The Morava Valley (Serbian: Поморавље / Pomoravlje, pronounced [pɔmɔ̝̌raːvʎe̞]), is a general term which in its widest sense marks valleys of any of three Morava rivers in Serbia: the West Morava (West Morava Valley), the South Morava (South Morava Valley) and the Great Morava (Great Morava Valley). In the narrow sense, the term is applied only to the Great Morava Valley (Serbian: Велико Поморавље / Veliko Pomoravlje). The Serbian term follows the general manner of coining river valley names in Serbian using the prefix po- and suffix -je, meaning literally "(land) along the Morava". Morava valley lies in the central Balkans, at the crossroads which lead eastwards, towards the Black sea and Asia Minor, and further south, down the Vardar river into the Aegean sea.
|Great Morava flow|
|Watershed of the West Morava|
The West Morava Valley (Serbian: Западно Поморавље / Zapadno Pomoravlje) is the valley of the West Morava. It is the southernmost Peripannonic region of Serbia. It is parallel, latitudinally elongated, in the west-to-east direction, opposed to the meridian, south-to-north direction of South Morava Valley and Great Morava Valley. It occupies and area of 5,220 square kilometers and generally corresponds to the valley of the West Morava River and sections of its watershed around the rivers of Skrapež, Đetinja (headwaters of West Morava) and Rasina (a tributary, near the confluence with South Morava). It is generally bounded by the mountains of Tara, Zlatibor, Jelica, Goč, Suvobor, Maljen, Kotlenik and Gledić, that is, by the large geographical regions of Šumadija and Stari Vlah
The West Morava Valley is a composite valley, which means it consists of a sequence of valleys (depressions) and gorges. Sections include:
The West Morava Valley comprises several historical and geographical regions of Serbia, which are its own geographical sub-regions. From west to east, they are:
The West Morava Valley had a population of 531,978 inhabitants by the 2002 census of population, which gives an average population density of 102 inhabitants per square kilometer. The largest is in the area of Čačak (184 per km2) and the smallest in the neighboring area of Lučani (54 per km2). Despite large urban centers, population has been depopulating for almost two decades. The population of the Morava Valley by the official censuses of population:
Largest settlements of the West Morava Valley in 2002 were:
The West Morava Valley is economically the most developed of all three Morava river valleys. Being a large floodplain, frequently flooded by the West Morava due to the extreme fluctuation of its discharge, The West Morava Valley was always an agricultural area, but in the second half of 20th century industry also developed in all major towns along the river.
Fertile land in the valley is best for grains and orchards. Corn is being cultivated in the Čačak-Kraljevo depression, while wheat is being grown in the Kruševac depression. Dragačevo region is known for the potato production. Čačak area is known for the plum growing, Požega is known for the apples ("budimka" brand) and Župa region around Aleksandrovac is famous for the grapes and wine production. Artificial lake Parmenac near Čačak is created for the purpose of irrigation and further fertilization of the land. Also, out of all three sections of the Morava Valley, the West Morava Valley is the most forested one.
The West Morava Valley is rich in ores. It includes the mining of brown coal ("West Morava's coal basin"), hard coal, asbestos, magnesite, chromium, etc. As a result, the industry is very developed with a string of heavily industrialized towns: Požega, Čačak, Kraljevo, Trstenik and Kruševac. With the valley of the Ibar, the West Morava has a huge potential in electricity production. Hydroelectric power plants Ovčar (6 MW) and Međuvršje (7 MW) with artificial lakes are built near Čačak, in the Ovčar-Kablar gorge, so as the lakes Parmenac (also on Morava) and Ćelije (on Rasina).
The entire river valley is a natural route for both roads and railways connecting eastern, central and western Serbia, so traffic is also important for the economy of the region. Tourism is almost entirely based on mineral spas, as the West Morava Valley is dubbed "First spa region of Serbia". Best known spas include Vrnjačka Banja, Mataruška Banja, Bogutovačka Banja, Ovčar Banja, Vička Banja, Gornja Trepča, etc. Additional interests are the Goč mountain and medieval Serbian Orthodox monasteries of Žiča, Kalenić, Lazarica, Ljubostinja, Naupara, etc. One of top mountain resorts of Serbia, Tara and Zlatibor, are marking the eastern border of the region.
|Watershed of the South Morava|
The South Morava Valley (Serbian: Јужно Поморавље / Južno Pomoravlje) is the valley of the South Morava. It is the southernmost region of Serbia, bordering Republic of Macedonia. It is meridionally elongated, in the south-to-north direction. In the narrower sense, as a valley of the South Morava, it occupies an area of 4,800 km2, of which 1,660 km2 on Kosovo and the rest in Central Serbia. In wider sense, the South Morava Valley is identified with southern Serbia in general and covers the entire watershed of the South Morava (15,469 km2).
Sub-regions which partially make up the South Morava Valley include:
The South Morava Valley had a population of 719,151 inhabitants by the 2002 census of population, with an average population density of 150 inhabitants per square kilometer, but the area's density is in general smaller, average density being enlarged by the large centers like the city of Niš (420 per km2). The South Morava Valley has been known for rural depopulation almost for the last six decades while the cities grew larger, but in the last 30 years the entire area is depopulating. The population of the Morava Valley by the official censuses of population:
The largest settlements of the South Morava Valley (in the narrower sense) in 2002 were:
The South Morava Valley is the major vegetable growing area in Serbia, especially the areas of Leskovac and Vranje, which are specialized in the production of tomatoes and bell peppers, but other early vegetables as well. Vranje is also known for floriculture. The area is also producing grains (corn in Leskovac and Vranje, wheat in Vranje and Aleksinac- Niš region), fruits (plums in Vranje, grapes in Leskovac) and industrial plants (sugar beet in Aleksinac- Niš, tobacco in Aleksinac- Niš and Vranje). Leskovac is also known for the poultry. Water from South Morava is also used for the irrigation.
The mountains surrounding the region are rich in minerals and ores. The mountain of Besna Kobila has findings of zinc and silver. Other findings include chromium, antimony, graphite, molybdenum and tungsten. Oil shales are found near Vranje and Aleksinac. Aleksinac is also part of a large Aleksinac coal basin. Though South Morava has a significant potential for electricity production, it has not been dammed, though some parts of its watershed on the east (Vlasina, Vrla) have a series of hydro electrical plants (Vrla I, II, III and IV). Area is rich in mineral springs with many spas: Vranjska Banja, Bujanovčaka Banja, Ribarska Banja, Kulinska Banja, Klokot Banja, etc. There are several large industrial centers in the region, some of them among the largest in Serbia (Niš, Leskovac, Vranje). Secondary centers are Aleksinac and Vlasotince.
Along with the Great Morava Valley, its natural continuation, the South Morava Valley is an important European transportation route and Niš is a major crossroads. It makes a section of the Belgrade-Skopje-Thessaloniki route, that is, of the European route E75 (which connects Norway and Greece), with a branch splitting at Niš for Sofia, Bulgaria, which is actually a crossroads of the routes E75 and E80 which connects Portugal and Turkey. Except for the Leskovac-Macedonian border section, route has been turned into a highway. The South Morava Valley is also a railway crossroads: railway Belgrade-Niš-Skopje, trans-Balkan railway Peć-Prahovo, etc.
|Watershed of the Great Morava|
The Great Morava Valley (Serbian: Велико Поморавље / Veliko Pomoravlje) is the valley of the Great Morava. It is often referred to only as the Morava Valley (Serbian: Поморавље / Pomoravlje; Pomoravlje District is located in the southern area of the Great Morava Valley). It the beginning, it is bounded by the mountains of Juhor on the west and Kučaj on the east. In the later section, the Morava Valley gets much wider, with only smaller hills bounding it and opens widely to the Danube and Banat region, across the river. It covers an area of 4,360 square milometers, which is over 70% of the entire Great Morava watershed.
The Great Morava Valley is a valley region of the middle, Peripannonic Serbia. In the Neogene, it was a deep bay ("Morava Bay") of the inner Pannonian Sea, which flowed off through the Đerdap gorge 600,000 years ago. As the sea withdrew, the Great Morava cut in its flow through the drained bay, almost for 500 meters. The region is 120 kilometers long and up to 40 kilometers wide. Altitudes vary from 75 meters on the north to 130 meters on the south. It has a tempered continental climate with not much rainfall but frequend floods. Composite valley of the Great Morava has three main sections.
Regions, which partially or completely make the Great Morava Valley, include Jasenica, Lepenica, Resava and Temnić. Because the Great Morava and West Morava are considered the eastern and southern borders, respectively, of the super-region of Šumadija, they largely overlap with it in these areas.
The South Morava Valley had a population of 545,517 inhabitants by the 2002 census of population, with an average population density of 125 inhabitants per square kilometer. Extremes include Smederevo, with 230 per km2, and Despotovac, with 41 per km2. Despite being developed as an agricultural and industrial region, it has been depopulating for the last few decades. The population of the Morava Valley by the official censuses of population:
In the 1980s plans were made to join towns of Jagodina, Paraćin and Ćuprija into the first planned conurbation in Yugoslavia, including inter-city tramway lines, etc., but the idea was dropped later. The largest settlements of the Great Morava Valley in 2002 were:
With the most fertile arable land, almost endless gardens, orchards and vineyards and its intensive agriculture, the Great Morava Valley is the granary of Central Serbia. The Great Morava agricultural region covers much larger area than the Great Morava Valley or even the watershed of the Great Morava: regions of Mlava and Pek on the east (Braničevo District) and almost half of Šumadija, on the west. Main products in the valley are corn, wheat, sugar beet and sunflower. Hilly areas surrounding the valley are producing fruits, grapes (Smederevo), fodder plants and livestock. Braničevo region has the largest production of beans in Serbia. Horse stud farm Ljubičevo is located near Požarevac. In the past centuries the Great Morava Valley was famous for its vast forest, but today it is almost entirely turned into an arable land.
Unlike the West Morava Valley and South Morava Valley, the Great Morava Valley has almost no ores or minerals, except for the cement marl near Paraćin. But the area has vast finding of coal, near Kostolac (Kostolac-Podunavlje Basin; brown coal), in the valley of Resavica (Despotovac Basin; brown coal at Makvište and Resavica, lignite at Despotovac) and near Ćuprija (Senje Basin; brown coal). Also, the Great Morava Valley has only a few mineral springs (Lućička Banja, Stragarska Banja, etc.). Major industrial centers are Jagodina, Smederevo, Smederevska Palanka and Ćuprija, followed by Paraćin, Požarevac and Velika Plana. Thermal power plant "Morava" (125 MW) is located near Svilajnac. One of three Serbian cement plants is located in Popovac (formerly "Novi Popovac", in 2002 bought by one of the Swiss cement company Holcim).
The Great Morava Valley was always an important traffic route. In Roman times, it was the location of Via Militaris, while in the medieval period Constantinople road ran through. Today, it makes a section of the European route E75 (Belgrade-Niš highway) which continues into the South Morava Valley. It also a route for the Belgrade-Niš railway. In past times, the Great Morava used to be navigable, but due to the huge amounts of materials which are brought by the South Morava, as a result of extreme erosion in its watershed, the river bed of the Great Morava is literally being covered up so the river is not navigable today. Only some 3 kilometers near its mouth into the Danube can be used for navigation.
The 6th Army was a Royal Yugoslav Army formation which commanded six divisions during the German-led Axis invasion of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in April 1941 during World War II. It was commanded by General Dimitrije Živković, and it was deployed around Belgrade and in the Banat region east of the Tisza. It held two infantry divisions in reserve in the lower Morava valley.Andrey Damyanov
Andrey Damyanov (Bulgarian: Андрей Дамянов; Macedonian: Андреја Дамјанов; Serbian: Андреја Дамјанов) (Papradište, 1813–Veles, 1878), or Andreja Damjanović was an architect from the modern-day North Macedonia. His works include more than 40 buildings, most of them churches, built between 1835 and 1878, and spread along the Vardar and Morava Valley, with an extension of his works found in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well.Autariatae
The Autariatae or Autariates (Ancient Greek: Αὐταριάται) were an ancient people that eventually became the most powerful Illyrian tribe. Their territory was called (Ancient Greek: Αὐταριατῶν χώρα). The tribe had been Celticized late in their history.Azanja
Azanja (Serbian Cyrillic: Азања) is a village in Central Serbia, in the municipality of Smederevska Palanka. It lies in the region of Great Morava valley, on rivers of Jezava and Jasenica. Azanja is 160 meters above mean sea level. With 4,014 residents, it is one of largest villages in Central Serbia.Carex acuta
Carex acuta, the acute sedge, slender tufted-sedge, or slim sedge, can be found growing on the margins of rivers and lakes in the Palaearctic terrestrial ecoregions in beds of wet, alkaline or slightly acid depressions with mineral soil.
Carex acuta does not tolerate prolonged desiccation. The community is distributed, in particular, in northern France, the Low Countries, Central Europe south to the Sava and Drava valleys of Croatia, the northern Morava valley of Serbia and Romania, north to Poland, the Kaliningrad District, Lithuania and Latvia, in southern Scandinavia, in the Dnieper basin of northern Ukraine and southern Belarus, in the lower Volga Valley.Dimitrije Živković
Dimitrije Živković was a Army general (Kingdom of Yugoslavia) in the Royal Yugoslav Army who commanded the 6th Army during the German-led Axis invasion of Yugoslavia of April 1941 during World War II. Živković's command consisted of the Banat, Srem, Dunav, Krajina and Cer Divisions, and the 2nd Cavalry Division. The 6th Army was originally intended to form the strategic reserve for the VKJ. It was deployed around Belgrade and in the Banat region east of the Tisza. It held two infantry divisions in reserve in the lower Morava valley.Dyje–Svratka Valley
The Dyje–Svratka Valley (Czech: Dyjsko-svratecký úval, German: Thaya-Schwarza Talsenke, Slovak: Dyjsko-svratecký úval) is a geomorphological feature (specifically a special type of vale) in Moravia (The Czech Republic). The highest prominence over the Dyje–Svratka Valley is Děvín Peak at 549 metres (1,801 ft).Kosovo Pomoravlje
Kosovo Pomoravlje (Serbian: Косовско Поморавље / Kosovsko Pomoravlje, "Pomoravlje of Kosovo") or Anamorava (Albanian: Anamoravë), is a valley in Kosovo, in the southern part of the District of Gjilan surrounding the Binač Morava River. It stretches eastward to the Preševo Valley in southern Serbia. The mountains in this region, rising to an altitude of 1,000–1,200 metres (3,300–3,900 ft), border the Skopska Crna Gora region in neighboring Macedonia north of Skopje. Gjilan, Kosovska Kamenica, Novo Brdo and Vitina are municipalities located in the region. The region gave its name to Kosovo-Pomoravlje District. It is known for recording the lowest temperature in Kosovo: −32.5 °C (−26.5 °F), on 25 January 1963.List of tumuli in Serbia
This is a detailed list of tumuli (barrows) in Serbia, ranging from the prehistoric times to the Middle Ages.
Mrčajevci, several prehistoric tumuli
Bukovac, Illyrian tumuli and necropolis
Five prehistoric tumuli in the Morava valley.
Serbian tumuli in Ravna Gora.Lower Morava Valley
The Lower Morava Valley (Czech: Dolnomoravský úval / Jihomoravská pánev also, German: Nieder March Talsenke, Slovak: Dolnomoravský úval) is a geomorphological formation (special type of Valley) in the Moravia (Czech Republic). It is formed by the depression in the western Carpathian Mountains (Ždánice Forest, Kyjov Hills and Mikulov Hills) in the west and Bílé Karpaty and Chvojnice hills in the east. The drainage to the River Morava of the Danube basin runs finally to the Black Sea.
Including low watershed Dyje-Morava in Lanžhot.The Lower Morava Valley is a nordest part of Vienna basin (Carpathians) and the corridor to Napajedla Gate, Upper Morava Valley, Moravian Gate and later in final goal North European Plain (Poland- Lower Silesia - Galicia) since ancient times. Here ran one arm of the most important trade routes from southern Europe to the Baltic Sea (e.g. the Amber Road - eastern branch) and also routes from Moravia to Upper Silesia and Lesser Poland. The Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway (one part) built in 1840-41 from Břeclav (Vienna) to Přerov also traversed the Lower Morava Valley.
The Morava and Dyje rivers, Myjava (river), Chvojnice, Trkmanka, Kyjovka as well among others, finishing here in theirs floodplains, and the towns include Břeclav, Hodonín, Uherské Hradiště, Valtice, Poštorná and Mikulčice.
Soil horizon - mainly sand, fluvisol and loess, partly chernozem .Maglič
Maglič (Serbian Cyrillic: Маглич [mâɡlitʃ]) is a 13th-century castle about 20 km south of Kraljevo, Serbia. The castle is located atop a hill around which the Ibar river makes a curve, about 100 m above the river. The fortress protected the only road that connected the Great Morava Valley and Kosovo polje. Its name means The Foggy One from the Serbian word "Magla" (Магла), meaning fog.Maglič was included on the list of Cultural Monuments of Exceptional Importance in 1979.Pomoravlje
Pomoravlje may refer to:
Morava Valley (Serbian Latin: Pomoravlje), a geographical area in Serbia around the Great Morava and its tributaries
Great Morava Valley (Great Pomoravlje), or only Morava Valley (Pomoravlje)
West Morava Valley (Western Pomoravlje)
South Morava Valley (Southern Pomoravlje)
Kosovo Morava Valley (Kosovo Pomoravlje), or Binač Morava Valley (Binač Pomoravlje), a geographical area in Kosovo around the Binač Moravaor:
Pomoravlje District, a district in Serbia
Kosovo-Pomoravlje District, former district in Kosovo, still recognized by SerbiaPrehistoric sites in Serbia
The best known cultural archaeological discoveries from the prehistoric period on the territory of modern-day Serbia are the Starčevo and Vinča cultures dating back to 6400–6200 BC.
Serbia's strategic location between two continents has subjected it to invasions by many nations.Rokeri s Moravu
Rokeri s Moravu (Serbian Cyrillic: Рокери с Мораву, meaning Rockers from Morava) was a Serbian band active from 1977-1991 and again from 2007-2008. Their music was a mix of Serbian folk music with rock elements and the lyrics in folksy dialect of Šumadija and Morava Valley, combined with numerous popular culture references. Their visual trademark were Serbian šajkača caps and opanci shoes, worn either with traditional dress and/or in crazy combinations with tuxedos, fur coats or A-shirts.
The band was formed in 1977 by Boris Bizetić, who wrote, composed and made musical arrangements for all Rokeri s Moravu's songs (more than 220) and who is also one of the lead singers of the band. The other lead singer was Zvonko Milenković. Two additional singers were Branislav Anđelović (who was also a guitar player) and Branko Janković. Branko Janković died in 1982 after a car accident. Branislav Anđelović left the band in 1988.
Rokeri recorded 19 albums between 1977 and 1991, when they stopped recording but continued having occasional live performances around Europe. Between 1988 and 1991 Rokeri released five VHS programs. During the 1990s they were active on television in several TV shows. The best-selling album was Krkenzi kikiriki from 1980. Their greatest hits include Turio Ljubiša pivo da se 'ladi, Ja Tarzan a ti Džejn, Stojadinka ovce šiša, Seks na eks... In 2005, 3 "best of" box sets of 2CDs each, titled Sabrana nedela (Collected misdeeds) was released. The following year their first DVD, with 30 previously unreleased music videos, came out. A comeback album, "Projekat", was released in 2007, recorded only by Boris Bizetić and Zvonko Milenković, with guest appearances by famous folk singers Predrag Cune Gojković, Predrag Živković Tozovac and Lepa Lukić. This album was followed by DVD with 20 music videos that same year.
Zvonko Milenković died in September 2008.Serbian Carpathians
Serbian Carpathians (Serbian: Српски Карпати, Srpski Karpati) is a mountain range in eastern Central Serbia. It presents an extension of proper Carpathian Mountains across the Danube, connecting them with the Balkan Mountains in the southeast. They stretch in north-south direction in the eastern Serbia, east of the Great Morava valley and west of the White Timok Valley and north of the Nišava Valley. The mountains are 800–1500 m high, and dominated by karst limestone geologic features, the highest one being Rtanj Mountain (1,565 m).Časlav
Časlav (Greek: Τζεέσθλαβος, Serbian Cyrillic: Часлав ; c. 890s – 960) was Prince of the Serbs from c. 927 until his death in c. 960. He significantly expanded the Serbian Principality when he managed to unite several Slavic tribes, stretching his realm over the shores of the Adriatic Sea, the Sava river and the Morava valley. He successfully fought off the Magyars, who had crossed the Carpathians and ravaged Central Europe, when they invaded Bosnia. Časlav is remembered, alongside his predecessor Vlastimir, as founders of Serbia in the Middle Ages.
Časlav was the son of Klonimir, a son of Strojimir who ruled as co-prince in 851–880. He belongs to the first Serbian dynasty, the Vlastimirovićs (ruling since the early 7th century), and is the last known ruler of the family. His mother was a Bulgarian noblewoman chosen as wife of Klonimir by Boris I himself.Čačak
Čačak (Serbian Cyrillic: Чачак, pronounced [tʃǎːtʃak]) is a city and the administrative center of the Moravica District in central Serbia. It is located in the West Morava valley within the geographical region of Šumadija. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has 73,331 inhabitants, while the administrative area comprises a total of 115,337 inhabitants.
Long known as a spa town, the city lies about 144 km south of the Serbian capital, Belgrade. It is also located near the Ovčar-Kablar Gorge, which houses 12 different monasteries.Čestobrodica (river)
Čestobrodica is a river in eastern Serbia, a left tributary of the river Grza near the village Izvor. Its valley separates the mountain of Samanjac from Kučaj, making a wide passage of the Stolica, which is the most favorable connection between the Morava Valley and the Crni Timok and Timok basins. Through the valley of Čestobrodica and through the passage leads the main road linking Pomoravlje and the valley of Timok. The length of the valley (gorge) of Čestobrodica is 5 km and the depth is about 250 m.
(*) indicates location within Kosovo