Morning dress

Morning dress, also known as formal day dress, is the formal Western dress code for day attire,[1] consisting chiefly of, for men, a morning coat, waistcoat, and formal trousers, and an appropriate gown for women. Men may also wear a popular variant where all parts (morning coat, waistcoat and trousers) are the same colour and material, often grey and usually called "morning suit" or "morning grey" to distinguish it;[2] considered properly appropriate only to festive functions[3] such as summer weddings and horse races,[4][5] which consequently makes it slightly less formal. The correct hat would be a formal top hat, or if on less spacious audience settings optionally a collapsible equivalent opera hat. The semi-formal counterpart of this code is the stroller.[6][7]

Morning dress is now rarely worn as anything other than formal wear, as a form of civic dress, e.g., by provincial mayors (as an alternative to court dress), but more generally only for weddings, some official civic, governmental or royal functions, 'social season' events, e.g., races such as Royal Ascot (where it is obligatory in the Royal Enclosure) and at Epsom in the Queen's Stand on Derby Day, formal lunches (especially those in the City of London institutions, notably of the livery companies and guilds) and as uniform at some of Britain's most traditional schools such as Harrow (on Sundays)[8] and Eton.[9] It may also be seen sometimes worn at services in St Paul's Cathedral, London and St Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh.

Debrett's states that morning dress should not be specified as the dress code for events starting after 6pm [1]; if a formal event will commence at or after 6pm, white tie[10] or black tie[11] should be specified instead.

Reagan hirohito
Emperor Hirohito of Japan, U.S. President Ronald Reagan and his wife Nancy in 1983, both men in morning coats with formal trousers, known as morning dress.

History

Henry Herbert, Vanity Fair, 1869-09-11
Caricature of Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon in Vanity Fair, 11 September 1869

The name originated from the practice of gentlemen in the nineteenth century riding a horse in the morning with a cutaway front, single breasted morning coat.[12] The modern twentieth century morning dress was originally a more casual form of half dress, but as the nineteenth century progressed it gradually became acceptable to wear it in more formal situations instead of a frock coat. In the Edwardian era it took over in popularity from the frock coat as the standard daytime form of men's full dress. When it was regarded as a more casual coat, it was common to see it made with step collars (notched lapels in American English), but as it took over from the frock coat in formality it began to be made with the more formal pointed lapels (peaked lapels in American English).

Composition

Mansion House (17676358605)
Winston Churchill in morning dress, lifting his top hat with his walking stick.

Morning dress consists of:

  • a morning coat (the morning cut of tailcoat), now always single breasted with link closure (as on some dinner jackets) or one button (or very rarely two) and with pointed lapels, may include silk piping on the edges of the coat and lapels (and cuffs on older models with turnup coat sleeves).
  • a waistcoat, which matches the material of the coat.
  • a pair of formal striped or checked trousers worn with braces.
  • a shirt;
    • either a turndown collar is worn (white detachable, fastened by collar studs; or attached) with a tie, in which case the shirt has double cuffs.
    • otherwise, a high detachable wing collar is worn with a single-cuffed shirt; this combination is always accompanied now by a formal Ascot, as opposed to a day cravat which is different. This is a more formal option most commonly seen at weddings;
  • a plain or patterned silk handkerchief or pocket square may be worn; it is folded and inserted into the front breast pocket of the morning coat.
  • black Oxford shoes or dress boots, or boots with a horse riding connection, such as George or Chelsea boot, or galosh-top dress boots; worn with plain dark socks (or another colour if they cannot be seen).

If the trouser cloth matches the coat, the ensemble becomes a morning suit. The waistcoat may also match, or not (an "odd waistcoat"). Morning suits will sometimes be a middle-tone grey. Morning suits, especially the lighter-toned ones, are considered slightly less formal than morning coat ensembles.

The following can optionally be worn or carried with morning dress:

  • a top hat, either classic silk plush, or a modern Melusine fur (replacement for silk plush, as it is no longer in mainstream manufacture). Alternatively, a top hat made of fur felt or wool felt, is another common option.
  • gloves of suede, chamois, or kid leather; the most traditional colour is lemon or grey
  • grey or white spats
  • a cane or umbrella
  • a pocket watch on the waistcoat rather than at the lapel, or wrist watch
  • a boutonnière

Considered slightly less formal by some, a morning suit can be worn in variant sometimes referred to as "morning grey dress", which has mid-grey matching morning coat, waistcoat, and trousers (all cut the same as above); being more relaxed, this is a traditional option for events in less formal settings such as Royal Ascot, and is now often worn to weddings as well.

Morning coat

The modern morning coat is single-breasted and usually has peaked lapels.[13] It is usually closed with a single button[13] but may have a link-front closure instead.[14][15] It is traditionally in either black or Oxford grey[16][17] herringbone wool,[1] which should not be too heavy a weight,[17] with curved front edges sloping back into tails[1][18] of knee length.[19]

The coat may feature ribbon braiding around the edges of the collar, lapels, and down around the tails;[20] it may also be present on the hook vent, breast pocket, and sleeves.[21] Nicholas Storey advises that braiding should be avoided for very formal morning wear.[22]

Waistcoat

A black morning coat with matching black waistcoat is the most formal option,[23][24] being worn for Court,[24] funerals,[25] memorial services,[26] civic dress[27] and diplomatic dress (replacing or supplementing Court Dress), with academic dress, or in government use in America.

At social or festive occasions, e.g. races and weddings, a contrasting waistcoat is worn. The most traditional colours are dove grey,[28] light grey[1][29] (including pearl grey[30][31]), buff[1][29] or camel[32] (both yellowish tan colours), duck-egg blue,[1] and occasionally white.[33][34] There has been a tendency towards 'fancy' waistcoats[1][29] of multicoloured and embroidered materials such as brocade,[32] especially at weddings,[1] although brightly coloured waistcoats may be considered garish.[35] Other colours sold by traditional English tailors include pastels such as powder blue, pale pink, pale green, and other pastels.[36] Generally, traditional waistcoats are made from linen, silk,[1][32] or wool.[37]

Waistcoats may be either single-breasted with, or without, lapels or double-breasted with lapels.[1] Single-breasted models with lapels usually feature a step collar and are worn with the bottom button undone, whilst double-breasted models commonly have either a shawl collar or a peak lapel and are worn fully buttoned.[1] In either case, Debrett's advise against wearing backless waistcoats[1] because they do not look as smart as real ones.[32] Sometimes a white slip is worn, which is a strip of fabric buttoned to the inside top of the waistcoat[38] to simulate the effect of a paler under-waistcoat,[39] though the actual wearing of two waistcoats was obsolete even for the late Victorians.

Trousers

Ayşe-sultan-abdulhamid
Hamide Ayşe Sultan (1887–1960) with her husband in morning coat and formal trousers

The formal ('spongebag') trousers worn with it are either 'cashmere' striped, or black and white checked.[1] Formal trousers should not have turn-ups (cuffs in American English),[40] and have either flat-fronts or one to two forward pleats to each leg.[41] Braces (suspenders in American English) may be worn[41] to prevent the waistband from appearing beneath the waistcoat if required. Belts should not be worn with morning dress.[42] Less common (and less formal) alternatives to striped trousers are houndstooth check,[43][32] Prince of Wales check,[29] and grey flannel trousers,[44] amongst others.

Shirt

Since the Second World War, in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth Realms, the traditional shirt for morning dress has been a white or light-coloured shirt with double cuffs (fastened with cufflinks) and a plain white stiff turn-down collar (often of the cutaway variety[45]) worn with a long tie.[1] A detachable collar is no longer considered to be necessary and is very formal by modern standards.[32]

Alternatively, a wing collar may be worn; the combination of long tie and wing collar is very dated, so these are instead paired with an Ascot.[46][47] Unfortunately, this combination has acquired negative connotations because most dress hire companies have used pre-tied or incorrect patterns for many years, which has caused the configuration to be seen as an inferior or hired look. Consequently, Debrett’s (and the late Hardy Amies) consider the wing collar and Ascot to be inappropriate for weddings or morning dress,[48] reserving wing collars for white tie.[49][50][51][1]

If a wing collar is worn, the collar should be of the starched, detachable, variety and also include starched single cuffs (secured with cufflinks) all in white. This is because, in the past, a starched stiff-fronted shirt was worn with starched cuffs and a starched detachable wing collar, worn with cufflinks and shirt studs; it is essentially the same as a plain-fronted (rather than Marcella) full evening dress shirt.[52] Contemporary shirts often do not have a detachable collar at all which, provided they have the same height and stiffness as the detachable type, are considered to be an acceptable alternative.[32]

The most formal colour for a shirt is white but, if a coloured or striped shirt is worn, it should have a contrasting white collar (and possibly cuffs). Traditional formal shirtings are usually light-coloured[1] and may include cream, blue (such as Wedgwood blue), pink,[32] lavender, peach, salmon, yellow, or pastel green.[53] Morning dress shirts (other than the collar) are usually solid in colour[32] or have thin vertical stripes[54] but may have a slightly bolder pattern such as a houndstooth or glencheck.[55]

Neck wear

Previously, a grey or (if at a funeral) a black necktie was obligatory. Now all colours are worn; in many clubs and societies the club tie is acceptable to distinguish members from guests at formal lunches and breakfasts. The original silver Macclesfield design (a small check) is still used particularly with cravats, and is often called a wedding tie. Wearing a silver-grey silk tie is the usual practice at royal[56] and other formal events.[57][29] Although there is no longer a strict rule governing the colour and pattern of ties that are worn to weddings these days, garish options are inadvisable.[32]The English etiquette authority, Debrett's, dictate that smart woven silk ties are preferred to cravats[1] although stocks and cravats may be worn as an alternative.[32] The American etiquette authority, The Emily Post Institute, states that either a tie or a dress ascot may be worn with a morning coat.[58]

If worn, cravats may be tied in either a formal dress knot (Ascot knot) which is secured with a cravat pin[59] or a slightly less formal ruched knot which resembles a four-in-hand tie. A wing collar and cravat may be worn with a black coat but not with a grey one.[60] Cravats have been proscribed in the Royal Enclosure at the Royal Ascot since 2012[61] and should therefore be treated with caution in any context in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms.

Bow ties may be worn as an alternative to the necktie. Although there are photographs of the Duke of Windsor and Sir Winston Churchill wearing bow ties with morning dress, and Debrett's does not proscribe the wearing of one, it is not expressly provided as an option by Debrett's[1][32] and should therefore be treated with caution in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms. Some style authorities, including Bernhard Roetzel and Nicholas Antongiavanni, advise against the wearing of bow ties with morning dress.[29][62] Others, such as Nicholas Storey, provide that bow ties may be worn so long as they are obviously not an evening bow tie.[63]

Footwear

Shoes should be of the traditional, highly polished black plain cap-toe Oxford type[1][13] without brogueing[64] but may include a single line of tooling across the toe cap.[65][66] The shoes should not be patent leather,[1] which is now reserved for evening formal wear.[67][68] Although it may be acceptable to wear 'smart-slip on shoes'[1] and monkstraps,[29] it is not ideal to wear either loafers[13] or open-laced shoes, such as derby shoes (or bluchers in American English).[69] In the Victorian and Edwardian era button boots[70] and Oxford boots[71][72] were worn and these can be correctly worn with morning dress today. When worn at equestrian events, boots of equestrian origin such as jodhpur boots, George boots and Chelsea boots are also acceptable. Socks should be black or grey.[32] Spats were once frequently seen with morning dress,[73] but are now rarely worn and, by 1939, the practise of wearing them was considered to be almost extinct.[74]

Accessories

Headgear

Lord (John) Boyd Orr of Brechin (3121126254)
A. Carnegie and Lord Weardale. While the top hat would be considered the standard, alternatives occur; here a bowler hat.

In the Commonwealth of Nations, traditional black, or grey (less formal, but becoming more widely accepted), top hats are considered an optional accessory for weddings.[1][75] However, hats remain compulsory in the Royal Enclosure at Royal Ascot.[76][77]

Pocket square

A pocket square should always be worn with morning dress. They may be made from linen, cotton, or silk. Whilst a simple white linen square with rolled edges is classic, they may instead be a solid colour or patterned and should always complement the neckwear.

In respect of ties and pocket squares, it is considered particularly elegant to pair one of those accessories, which is made from silk, with the other, made from a non-lustrous material such as linen or cotton. This helps to counterbalance the potential for affectations.

Although it is very common practice in wedding parties, many style authorities do not recommend matching a pocket square to a tie as it tends to look contrived, draw attention away from the wearer's face, and display sartorial uncertainty. Pocket squares with a solid colour should generally be paired with a patterned tie (and vice versa) and should not share the same base colour. If the pocket square is patterned, it should likewise not match the tie but instead complement it.

It may be puffed or folded into a square, single-point, or multi-pointed style folds. Puffed pocket squares work well with softer materials such as silk; other folds tend to hold their shape better when more structured materials such as linen are used.

Decorations

The wearing of decorations, orders, and medals is uncommon with morning dress. An invitation will generally indicate whether or not they should be worn and, in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth Realms, are more common for religious services or public functions of official significance. Up to four stars, one neck badge, and full-size medals should be worn with morning dress; when a neck badge and star are worn together, they must be of different orders.[78]

Etiquette: "morning dress"

1929wedding
Men in morning dress for a wedding (1929).

Men wear morning dress when members of a wedding party. In common with court dress, mess dress, and white tie, morning dress is for prestigious and important social occasions. Despite its name, morning dress may be worn to afternoon social events before five o'clock, but not to events beginning after seven o'clock in the evening; the term "morning" is best understood as "daylight".

In Europe, the groom sets the sartorial tone: the guests may wear morning dress if he does.

In fiction or popular culture, it may be used to refer, possibly satirically, to a rich ruling class, for example in cartoons.[79]

Equivalents for men

Following the etiquette of formal wear, morning dress being its civilian day wear, there are several equivalents.

White tie is the correct, equivalent formal dress for evening social events. The cutaway front of the morning tail coat differs from the evening tail coat (dress coat) in that the waist of the former is cut obliquely while the waist of the latter is cut horizontally, and the tail is cut differently from the swallow tailcoat used for evening dress. The skirt waist construction of the coats is equestrian in origin, to ease the wearer's riding his horse.

Equivalents for women

Women should wear 'smart daywear', such as a smart day dress or a skirt worn with a jacket.[1] The straps of tops and dresses should be at least one inch wide even if worn with a jacket or other covering.[80] Strapless, off-the-shoulder, one shoulder, halter neck, sheer, bardot, and spaghetti straps are not permitted in the Royal Enclosure at the Royal Ascot[80] and may be inadvisable at other occasions that require morning dress. Dresses and skirts should be neither too short nor too revealing.[1] At their shortest, they should fall just above the knee.[80]

Trouser suits and smart jumpsuits are permissible at the Royal Ascot but must be ankle length. With trouser suits, the coat and trousers should match in both material and colour. Jumpsuits must also comply with the regulations that apply to skirts and dresses.[80]

At the most formal of occasions and the races, dresses and skirts should be worn with a tailored jacket.[1] A bolero, shrug, or pashmina may otherwise be worn.[1] Daytime shoes, such as wedges, should be worn rather than very high heels or evening-style shoes[1] and ought to be comfortable enough to wear for several hours.[81] Tights should always be worn.[1]

Hats should be worn in the Royal Enclosure at the Royal Ascot[80] but are optional at weddings.[1] They should be a style that is securely fitted and may be worn throughout the day.[1] Hats should neither be so large or cumbersome that they hamper kissing[81] nor too small. The Royal Ascot does not permit fascinators within the Royal Enclosure.[80] Headpieces may be worn instead of a hat but must have a solid base of at least 10cm.[80]

Daytime jewellery, such as pearls, add an extra flourish of style.[1]

A shoulder bag is often preferable to a clutch purse, especially for mothers at weddings.[81]

Contemporary use

Commonwealth of Nations

In Britain, morning dress is worn to certain equestrian events (such as Royal Ascot and The Derby). In Australia, morning dress is the traditional dress for those attending the Victoria Derby. It is also worn in Commonwealth of Nations countries, such as Australia and New Zealand, by the male members of a wedding party. Men at upper and upper-middle class weddings usually wear their own morning coats and their own ties. On these occasions they may wear their old public (U.S.: private) school ties. It is occasionally worn by the British working class (constituting the majority of the population) for only the wedding party to wear morning 'suits'. These tend to be hired and far more co-ordinated than those worn by their upper-middle and upper-class counterparts. The men usually dress in identical, hired, outfits along with identical ties, handkerchiefs and waistcoats.[82]

United States

Frederick Douglass & grandson Joseph, c1890s
Joseph Douglass in morning dress with father Frederick Douglass in frock coat (circa 1890s).

In the U.S., the morning coat is sometimes referred to as a cutaway coat.[34]

In the U.S., morning dress is rare; it usually is worn in traditional weddings and political formal events, although the Kennedy inauguration of 1961 was the last use for that ceremony. In Virginia, morning dress is worn by a governor-elect when sworn to office.[83] The United States Solicitor General and deputies wear morning coats during oral argument before the United States Supreme Court,[84] as do the Marshal and Clerk of the court during all sessions of the court, unless they are female.[85]

Morning dress has recurred in the traditional Easter parade associated with Fifth Avenue in New York City.

Gallery

Hall Walker MP Vanity Fair 21 June 1906

William Walker, 1st Baron Wavertree caricatured by "Spy" (Leslie Ward) in Vanity Fair, June 1906

Britain Before the First World War Q81841

Racegoers in morning dress at Royal Ascot, England, before World War I

Rashid Tali’a (1876-1926)

Transjordan prime minister Rashid Tali’a in morning dress with fez (circa 1921)

Men's and women's fashion, Sydney Cup, Randwick, 1937, March 1937 Sam Hood

Men in morning grey suits at the races in Australia, in 1937

Patrick Moenaert en de Hoofdman van de Edele Confrérie, Bloedprocessie

Morning dress on the Lord Mayor of Bruges in Catholic procession and ceremonial

See also

  • The stroller is a similar, but slightly less formal, dress code, hence not interchangeable with full morning dress. Where morning dress is the daylight equivalent of evening's white tie, the stroller is a formal revamp of the lounge suit and the daylight equivalent of black tie.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-9929348-1-1.
  2. ^ "Morning Suits - Cad & the Dandy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-19.
  3. ^ Donald, Elsie, ed. (1981). Debrett's Etiquette and Modern Manners. London: Debrett's Peerage Limited. pp. 385–386. ISBN 0-905649-43-5.
  4. ^ Antongiavanni, Nicholas (2006). The Suit. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-06-089186-2.
  5. ^ Keers, Paul (1987). A Gentleman's Wardrobe: Classic Clothes and the Modern Man. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 105. ISBN 0-297-79191-5.
  6. ^ Tuckerman, Nancy; Dunnan, Nancy (1995). The Amy Vanderbilt Complete Book of Etiquette: 50th Anniversay Edition (1 ed.). New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group Inc. p. 284. ISBN 978-0-385413428.
  7. ^ Post, Anna; Post, Lizzie (2014). Emily Post's Wedding Etiquette (6 ed.). New York: The Emily Post Institute, Inc. p. 260. ISBN 978-0-06-232610-2.
  8. ^ "Existing Customs 2016" (PDF). Harrow School. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  9. ^ "Some Notes on Dress at Eton College". Keikari. Keikari. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  10. ^ Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. pp. 185–187. ISBN 978-0-9929348-1-1.
  11. ^ Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. pp. 187–189. ISBN 978-0-9929348-1-1.
  12. ^ "Wedding Suits - A Suit That Fits".
  13. ^ a b c d Hume, Lucy (2017). Debrett's Wedding Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-9929348-4-2.
  14. ^ Antongiavanni, Nicholas (2006). The Suit. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-06-089186-2.
  15. ^ Keers, Paul (1987). A Gentleman's Wardrobe: Classic Clothes and the Modern Man. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 104. ISBN 0-297-79191-5.
  16. ^ Post, Peggy; Post, Anna; Post, Lizzie; Post Senning, Daniel (2011). Emily Post's Etiquette (18 ed.). New York: The Emily Post Institute, Inc. p. 619. ISBN 978-0-06-174023-7.
  17. ^ a b Amies, Hardy (2013). The Englishman's Suit. London: Quartet Books Ltd. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-7043-7169-9.
  18. ^ Keers, Paul (1987). A Gentleman's Wardrobe: Classic Clothes and the Modern Man. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 104. ISBN 0-297-79191-5.
  19. ^ Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. pp. 73–74. ISBN 978-1-84468-037-5.
  20. ^ Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-84468-037-5.
  21. ^ Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. p. 94.
  22. ^ Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. pp. 74 & 79. ISBN 978-1-84468-037-5.
  23. ^ Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-84468-037-5.
  24. ^ a b Keers, Paul (1987). A Gentleman's Wardrobe: Classic Clothes and the Modern Man. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 104–105. ISBN 0-297-79191-5.
  25. ^ Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 297. ISBN 978-0-9929348-1-1.
  26. ^ Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 302. ISBN 978-0-9929348-1-1.
  27. ^ Pullman, Nigel. "Dress codes" (PDF). Livery Companies of the City of London. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  28. ^ Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. p. 128.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g Roetzel, Bernhard (2009). Gentleman: A Timeless Guide to Fashion. Cambridge: Tandem Verlag GmbH. p. 331. ISBN 978-3-8331-5270-2.
  30. ^ Post, Peggy; Post, Anna; Post, Lizzie; Post Senning, Daniel (2011). Emily Post's Etiquette (18 ed.). New York: The Emily Post Institute, Inc. p. 619. ISBN 978-0-06-174023-7.
  31. ^ Antongiavanni, Nicholas (2006). The Suit. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-06-089186-2.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Hume, Lucy (2017). Debrett's Wedding Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-9929348-4-2.
  33. ^ Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-84468-037-5.
  34. ^ a b Flusser, Alan (2002). Dressing The Man: Mastering the Art of Permanent Fashion. New York: HarperCollins Publishers Inc. p. 284. ISBN 978-0-06-019144-3.
  35. ^ Bryant, Jo; Wyse, Liz, eds. (2012). Debrett's Men's Style. Richmond, Surrey: Debrett's Limited. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-870520-00-3.
  36. ^ Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. p. 129.
  37. ^ Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-84468-037-5.
  38. ^ Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. pp. 74 & 79. ISBN 978-1-84468-037-5.
  39. ^ Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. pp. 136–138.
  40. ^ Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-1-84468-037-5.
  41. ^ a b Hume, Lucy (2017). Debrett's Wedding Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. pp. 116–117. ISBN 978-0-9929348-4-2.
  42. ^ Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. p. 233.
  43. ^ Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-84468-037-5.
  44. ^ Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. p. 94.
  45. ^ Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-1-84468-037-5.
  46. ^ Keers, Paul (1987). A Gentleman's Wardrobe: Classic Clothes and the Modern Man. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 104. ISBN 0-297-79191-5.
  47. ^ Antongiavanni, Nicholas (2006). The Suit. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 169–170. ISBN 978-0-06-089186-2.
  48. ^ Amies, Hardy (2013). The Englishman's Suit. London: Quartet Books Ltd. pp. 82–83. ISBN 978-0-7043-7169-9.
  49. ^ Amies, Hardy (2013). The Englishman's Suit. London: Quartet Books Ltd. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-0-7043-7169-9.
  50. ^ Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-9929348-1-1.
  51. ^ Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-9929348-1-1.
  52. ^ Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-1-84468-037-5.
  53. ^ Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. pp. 147–150.
  54. ^ Antongiavanni, Nicholas (2006). The Suit. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 169–170. ISBN 978-0-06-089186-2.
  55. ^ Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. p. 151.
  56. ^ Keers, Paul (1987). A Gentleman's Wardrobe: Classic Clothes and the Modern Man. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 105. ISBN 0-297-79191-5.
  57. ^ Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-84468-037-5.
  58. ^ Post, Peggy; Post, Anna; Post, Lizzie; Post Senning, Daniel (2011). Emily Post's Etiquette (18 ed.). New York: The Emily Post Institute, Inc. p. 619. ISBN 978-0-06-174023-7.
  59. ^ Keers, Paul (1987). A Gentleman's Wardrobe: Classic Clothes and the Modern Man. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 104. ISBN 0-297-79191-5.
  60. ^ Antongiavanni, Nicholas (2006). The Suit. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-06-089186-2.
  61. ^ "Royal Ascot Style Guide | Ascot". www.ascot.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-10-17.
  62. ^ Antongiavanni, Nicholas (2006). The Suit. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-06-089186-2.
  63. ^ Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-84468-037-5.
  64. ^ Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. p. 195.
  65. ^ Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-84468-037-5.
  66. ^ Antongiavanni, Nicholas (2006). The Suit. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-06-089186-2.
  67. ^ Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-9929348-1-1.
  68. ^ Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-9929348-1-1.
  69. ^ Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. p. 195.
  70. ^ Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. pp. 196–200.
  71. ^ Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-84468-037-5.
  72. ^ Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. p. 201.
  73. ^ Keers, Paul (1987). A Gentleman's Wardrobe: Classic Clothes and the Modern Man. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 105. ISBN 0-297-79191-5.
  74. ^ Mansfield, Alan; Cunnington, Phillis (1973). Handbook of English Costume in the 20th Century 1900-1950. London: Faber and Faber Limited. p. 338. ISBN 0-571-09507-0.
  75. ^ Antongiavanni, Nicholas (2006). The Suit. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-06-089186-2.
  76. ^ Hanson, William (2014). The Bluffer's guide to etiquette (First ed.). p. 72. ISBN 978-1-909937-00-0.
  77. ^ "Royal Ascot Style Guide | Ascot". www.ascot.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-10-17.
  78. ^ Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. pp. 436–437. ISBN 978-0-9929348-1-1.
  79. ^ See also depictions in Puttin' on the Ritz.
  80. ^ a b c d e f g "Ladies - What to Wear: Royal Enclosure". Royal Ascot. Ascot Racecourse. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  81. ^ a b c Hume, Lucy (2017). Debrett's Wedding Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-9929348-4-2.
  82. ^ Elsie Burch Donald (1981). Debrett's Etiquette and Modern Manners. p. 56. ISBN 0-7472-0657-0.
  83. ^ Times-Dispatch, NED OLIVER Richmond. "Trumpets, morning coats and ham: What to expect at Ralph Northam's inauguration Saturday". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved 2019-01-09.
  84. ^ "The Court and Its Traditions". Supreme Court of the United States. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  85. ^ "William Suter, Clerk of the U.S. Supreme Court, interview, C-SPAN U.S. Supreme Court Week". Supremecourt.c-span.org. Retrieved 2012-06-18.

Bibliography

  • Apparel Arts magazine, an account of 1930s fashion and style; some issues more relevant than others, such as those reproduced with comment at The London Lounge.
  • Amies, Hardy (2013). The Englishman's Suit. London: Quartet Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7043-7169-9.
  • Antongiavanni, Nicholas (2006). The Suit: A Machiavellian Approach to Men's Style. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-089186-2.
  • Bryant, Jo; Wyse, Liz, eds. (2012). Debrett's Men's Style. Richmond, Surrey: Debrett's Limited. ISBN 978-1-870520-00-3.
  • Donald, Elsie, ed. (1981). Debrett's Etiquette and Modern Manners. London: Debrett's Peerage Limited. ISBN 0-905649-43-5.
  • Flusser, Alan (2002). Dressing the Man: Mastering the Art of Permanent Fashion. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-019144-3.
  • Hume, Lucy (2017). Debrett's Wedding Handbook. Debrett's Limited. ISBN 978-0-9929348-4-2.
  • Keers, Paul (1987). A Gentleman's Wardrobe: Classic Clothes and the Modern Man. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-79191-5.
  • Mansfield, Alan; Cunnington, Phillis (1973). Handbook of English Costume in the 20th Century 1900-1950. London: Faber and Faber Limited. ISBN 0-571-09507-0.
  • Post, Anna; Post, Lizzie (2014). Emily Post's Wedding Etiquette (6 ed.). New York: The Emily Post Institute, Inc. ISBN 978-0-06-232610-2.
  • Post, Peggy; Post, Anna; Post, Lizzie; Post Senning, Daniel (2011). Emily Post's Etiquette. New York: The Emily Post Institute, Inc. ISBN 978-0-06-174023-7.
  • Pullman, Nigel. "Dress codes" (PDF). Livery Companies of the City of London. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  • Roetzel, Bernhard (2009). Gentleman: A Timeless Guide to Fashion. Cambridge: Tandem Verlag GmbH. ISBN 978-3-8331-5270-2.
  • Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC.
  • Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84468-037-5.
  • Tuckerman, Nancy; Dunnan, Nancy (1995). The Amy Vanderbilt Complete Book of Etiquette: 50th Anniversay Edition (1 ed.). New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group Inc. ISBN 978-0-385413428.
  • Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Debrett's Limited. ISBN 978-0-9929348-1-1.

External links

Media related to Morning dress at Wikimedia Commons

Ascot tie

An ascot tie, or ascot or hanker-tie, is a neckband with wide pointed wings, traditionally made of pale grey patterned silk. This wide tie is usually patterned, folded over, and fastened with a tie pin or tie clip. It is usually reserved for formal wear with morning dress for daytime weddings and worn with a cutaway morning coat and striped grey formal trousers. This type of dress cravat is made of a thicker, woven type of silk similar to a modern tie and is traditionally either grey or black.The ascot is descended from the earlier type of cravat widespread in the early 19th century, most notably during the age of Beau Brummell, made of heavily starched linen and elaborately tied around the neck. Later in the 1880s, amongst the upper-middle-class in Europe men began to wear a more loosely tied version for formal daytime events with daytime full dress in frock coats or with morning coats. It remains a feature of morning dress for weddings today. The Royal Ascot race meeting at the Ascot Racecourse gave the ascot its name, although such dress cravats were no longer worn with morning dress at the Royal Ascot races by the Edwardian era. The ascot was still commonly worn for business with morning dress in the late 19th and very early 20th centuries.

In British English, the casual form is called a cravat, or sometimes as a day cravat to distinguish it from the highly formal dress cravat. It is made from a thinner woven silk that is more comfortable when worn against the skin, often with ornate and colourful printed patterns.

Black lounge suit

The black lounge suit (U.K.), stroller (U.S.), or Stresemann (Continental Europe), is a men's day attire semi-formal intermediate of a formal morning dress and an informal lounge suit; comprising grey striped or checked formal trousers, but distinguished by a conventional-length lounge jacket, single- or double-breasted in black, midnight blue or grey. This makes it largely identical to the formal morning dress from which it is derived, only having exchanged the morning coat with a suit jacket, yet with equivalent options otherwise, such as necktie or bowtie for neckwear, a waistcoat (typically black, grey, or buff), French cuffs dress shirt of optional collar type, and black dress shoes or dress boots. The correct hat would be a semi-formal homburg, bowler, or boater hat. Just as morning dress is considered the formal daytime equivalent of formal evening attire dress coat i e. white tie, so the stroller is considered the semi-formal daytime equivalent of the semi-formal evening attire dinner jacket i.e. black tie (also called tuxedo).

For a semi-formal wedding day attire, the groom may dress in a dark-grey suit jacket with a dove-grey or buff waistcoat and optionally a wedding tie. For a semi-formal funeral day attire, the mourner may wear a matching black jacket and waistcoat presumably with black necktie.

British Warm

A British Warm, British warm or British Warm overcoat is a type of woollen overcoat based on the greatcoats worn by British Army officers in the First World War.

Business casual

Business casual is an ambiguously defined dress code adopted by some white-collar workplaces in Western countries, comprising more casual wear than informal wear ("dress clothes"), but less casual than smart casual.

Widespread acceptance of business casual attire was preceded by Casual Fridays which originated California, United States, in the 1990s, in turn inspired by the Hawaiian 1960s casual custom of Aloha Friday.

Casual wear

Casual wear/attire/clothing is a Western dress code category that comprises anything not traditionally appropriate with more formal dress codes: formal wear, semi-formal wear, or informal wear. In general, casual wear is associated with emphasising personal comfort and individuality over formality or conformity. As such, it may referred to as leisurewear. In a broader sense, the word "casual" may be defined as anything relaxed, occasional, spontaneous, "suited for everyday use", or "informal" in the sense of "not formal" (although notably informal attire actually traditionally refers to a Western dress code more formal than casual attire, a step below semi-formal attire).In essence, because of its wide variety of interpretations, casual wear may be defined not by what it is but rather by what it is not:

Formal wear, such as:

Morning dress

White tie (dress coat)

but also ceremonial dress variants, including:

Court uniforms

Full dress uniform (military)

Religious clothing

Folk costumes

Academic clothing

Semi-formal wear, such as:

Black lounge suit

Black tie (tuxedo)

Informal attire, such as:

Business professional wear, comprising lounge suits, dress shirts, neckties, waistcoats and dress shoesYet, when indicated as a dress code for instance on an invitation to a gathering or in an office place, casual wear may still be expected to be done tastefully, meaning that trousers and shirts do not have holes, tears, or stains. , it may also be combined with informal wear dress code components, illustrated by dress codes such as business casual, smart casual .

Furthermore, dress codes within casual wear category such as business casual, smart casual or casual Friday may indicate expectation of some sartorial effort, including suit jacket, dress trousers, resembling the result of informal attire.

Ceremonial dress

Ceremonial dress is the clothing worn for very special occasions, such as coronations, graduations, parades, religious rites, and trials. In the hierarchy of dress codes (e.g., Dress code (Western)), ceremonial dress is the most formal and offers almost no room for personal expression. Examples of ceremonial dress include:

royal cloak (ermine lined), crown and scepter of a monarch

court dress, such as the robe and wig worn by British judges

diplomatic uniform

the full dress uniforms of military personnel (or ceremonial suit of armour)

religious clothing, such as liturgical vestments

folk costume or tribal reserved for the most formal occasions

academic dress

Chesterfield coat

The Chesterfield is a formal dark knee-length overcoat with a velvet collar introduced around the 1840s in the United Kingdom, with prominence attributed to its namesake George Stanhope, 6th Earl of Chesterfield, then a leader of British fashion.The Chesterfield coat, with its heavy waist suppression using a waist seam, gradually replaced the over-frock coat during the second half of the 19th century as a choice for a formal overcoat, and survived as a coat of choice over the progression from frock coat everyday wear to the introduction of the lounge suit, but remained principally associated with formal morning dress and white tie.

A less formal derivation is the similar but lighter fabric, slightly shorter top coat called covert coat.

Covert coat

A covert coat is a gentleman's overcoat which originated in the late 19th century as a "short topcoat" to be worn for hunting or horse riding.

Formal trousers

Formal trousers, also known as formal striped trousers or colloquially spongebag trousers, are grey striped or patterned formal trousers for day attire in traditional Western dress code, primarily associated with formal morning dress or secondly its semi-formal equivalent black lounge suit. Traditionally made from heavy wool ranging from worsted, melton to partial twill weave, the pattern is most often of a muted design in stripes of black, silver, white and charcoal grey in various combinations (not to be confused with pinstripe or chalkstripe, which are formed of single thin lines spaced equally apart). In addition, formal trousers may also come in check patterns, such as houndstooth check, or plaids, although these variants are widely considered not as the most formal.

Although it is possible to create a complete suit out of the same fabric, etiquette limits the morning stripe design to formal trouser.Typically, formal trousers are intended to be worn with braces with a fishtail back covered by a waistcoat, and have pleats for correct ironing result and comfort. Likewise, for traditional reasons of formality, they do not have turn-ups, since these are considered less formal.

Formal wear

Formal wear, formal attire or full dress is the traditional Western dress code category applicable for the most formal occasions, such as weddings, christenings, confirmations, funerals, Easter and Christmas traditions, in addition to certain audiences, balls, and horse racing events. Formal attire is traditionally divided into formal day and evening attire; implying morning dress before 6 p.m., and white tie (dress coat) afterwards. Generally permitted other alternatives, though, are the most formal versions of ceremonial dresses (including court dresses, diplomatic uniforms and academic dresses), full dress uniforms, religious clothing, national costumes, and most rarely frock coats. In addition, formal attire may be instructed to be worn with official orders and medals.

With background in the 19th century, the protocol indicating particularly men's formal attire have remained virtually unchanged since the early 20th century, and remains observed so in certain settings influenced by Western culture: notably around Europe, the Americas, and Australia, as well as Japan. For women, although fundamental customs for ball gowns (and wedding gowns) likewise apply, changes in fashion have been more dynamic. Optional conventional headgear for men is the top hat, and for women picture hats etc. of a range of interpretations.

"Formal attire" being the most formal dress code, it is followed by semi-formal attire, equivalently based around daytime stroller, and evening black tie i.e. dinner suit (tuxedo), and evening gown for women. The lounge suit and cocktail dress in turn only comes after this level, associated with informal attire. Notably, if a level of flexibility is indicated (for example "uniform, morning coat or lounge suit", as seen to the royal wedding of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle in 2018), the host tend to wear the most formal interpretation of that dress code in order to save guests the embarrassment of out-dressing.

Since the most formal versions of national costumes are typically permitted as exceptions to the uniformity in Western formal dress code, conversely, since most cultures have at least intuitively applied some equivalent level of formality, the versatile framework of Western formal dress codes open to amalgation of international and local customs have influenced its competitiveness as international standard. From these social conventions derive in turn also the variants worn on related occasions of varying solemnity, such as formal political, diplomatic, and academic events, as well as certain parties including award ceremonies, high school proms, dance events, fraternal orders, etc.

Frock coat

A frock coat is a man's coat characterised by a knee-length skirt (often cut just above the knee) all around the base, popular during the Victorian and Edwardian periods. The double-breasted styled frock coat is sometimes called a Prince Albert after Prince Albert, consort to Queen Victoria. The frock coat is a fitted, long-sleeved coat with a centre vent at the back, and some features unusual in post-Victorian dress. These include the reverse collar and lapels, where the outer edge of the lapel is cut from a separate piece of cloth from the main body, and also a high degree of waist suppression, where the coat's diameter round the waist is much less than round the chest. This is achieved by a high horizontal waist seam with side bodies, which are extra panels of fabric above the waist used to pull in the naturally cylindrical drape.

The frock coat was originally widely worn in much the same day-to-day professional situations as modern lounge suits, but gradually came to embody the most formal attire, with different variations. One example is that a frock coat for formalwear was always double-breasted with peaked lapels, and came with waistcoat. Until the 1860s, it usually came with black trousers, although starting from that time more common was for it to go with wear charcoal gray, often pin striped formal trousers. As daily informal wear, the single-breasted frock coat often sported the step, or notched, lapel (the cause of its informality), and was more common in the early 19th century than the formal model.

In the late 19th century, the dress coat, morning coat, and lounge suit all evolved from the frock coat. The dress coat and the morning coat are knee length coats like the frock coat, and traditionally share the waist seam of the precursor frock coat, but differ in the cut of the skirt, as the frock coat does not have the cut away front which gives dress coats and morning coats tails at the back. As was usual with all coats in the 19th century, shoulder padding was rare or minimal. The formal frock coat only buttons down to the waist seam, which is decorated at the back with a pair of buttons. A frock coat that buttoned up to the neck, forming a high, stand-up collar, was worn only by clergymen.

Guards Coat

A Guards Coat or Guard's Coat (sometimes Guard's coat) is a men's topcoat which has a half belt in the back, and is based on the coat that used to be worn by English Officers of the Guard. It can be buttoned with three buttons or just two. A Guards Coat is similar to a Paletot. The Guards Coat has peaked lapels and welt pockets and comes mostly in formal colours such as a deep navy or midnight blue, and is more formal than the Ulster coat.

Midway briefs

Midway briefs (or long leg boxer) are a hybrid type of men's undergarment which are longer in the leg than boxer briefs and tighter-fitting, like briefs.

Paletot

A paletot is a French topcoat etymologically derived from the Middle English word paltok, meaning a kind of jacket. It is a semi-fitted to fitted coat with peaked lapels, a flat back and no belt. Its double-breasted 6×2 button arrangement has top buttons placed wider, and they are not buttoned.A paletot is often made of flannel or tweed in charcoal or navy blue.

Polo coat

A polo coat, also known as a camel coat, is a men's overcoat associated with polo players in England. Camelhair was the fabric at first, but later camelhair and wool blends became standard due to its higher durability. The terms polo coat and camel coat are thus synonymous.

Polo coats are available from Polo Ralph Lauren but was not invented by Ralph Lauren. The polo coat was originally a wrap coat with a belt, but eventually adopted a double-breasted with buttons configuration.

Semi-formal wear

In Western clothing semi-formal is a grouping of dress codes indicating the sort of clothes worn to events with a level of protocol between informal (e.g., lounge suit) and formal. In the modern era, the typical interpretation for men is black tie for evening wear and black lounge suit for day wear, correspended by evening dress or cocktail dress for women.Whether one would choose to wear morning or evening semi-formal has traditionally been defined by whether the event will commence before or after 6:00 p.m.

In addition, equivalent versions may be permitted of semi-formally applicable ceremonial dresses (including court dresses, diplomatic uniforms and academic dresses), full dress uniforms, religious clothing, and national costumes, and military mess dresses.

Tailcoat

A tailcoat is a knee-length coat with the front of the skirt cut away, so as to leave only the rear section of the skirt, known as the tails.

The tailcoat shares its historical origins in clothes cut for convenient horse riding in the Early Modern era. Ever since 18th century, however, tailcoats evolved into general forms of day and evening formal wear, in parallell to how the lounge suit succeeded the frock coat (19th century) and the justacorps (18th century).

Thus, in 21st century Western dress codes for men, mainly two types of tailcoats has survived:

Dress coat, an evening wear with a squarely cut away front, worn for formal white tie

Morning coat (or cutaway in American English), a day wear with a gradually tapered front cut away, worn for formal morning dressIn colloquial language without further specification, "tailcoat" typically designates the former, that is the evening (1) dress coat for white tie.

Tent dress

A tent dress is a dress that hangs loose from shoulder to below the hips, and does not have a waistline. They are worn without belts.

The tent dress was one of the trends in 2007. They are sold in most department stores or clothes-carrying supermarkets, and may also be home-made or tailor-made.

Western dress codes

Western dress codes are dress codes in Western culture about what clothes are worn in what setting. Classifications are traditionally divided into formal attire (full dress), semi-formal attire (half dress), and informal attire, with the first two sometimes in turn divided into day and evening wear. A level below these are sometimes referred to as casual attire, often in combinations such as "smart casual" or "business casual" in order to indicate higher expectation than none at all.

The more formal traditional Western dress code interpretations - that is formal i.e. "white tie" and semi-formal i.e. "black tie" - have remained highly codified for men with essentially fixed definitions mostly unchanged since the 20th century with roots in 19th century customs. For women, though, changes in fashion have been more dynamic. Yet, although casual inventions, combinations and reinterpretations of the classifications have occurred and fluctuated, the general formal traditions have persisted for more than a century.

Dress codes are sometimes explicitly instructed, expected by peer pressure, or followed intuitively.

As with other cultures, versions of ceremonial dresses, military uniforms, religious clothing, academic dresses, and national dresses appropriate to the formality level are generally permitted and worn as exceptions to the uniformity, often in the form of headgear (see biretta, kippah etc.). Conversely, since most cultures have at least intuitively applied some level equivalent to the more formal ones in Western dress code traditions, the latter's versatile framework open to amalgation of international and local customs have influenced its competativeness as international standard range from formal to casual.

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