Morris–Jumel Mansion

The Morris–Jumel Mansion or Morris House (also known as the Roger and Mary Philipse Morris House, "Mount Morris"[2] and other similar names) is a Federal style museum home in northern Manhattan with mid-Seventeenth century roots. It was built in 1765 by Roger Morris, a British military officer,[2] and served as a headquarters for both sides in the American Revolution.

Located at 65 Jumel Terrace,[4] in Roger Morris Park in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, it is the oldest house in the borough. The home and grounds were purchased as a museum home in 1903 and declared a National Historic Landmark in 1961.[3][5] The exterior was designated a New York City Landmark in 1967, with the interior following in 1975.[2]

Morris–Jumel Mansion
2014 Morris-Jumel Mansion from southwest
(2014)
Morris–Jumel Mansion is located in Manhattan
Morris–Jumel Mansion
Morris–Jumel Mansion
Location65 Jumel Terrace
in Roger Morris Park, bounded by W. 160 St., Jumel Terr., W. 162 St. & Edgecombe Ave.
Washington Heights, Manhattan
New York City
Coordinates40°50′04″N 73°56′19″W / 40.83444°N 73.93861°WCoordinates: 40°50′04″N 73°56′19″W / 40.83444°N 73.93861°W
Built1765,[1] remodeled c.1810[2]
Architectural stylePalladian, Georgian, and Federal
Part ofJumel Terrace Historic District (#73001220)
NRHP reference #66000545[1]
Significant dates
Added to NRHPOctober 15, 1966[1]
Designated NHLJanuary 20, 1961[3]
Designated CPApril3, 1973
Designated NYCLexterior: July 12, 1967
interior: May 27, 1975

History

Morris ownership

Roger Morris, a British military officer who was serving as a member of the Executive Council of the Province of New York,[6] built the house in 1765 for himself and his American-born wife, Mary Philipse Morris; they lived in it for ten years, from 1765 until 1775, when the American Revolution began. Roger Morris held the position of captain in the British army during the French war, while his wife, Mary Phillipse, was daughter to speaker of the assembly Frederick Philipse. She was often described[7] as " beautiful, fascinating, and accomplished." As British loyalists, Morris went to England at the start of the war, while his wife and family went to stay at the Philipse estate in Yonkers.[8] Morris returned in 1777, after the city had been captured by the British, and became the Inspector of the Claims of Refugees until 1783, when he and his family left for England after the British defeat in the Revolution.[8][9]

Between September 14 and October 20, 1776, General George Washington used the mansion as his temporary headquarters after his army was forced to evacuate Brooklyn Heights following their loss to the British Army under the command of General William Howe in the Battle of Long Island. During his stay there from September[10] 14 to October 20, 1776, Washington made note of his experience there. It is claimed without foundation by those with a romantic inclination that Washington not only selected the house because of its location but also because Mary Philipse had been a love interest[11] for him twenty years before.

The house is one of the major remaining landmarks of Battle of Harlem Heights,[3] after which it became the headquarters of British Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton, and the Hessian commander Baron Wilhelm von Knyphausen.[12]

Confiscation

Because the Morrises were Loyalists, the house and the Morris' jointly held one-third share of the massive 250 sq mi (650 km2) Philipse Patent immediately north of today's Westchester County border were confiscated in 1779 by the Revolutionary government of the Colony of New York's Commissioners of Forfeiture.[2][8] They were sold off during the dark times of the Revolution for the Colonials to fund its Continental Army led by Washington. Despite assurance of restitution in the 1783 Treaty of Paris [13] no compensation to the Morrises was ever forthcoming from either the state of New York or American government.

Following its confiscation Mt. Morris served as a farmhouse and a tavern, "Calumet Hall",[10] a popular stop along the Albany Post Road.[14][15]

Jumel purchase

Appletons' Jumel Eliza Bowen mansion crop
The Palladian style mansion built by Morris in northern Manhattan in 1765, the family home until the onset of the American Revolution in 1775. Seen here in 1892, after it had been altered with a Federal style entrance.

The mansion was bought in 1810 by Stephen Jumel, a rich French merchant who had immigrated to the United States, as a home for himself and his wife, and former mistress, Eliza Bowen Jumel, along with their adopted Mary Bowen, who was thought to be the daughter of Eliza's stepsister.[2][8][16] Throughout her adult life, Eliza Jumel lived richly and luxuriously. Eliza, who had come from poor beginnings, was known for being a woman who sought out a higher social[17] position for herself as well as a life that encompassed having large amounts of wealth. Thus, she was always seen around men of power and fortune. Anxious to be accepted into New York society, the Jumels remodeled the house, adding the Federal style entrance,[2] and redecorated the interior in the Empire style.[8][15] Because they were not accepted socially in New York, the Jumels went to France in 1815, although Eliza returned from 1817–1821. She returned for good in 1826 with Stephen Jumel's power of attorney, and he returned in 1828.[8]

Eliza was subject to many accusations in both France and New York, one of them being her involvement in the unpleasant death[17] of her first husband. After Stephen's death in 1832 from injuries he received in a carriage accident,[15] Eliza, who was now one of the wealthiest women in New York City,[8] married the controversial ex-vice president Aaron Burr in the front parlor of the house;[9] she filed for divorce in 1834, which was granted in 1836, shortly before his death.[8][15] Eliza then divided her time between Saratoga, New York, Hoboken, New Jersey and lower Manhattan. Her step-daughter's family lived with her in the mansion until 1862; Eliza Jumel died in 1865 – in her later years she became very eccentric, if not insane.[8][15] The care and love she had for the mansion helped it evolve into the representation of art[12] and culture it has been for over two and one-half centuries within the New York City area.

In 1882, the Jumel heirs broke up the 115 acres (0.47 km2) of the estate into 1058 lots,[14] upon which numerous row houses were built, some of which today make up the Jumel Terrace Historic District.

As a museum home

Polo grounds panorama-cropped to show Morris-Jumel Mansion
The mansion overlooking the Polo Grounds, 1905

The house itself was purchased by New York City in 1903[5] from the owners at the time, the Earles, with the help of the Daughters of the American Revolution,[15] and converted into a museum run by the Washington Headquarters Association;[2] The museum opened in 1904,[15] and was renovated and refurnished in 1945.[6] The house is owned by the Department of Parks and Recreation, and is a member of the Historic House Trust.

During its history, the Morris–Jumel Mansion hosted many other distinguished visitors, including dinner guests John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton and John Quincy Adams.

Architecture

Morris jumel inside
The interior of the Morris–Jumel Mansion in 2005

The house was built as a summer villa on a parcel comprising an area of 130 acres. Thus, the Morris property covered some distance from Harlem all the way to the Hudson River.[12] It is an early example of the Palladian style of architecture.[2][9] Morris, whose uncle was a successful architect in England, was influenced by Palladio, a 16th-century Italian architect.[18] His design included a double-height portico and triangular pediment – innovative features for 1765 – supported by grand Tuscan columns, and a two-story octagonal room at the rear of the mansion, which is believed to be the first of its kind in the country.[2][18]

The remodeling by the Jumels c.1810 was in the Federal style current at the time, and included the entrance.[2][14]

The house has been said to contain "some of the finest Georgian interiors in America."[2] Today, the house is lavishly decorated with period furnishings and careful reproductions of period carpets and wallpaper. It features nine restored rooms, one of which was Washington's office. The dining room and Eliza Jumel's bedchamber, with a bed that supposedly belonged to Napoleon are also open. Personal artifacts of Roger Morris, George Washington, Eliza Jumel and Aaron Burr are part of the museum's collection.[6] An archive and reference library is located in the house's third floor.[15]

Site

Roger Morris Park garden with sundial
The garden in Roger Morris Park, which serves as the grounds for the mansion

The mansion is located on the top of a ridge, Coogan's Bluff, from which lower Manhattan, the Hudson River including the Palisades, the Bronx, Westchester, the Long Island Sound and the Harlem River were once visible.[15][19] It is located in Roger Morris Park, a New York City park within the boundaries of the Jumel Terrace Historic District, but is landmarked separately from the historic district.[20]

The mansion overlooked Coogan's Hollow and the Polo Grounds, a baseball and football stadium built in 1890 and razed in 1964. The mansion is sometimes visible in old pictures of the ballfield that show Coogan's Bluff. Today the Polo Grounds Towers stand where the stadium once was.

In literature and media

2014 Morris-Jumel Mansion from northwest
The rear of the mansion; the exterior of the octagonal room is in the foreground
  • At the beginning of his historical novel Burr (1973), author Gore Vidal recreates the wedding of Eliza Bowen-Jumel and Aaron Burr, with a detailed description of the interior of the house circa 1833, which is still evident today.
  • In 1996, the Morris–Jumel Mansion was featured in Bob Vila's A&E Network production Bob Vila's Guide to Historic Homes of America.[22]
  • Lin-Manuel Miranda wrote portions of his 2015 musical Hamilton at the Morris–Jumel Mansion.[23]
  • In 2014, the television show Ghost Adventures filmed an episode at the mansion to investigate reports of paranormal activity
  • In 2015, Saturday Night Live filmed a skit called “Ghost Chasers” at the mansion.
  • In 2019, the television show Broad City filmed a scene at the mansion to celebrate Abbi Jacobson’s 30th birthday.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Dolkart, Andrew S.; Postal, Matthew A. (2009), Postal, Matthew A. (ed.), Guide to New York City Landmarks (4th ed.), New York: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0-470-28963-1, p.210
  3. ^ a b c "Morris-Jumel Mansion". National Historic Landmark Summary Listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2012-02-19. Retrieved 2007-09-13.
  4. ^ "Location". Morris-Jumel Mansion. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  5. ^ a b Greenwood, Richard (August 11, 1975). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Morris-Jumel Mansion". National Park Service. With Accompanying 4 photos, exterior, from 1967 and 1975. (2.46 MB)
  6. ^ a b c Landmark Designation Commission (July 12, 1967). "Morris-Jumel Mansion Designation Report" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  7. ^ "Women of the American Revolution - Mary Philipse". www.americanrevolution.org. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Morris-Jumel Mansion Interior DesignationReport New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (May 27, 1975)
  9. ^ a b c "Morris–Jumel Mansion". Harlem and the Heights. New York Architecture. Retrieved 2013-05-05.
  10. ^ a b "Roger Morris Park Highlights : NYC Parks". www.nycgovparks.org. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
  11. ^
  12. ^ a b c "History". MORRIS-JUMEL MANSION. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
  13. ^ Description of the Abstract of Sales, Commissioners of Forfeiture
  14. ^ a b c White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot & Leadon, Fran (2010), AIA Guide to New York City (5th ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195383867, p. 561
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Morris-Jumel Mansion" on the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation website
  16. ^ "Places Where Women Made History: the Morris-Jumel Mansion" on the National Park Service website
  17. ^ a b "Eliza Jumel". Camilla Huey Artworks. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
  18. ^ a b "Roger Morris Park" on the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation website
  19. ^ "History/Architecture". on the Morris-Jumel Mansion website. Archived from the original on 2013-04-20. Retrieved 2013-05-05.
  20. ^ Lash, Stephen & Ezequelle, Betty (February 1972). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Jumel Terrace Historic District". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Retrieved 2011-03-26.
  21. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Wilson, J. G.; Fiske, J., eds. (1892). "Jumel, Eliza Bowen" . Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
  22. ^ Vila, Bob (1996). "Bob Vila's Guide to Historic Homes of America". A&E Network.
  23. ^ Mead, Rebeca (2015). "Hip-Hop Hamilton". The New Yorker. For a while, Miranda was granted a writing space at the Morris-Jumel Mansion, near West 162nd Street. Now a national historic landmark, it is the oldest surviving house in Manhattan.

External links

555 Edgecombe Avenue

The Paul Robeson Residence, also known by its street address of 555 Edgecombe Avenue, is a National Historic Landmarked apartment building, located at 555 Edgecombe Avenue at the corner of West 160th Street in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. It was originally known as the "Roger Morris" when it was built in 1914-16 – after the retired British Army officer who built the nearby Morris-Jumel Mansion – and was designed by Schwartz & Gross, who specialized in apartment buildings. The building is architecturally relatively non-descript, with an exterior of brick and stone with nods to Beaux Arts architectural elements. It has thirteen floors and a penthouse. The main entrance is two stories in height, set in an arched opening with ironwork at the peak.For the first 25 years of its existence, the building was restricted to white tenants. Around 1940, as the racial characteristics of the neighborhood changed, this policy was dropped. Subsequently, the building became known for the noted African-American residents, including musician and composer Count Basie, boxer Joe Louis, musician and bandleader Andy Kirk, actor and producer Canada Lee, the psychologist Kenneth Clark, and the actor and singer Paul Robeson, a major figure of stage and screen who lived in the building from 1939 to 1941.After Robeson's death in 1976, the building was declared a National Historic Landmark in his honor. In 1993, it was designated a New York City landmark. Edgecombe Avenue has also been co-named "Paul Robeson Boulevard".

Children's Museum of Manhattan

The Children’s Museum of Manhattan was founded by Bette Korman, under the name GAME (Growth Through Art and Museum Experience), in 1973. With New York City in a deep fiscal crisis, and school art, music, and cultural programs eliminated, a loosely organized, group of artists and educators set up a basement storefront to serve Harlem and the Upper West Side. With a challenge grant from the National Endowment for the Arts, a city-owned courthouse was renovated into a small exhibition, studio, and workshop and renamed the Manhattan Laboratory Museum. The museum became the Children’s Museum of Manhattan in the 1980s and moved to its current location on West 83rd Street in 1989. Its audience has grown to 325,000 visitors each year, which includes 30,000 children who visit as part of a school group and more than 34,000 children served through offsite outreach programs.

Eliza Jumel

Eliza Jumel (née Bowen; April 2, 1775 – July 16, 1865), also known as Eliza Burr, was a wealthy American socialite. She was married to Aaron Burr and their divorce was finalized on the day of his death. Although she was born into poverty, an advantageous marriage to a wealthy merchant made her one of richest women in New York at the time of her death.

Federal architecture

Federal-style architecture is the name for the classicizing architecture built in the newly founded United States between c. 1780 and 1830, and particularly from 1785 to 1815. This style shares its name with its era, the Federalist Era. The name Federal style is also used in association with furniture design in the United States of the same time period. The style broadly corresponds to the classicism of Biedermeier style in the German-speaking lands, Regency architecture in Britain and to the French Empire style.

In the early American republic, the founding generation consciously chose to associate the nation with the ancient democracies of Greece and the republican values of Rome. Grecian aspirations informed the Greek Revival, lasting into the 1850s. Using Roman architectural vocabulary, the Federal style applied to the balanced and symmetrical version of Georgian architecture that had been practiced in the American colonies' new motifs of neoclassical architecture as it was epitomized in Britain by Robert Adam, who published his designs in 1792.

Forbes Galleries

The Forbes Galleries, housed within the Forbes Building on Fifth Avenue between West 12th and 13th Streets in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, United States, was the home of Malcolm Forbes' collection, which the Forbes family continued to exhibit following his death.The galleries closed in November 2014.The collection stemmed from Forbes' lifelong collection of toys, most of which have since been auctioned off. Among the museum's notable exhibits over time included "Olympic Gold", a collection of medals and other collectibles from some of the world's most accomplished Olympians, a number of Faberge Eggs, an armada of 500 ships and 12,000 toy soldiers and one of the original Monopoly boards.The museum was more popular with visitors than it was with New Yorkers.

FusionArts Museums

FusionArts Museum(s), first founded at 57 Stanton Street on Manhattan's Lower East Side are a series of curated exhibition spaces dedicated to the exhibition and archiving of "fusion art". The museum was and remains at its successive locations a not-for-profit gallery operated by Converging Arts Media Organization, a not-for-profit arts organization which promotes emerging American and international fusion artists. Though the initial space in Manhattan was converted into a commercial art gallery in 2012 and is currently not operating as a Fusionarts museum, other spaces in Prague, Czech, Republic and Easton, Pennsylvania are.

Girl Scout Museum and Archives

The Girl Scout Museum and Archives is part of the Girl Scout National Historic Preservation Center at the Girl Scouts headquarters located at 420 Fifth Avenue in New York City. It was founded in 1987 to promote and preserve scouting history and its collection dates back to 1912 when the Girl Scouts were founded. The museum holds more than 60,000 photos, 7,000 publications, 650 uniforms and an a/v collection dating back to 1918.

Historic House Trust

The Historic House Trust of New York City was formed in 1989 as a public-private partnership with the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation to preserve the historic houses located within New York City parks, although most of the houses were not originally city-owned. The Trust works with the individual houses to restore and promote the houses as a means of educating residents and visitors about the social, economic and political history of New York City and cast urban history in a new light. The Trust includes 23 historic sites, with 18 operating as museums and attracting 729,000 annual visitors.

Jumel Terrace Historic District

The Jumel Terrace Historic District is a small New York City and national historic district located in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. It consists of 50 residential rowhouses built between 1890 and 1902, and one apartment building constructed in 1909, as the heirs of Eliza Jumel sold off the land of the former Roger Morris estate. The buildings are primarily wood or brick rowhouses in the Queen Anne, Romanesque and Neo-Renaissance styles. Also located in the district, but separately landmarked, is the Morris-Jumel Mansion, dated to about 1765.The district was designated a New York City Landmark in 1970, and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.Among its notable residents was Paul Robeson.

List of New York City Designated Landmarks in Manhattan above 110th Street

This is an incomplete list of landmarks in Manhattan above 110th Street designated by the New York City Landmark Preservation Commission. Some of these are also National Historic Landmark (NHL) sites, and NHL status is noted where known.

source: [1]; [2]; date listed is date of designation;

see also: National Register of Historic Places listings in Manhattan above 110th Street

Mary Philipse

Mary "Polly" Philipse (1730–1825) was the middle daughter of Frederick Philipse II, 2nd Lord of Philipsburg Manor of Westchester County, New York. Of Anglo-Dutch extraction, she was a wealthy heiress, possible early love interest of George Washington, and New York City socialite. Married to an ex-British army colonel, her Loyalist sympathies in the American Revolution reshaped her life.

At the age of 22 she inherited one-third of her father's roughly 250 sq mi (650 km2) "Highland Patent", which sprawled from the Hudson Highlands on the west bank of the lower Hudson River to the Connecticut Colony in the east.

In 1758 she married in New York Englishman Roger Morris (January 1727 – September 1794), who had fought extensively in the French and Indian War.With Roger's appointment to the Governor’s Council of the Province of New York the couple became pillars of the local establishment. A year after their marriage Morris had a large country estate, Mount Morris, built in northern Manhattan between the Hudson and Harlem rivers in what is now Washington Heights.The family lived there until 1775. Roger fled to England at the onset of the Revolution, returning two years later. In 1779 the government of the Colony of New York seized both Morris' personal property and Mary's inheritances. Despite assurance of restitution in the 1783 Treaty of Paris no compensation was forthcoming. The family relocated to England.

It was later found that a provision in the couple's prenuptial agreement creating a life trust transferable to their children had protected her Highland Patent inheritance from the 1779 bill of attainder. In 1809 the Morris heirs finally received from American robber baron John Jacob Astor £20,000 sterling for their rights to the disputed lands.

Mary died in York, England at the age of 96. A monument is erected over her grave at St Saviour’s Church there.

Mmuseumm

Mmuseumm is a modern natural history museum located in lower Manhattan in New York City, dedicated to its signature curatorial style of "Object Journalism." The first two locations are on Cortlandt Alley between Franklin Street and White Street, sometimes known as Mmuseumm Alley. Mmuseumm is dedicated to the curation and exhibition of contemporary artifacts to illustrate the modern world. Mmuseumm's first wing, Mmuseumm 1, opened in 2012 in a former elevator shaft. The second wing, Mmuseumm 2, opened in 2015 three doors down. It was founded by Alex Kalman, son of Maira Kalman, and the Safdie brothers. The museum is accessible 24 hours a day via peepholes in its door.

Morris House

Morris House or Morris Farm may refer to:

in CanadaMorris House (Halifax)in the United States(by state, then city/town)

Morris House (Bentonville, Arkansas), listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) in Benton County

Morris House (Bradford, Arkansas), listed on the NRHP in White County, Arkansas

T.H. Morris House, Mammoth Springs, Arkansas, listed on the NRHP in Fulton County

Jim Morris Barn, Timbo, Arkansas, listed on the NRHP in Stone County

Wood-Morris-Bonfils House, Denver, Colorado, listed on the NRHP in downtown Denver

Morris House (New Haven, Connecticut), NRHP-listed

Johnson-Morris House, Newark, Delaware vicinity, NRHP-listed

Morris House (Washington, D.C.), NRHP-listed

Mote-Morris House, Leesburg, Florida, NRHP-listed

Morris-Butler House, Indianapolis, Indiana, NRHP-listed

Dr. William Morris Office and House, Southville, Kentucky, listed on the NRHP in Shelby County

Joseph Henry Morris House, Jackson, Mississippi, listed on the NRHP in Hinds County

Wright Morris Boyhood House, Central City, Nebraska, NRHP-listed

Morris-Lull Farm, Morris, New York, NRHP-listed

Lewis G. Morris House, New York, NY, NRHP-listed

Morris-Jumel Mansion, New York, NY, NRHP-listed

Morris Mansion and Mill, Pemberton, New Jersey, NRHP-listed

Green Morris Farm, Charlotte, North Carolina, listed on the NRHP in Burlington County

Berryhill-Morris House, Bellbrook, Ohio, NRHP-listed

Morris House (Circleville, Ohio), NRHP-listed

Gill-Morris Farm, Circleville, Ohio, NRHP-listed

C.E. Morris House, Columbus, Ohio, listed on the NRHP in Franklin County

Morris House (Langston, Oklahoma), listed on the NRHP in Logan County

Deshler-Morris House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, NRHP-listed

Reynolds-Morris House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, NRHP-listed

Anthony Morris House, Norristown, Pennsylvania, NRHP-listed

Caldwell-Johnson-Morris Cottage, Anderson, South Carolina, NRHP-listed

W.W. Morris House, South Fulton, Tennessee, listed on the NRHP in Obion County

Morris-Browne House, Brownsville, Texas, listed on the NRHP in Cameron County

Glenn W. Morris House, Houston, Texas, listed on the NRHP in Harris County

Morris-Moore House, Paris, Texas, listed on the NRHP in Lamar County

Atkinson-Morris House, Paris, Texas, listed on the NRHP in Lamar County

Andrew James Morris House, Beaver, Utah, listed on the NRHP in Beaver County

Josie Bassett Morris Ranch Complex, Dinosaur National Monument, Utah, NRHP-listed

Richard Vaughen Morris House, Salt Lake City, Utah, NRHP-listed

Gen. Lewis R. Morris House, Springfield, Vermont, listed on the NRHP in Windsor County

Museum of Primitive Art

The Museum of Primitive Art, is a now defunct museum devoted to the early arts of the indigenous cultures of Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceania. It was founded in 1954 by Nelson Rockefeller, who donated his own collection of Tribal art. The museum opened to the public in 1957 in a townhouse on at 15 West 54th Street in New York City. Robert Goldwater (1907–1973) was the museum’s first director. The museum closed in 1976, and its collections were transferred to the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Palladian architecture

Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580). What is recognised as Palladian architecture today is an evolution of Palladio's original concepts. Palladio's work was strongly based on the symmetry, perspective and values of the formal classical temple architecture of the Ancient Greeks and Romans. From the 17th century Palladio's interpretation of this classical architecture was adapted as the style known as Palladianism. It continued to develop until the end of the 18th century.

Palladianism became popular briefly in Britain during the mid-17th century, but its flowering was cut short by the onset of the English Civil War and the imposition of austerity which followed. In the early 18th century it returned to fashion, not only in England but also, directly influenced from Britain, in Prussia. Count Francesco Algarotti may have written to Lord Burlington from Berlin that he was recommending to Frederick the Great the adoption in Prussia of the architectural style Burlington had introduced in England but Knobelsdorff's opera house on the Unter den Linden, based on Campbell's Wanstead House, had been constructed from 1741. Later in the century, when the style was falling from favour in Europe, it had a surge in popularity throughout the British colonies in North America, highlighted by examples such as Drayton Hall in South Carolina, the Redwood Library in Newport, Rhode Island, the Morris-Jumel Mansion in New York City, the Hammond-Harwood House in Annapolis, Maryland and Thomas Jefferson's Monticello and Poplar Forest in Virginia.The style continued to be popular in Europe throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, where it was frequently employed in the design of public and municipal buildings. From the latter half of the 19th century it was rivalled by the Gothic revival in the English-speaking world, whose champions, such as Augustus Pugin, remembering the origins of Palladianism in ancient temples, deemed it too pagan for Anglican and Anglo-Catholic worship. However, as an architectural style it has continued to be popular and to evolve; its pediments, symmetry and proportions are clearly evident in the design of many modern buildings today.

Roger Morris (British Army officer)

Roger Morris (28 January 1727 – 13 September 1794) was a colonel in the British Army who fought in the French and Indian War. He was married to Mary Philipse, middle daughter of Frederick Philipse, second Lord of the Philipsburg Manor, and a possible love interest of George Washington. She owned a one-third share of the Philipse Patent, a vast landed estate on the Hudson River which later became Putnam County, New York.

Following their marriage Morris had a large country estate named Mount Morris (today the Morris-Jumel Mansion) built in northern Manhattan between the Hudson and Harlem rivers in what is now Washington Heights.

Sylvan Place

Sylvan Place might refer to several places in New York City.

Sylvan Terrace, sometimes erroneously called Sylvan Place, is historic grouping of 20 three-story, wood-framed townhouses or mews straddling a cobblestone street lined with coachlights leading directly to the Morris-Jumel Mansion and located in the Jumel Terrace Historic District of the Manhattan's Washington Heights neighborhood.Sylvan Place is a former small street running from East 120th Street to East 121st Street, between and parallel to Lexington Avenue and Third Avenue in Manhattan. The signage for the street still exists. The street's ground area now serves as Harlem Art Park and the Harlem Courthouse's frontage and parking lot. Directly opposite Sylvan Place on East 121st Street, Sylvan Court Mews, or Sylvan Court, which is sometimes confused with Sylvan Place, is a small dead end private street that is unpaved, and contains several 1880s townhouses. Unlike in other parts of these city with similar houses, like Greenwich Village and Brooklyn Heights, the small street and court have not been restored. Both Sylvan Place and Sylvan Court were part of the former East Post Road, which led from the city to Boston. The intersection of the East Post Road, Kingsbridge Post Road, Harlem Road, and Church Lane formed a five-cornered intersection, and the neighborhood that surrounded it was sometimes known as the Five Points, not to be confused with the neighborhood of the same name in lower Manhattan. Sylvan Place and Sylvan Court met at the former five-pointed intersection.

Upper Manhattan

Upper Manhattan is the most northern region of the New York City Borough of Manhattan. Its southern boundary has been variously defined, but 96th Street, the northern boundary of Central Park at 110th Street, 125th Street or 155th Street are some common usages.Upper Manhattan is generally taken to include the neighborhoods of Marble Hill, Inwood, Washington Heights (including Fort George, Sherman Creek and Hudson Heights), Harlem (including Sugar Hill, Hamilton Heights and Manhattanville), East Harlem and parts of the Upper West Side (Morningside Heights and Manhattan Valley).

The George Washington Bridge connects Washington Heights in Upper Manhattan across the Hudson River to Fort Lee, New Jersey, and is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge.In the late 19th century, the IRT Ninth Avenue Line and other elevated railroads brought people to the previously rustic Upper Manhattan. Until the late 20th century it was less influenced by the gentrification that had taken place in other parts of New York over the previous 30 years.

Yeshiva University Museum

The Yeshiva University Museum is a teaching museum and the cultural arm of Yeshiva University. Along with the American Jewish Historical Society, the American Sephardi Federation, the Leo Baeck Institute, New York and the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, it is a member organization of the Center for Jewish History, a Smithsonian Institution affiliate located in New York’s Chelsea neighborhood.

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