalya (Turkey) and a few other destinations.
The airport's operational hours are from 09h00 to 20h00 Moscow time.
On November 18, 2008 the airport was certified to service the Airbus A319. This type of aircraft will replace the Tupolev Tu-154 on S7 Airlines services to Moscow-Domodedovo. The A319 is ideal for flights to Vladikavkaz because it exerts an acceptable load on the runway during takeoff and landing compared to the Boeing 737-500, which type was banned from the airport in 2007.East Africa Time
East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa. The time zone is three hours ahead of UTC (UTC+03:00), which is the same as Arabia Standard Time, Further-eastern European Time, Moscow Time and Eastern European Summer Time.As this Time Zone is predominantly in the equatorial region, there is no significant change in day length throughout the year and so daylight saving time is not observed.East Africa Time is used by the following countries:
UgandaEastern European Summer Time
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. It is used as a summer daylight saving time in some European and Middle Eastern countries, which makes it the same as Arabia Standard Time, East Africa Time and Moscow Time. During the winter periods, Eastern European Time (UTC+2) is used.
Since 1996 European Summer Time has been observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October; previously the rules were not uniform across the European Union.Further-eastern European Time
Further-eastern European Time (FET) is a time zone defined as three hours ahead of UTC (UTC+03:00) without daylight saving time. As of September 2016, it is used in Belarus, western Russia and Turkey, and is also called Minsk Time, Moscow Time (MSK), or Turkey Time (TRT).
The zone was established in October 2011 as the official time for the Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia, and then followed by Belarus. It was originally called Kaliningrad Time in Russia; however, on 26 October 2014, most of Russia moved the UTC offset back one hour meaning that Kaliningrad Time is now UTC+02:00, and Moscow Time is UTC+03:00.
Several African and Middle Eastern countries use UTC+03:00 all year long, where it called East Africa Time (EAT) and Arabia Standard Time (AST).Irkutsk Time
Irkutsk Time (IRKT) is the time zone eight hours ahead of UTC (UTC+08:00) and 5 hours ahead of Moscow Time (MSK+5).
The time zone covers Buryatia and Irkutsk Oblast.
On 27 March 2011, Russia moved to year-round daylight saving time. Instead of switching between UTC+08:00 in winter and UTC+09:00 in summer, Irkutsk Time became fixed at UTC+09:00 until 2014, when it was reset back to UTC+08:00 year-round.Kaliningrad Time
Kaliningrad Time is the time zone two hours ahead of UTC (UTC+02:00) and 1 hour behind Moscow Time (MSK−1). It is used in Kaliningrad Oblast.
Until 2011, Kaliningrad Time was identical to Eastern European Time (UTC+02:00; UTC+03:00 with daylight saving time). On 27 March 2011, Russia moved to permanent DST, so that clocks would remain on what had been the summer time all year round, making Kaliningrad time permanently set to UTC+03:00. On 26 October 2014, this law was reversed, but daylight saving time was not reintroduced, so Kaliningrad is now permanently set to UTC+02:00.Main cities:
Kamchatka Time (PETT) (Russian: камчатское время, kamchatskoye vremya), also known as Anadyr Time (ANAT), is a time zone in Russia, named after the Kamchatka Peninsula. It is 12 hours ahead of UTC (UTC+12:00) and 9 hours ahead of Moscow Time (MSK+9). This time zone is used in the two easternmost regions of Russia after October 2014 and was also used before the time zone reform of 2010.
Kamchatka Summer Time (PETST) corresponded to UTC+13:00, but still 9 hours ahead of Moscow (MSD+9). This no longer exists, effective in the 2014 change.
On March 28, 2010, while most regions of Russia switched to Summer Time moving the clocks one hour forward, the two Russian regions using Kamchatka Time, Kamchatka Krai and Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, retained UTC+12:00, effectively joining Magadan Summer Time. This change was reversed on 26 October 2014.Krasnoyarsk Time
Krasnoyarsk Time (KRAT) is the time zone seven hours ahead of UTC (UTC+07:00) and 4 hours ahead of Moscow Time (MSK+4). KRAT is the official time zone for central and east Siberian regions of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Kemerovo Oblast, Khakassia and Tuva.
Novosibirsk Oblast used this time zone until 1993 when it was known as Novosibirsk Time NOVT/NOVST. It was renamed after that.
Between 27 March 2011 and 25 October 2014, Krasnoyarsk Time was fixed at UTC+08:00.In 2016, the Altai Republic, Altai Krai, Novosibirsk Oblast, and Tomsk Oblast, switched to Krasnoyarsk Time from Omsk Time.Omsk Time
Omsk Time (OMST) is a time zone in Russia that is six hours ahead of UTC (UTC+06:00), and 3 hours ahead of Moscow Time (MSK).Samara Time
Samara Time (SAMT) is the time zone 4 hours ahead of UTC (UTC+04:00) and 1 hour ahead of Moscow Time (MSK+1). Samara Time is used in Samara Oblast, Udmurtia, Astrakhan Oblast, Ulyanovsk Oblast, Saratov Oblast, and Volgograd Oblast.Soyuz TMA-03M
The Russian Soyuz TMA-03M was a spaceflight to the International Space Station (ISS). It launched on 21 December 2011 from Site One at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, carrying three members of Expedition 30 to the ISS. TMA-03M was the 112th flight of a Russian Soyuz spacecraft, since the first in 1967, and the third flight of the modernised Soyuz-TMA-M version. The docking with the International Space Station took place at 19:19 Moscow Time on 23 December, three minutes ahead of schedule.The crew were Oleg Kononenko (Russia, commander), André Kuipers (the Netherlands) and Donald Pettit (United States). The Soyuz remained aboard the space station for the Expedition 30 increment to serve as an emergency escape vehicle if needed.Time in Russia
There are eleven time zones in Russia, which currently observe times ranging from UTC+02:00 to UTC+12:00. Daylight saving time is not used in Russia (since March 2011).Time in Turkey
Time in Turkey is given by UTC+03:00 year-round. This time is also called Turkey Time (TRT) or Türkiye Saati İle (TSİ). The time is currently same as in the Arabia Standard Time, Further-eastern European Time and Moscow Time zone. Turkey Time was adopted by the Turkish government on September 8, 2016. It was also in use in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus until it reverted to EET in October 2017.Venera 12
The Venera 12 (Russian: Венера-12 meaning Venus 12) was a Soviet unmanned space mission to explore the planet Venus. Venera 12 was launched on 14 September 1978 at 02:25:13 UTC.Separating from its flight platform on December 19, 1978, the lander entered the Venus atmosphere two days later at 11.2 km/s. During the descent, it employed aerodynamic braking followed by parachute braking and ending with atmospheric braking. It made a soft landing on the surface at 06:30 Moscow time (0330 UT) on 21 December after a descent time of approximately 1 hour. The touchdown speed was 7–8 m/s. Landing coordinates are 7°S 294°E. It transmitted data to the flight platform for 110 minutes after touchdown until the flight platform moved out of range while remaining in a heliocentric orbit. Identical instruments were carried on Venera 11 and 12.Vladivostok Time
Vladivostok Time (VLAT) (Russian: владивостокское время, vladivostokskoye vremya), is a time zone in Russia, named after the city of Vladivostok. It is ten hours ahead of UTC (UTC+10:00) and seven hours ahead of Moscow Time (MSK+7).
On 27 March 2011, Russia moved to year-round daylight saving time. Instead of switching between UTC+10:00 in winter and UTC+11:00 in summer, Vladivostok Time became fixed at UTC+11:00 until 2014, when it was reset back to UTC+10:00 year-round.Yakutsk Time
Yakutsk Time (YAKT) is a time zone in Russia which is nine hours ahead of UTC, and six hours ahead of Moscow Time (MSK).The time zone covers Sakha Republic (western part), Amur Oblast and Zabaykalsky Krai.On 27 March 2011, Russia moved to year-round daylight saving time. Instead of switching between UTC+09:00 in winter and UTC+10:00 in summer, Yakutsk Time became fixed at UTC+10:00 until 2014, when it was reset back to UTC+09:00 year-round.Yekaterinburg Time
Yekaterinburg Time (YEKT) is the time zone five hours ahead of UTC (UTC+05:00) and 2 hours ahead of Moscow Time (MSK+2).
In 2011, Russia moved to year-round daylight saving time. Instead of switching between UTC+05:00 in winter and UTC+06:00 in summer, Yekaterinburg time was set to UTC+06:00 until 2014, when it was reset back to UTC+05:00 year-round.The time zone applies to the Ural Federal District, and Bashkortostan, Orenburg Oblast and Perm Krai in the Volga Federal District.