Monument Park (Yankee Stadium)

Monument Park is an open-air museum located in Yankee Stadium in the Bronx, New York City, containing a collection of monuments, plaques, and retired numbers honoring distinguished members of the New York Yankees. When Red Ruffing's plaque was dedicated in 2004, his son called it "the second-greatest honor you can have in baseball, in my opinion" trailing only induction into the National Baseball Hall of Fame.[1]

The history of the original Monument Park can be traced to the old Yankee Stadium in 1932, when the team posthumously dedicated an on-field monument to manager Miller Huggins in center field. Additional team members were honored with monuments and plaques in the area over the years. During the stadium's renovation in the mid-1970s, the center field fence was moved in 44 feet, enclosing prior monuments, plaques, and a flag pole beyond the field of play. Over time, additional plaques were added to the area and "Monument Park" became formalized; in 1985, the park was opened for public access. When the Yankees moved to their new ballpark in 2009, a replica Monument Park was built beyond the center-field fences and the contents of the old one transported over.

Thirty-seven members of the Yankee organization have been honored in Monument Park, while 22 have had their uniform numbers retired. Plaques in Monument Park are a great honor for players so distinguished. The monuments mounted posthumously on five large red granite blocks are the highest honor of all. Only six Yankees have been so recognized: manager Miller Huggins, players Lou Gehrig, Babe Ruth, Mickey Mantle, and Joe DiMaggio, and owner George Steinbrenner.

Yankees retired numb monument park
Monument Park II, at Yankee Stadium



The original Yankee Stadium was built in 1923. As with many other so-called Jewel Box ballparks of the era the flag pole was placed in play. With a generous center field dimension of 500 feet (150 m) to straightaway center field, there was plenty of room for it without materially interfering in play. In 1929, Yankees manager Miller Huggins died suddenly, and in his honor the team erected a free-standing monument in front of the flag pole consisting of a bronze plaque mounted on an upright block of red granite resembling a headstone. This, in turn, led many Yankee fans over the years, particularly children, to believe that the players honored were also buried there upon their death.[2]

The original placement of the monuments in deep center field at the pre-renovated Yankee Stadium. Left in the picture.

The Huggins monument was later joined by similar memorials to Lou Gehrig and Babe Ruth, which were erected upon their deaths.[3] Over time, a number of plaques were mounted behind them on the outfield wall. Placing monuments in the field of play was not so unusual at the time, as there had been in-play stones and plaques at the Polo Grounds and Forbes Field. In 1969, Mickey Mantle was given a plaque by Joe DiMaggio to hang on the center field wall, who in turn gave Joe DiMaggio a plaque of his own which, in Mickey's words, had to be hung a little bit higher than his.[4]

From 1936 through 1973, the distance from home plate to the center field fence was 461 feet (141 m).[3] Despite the distance, a batted ball still sometimes made it back there. In the 1992 book The Gospel According to Casey, by Ira Berkow and Jim Kaplan, it is reported that on one occasion a Yankees outfielder had let the ball get by him and was fumbling for it among the monuments. Manager Casey Stengel hollered to the field, "Ruth, Gehrig, Huggins, somebody get that ball back to the infield!"[5]

Monument Park I

Yankee Stadium Monument Park
The original Monument Park consisted of a row of monuments with plaques lining the wall behind them

When Yankee Stadium was remodeled from 1974–1975, the center field fence was moved in to 417 feet (127 m) from its previous 457 feet (139 m); a subsequent reduction brought the fence in again to 410 feet (120 m) in 1985, but was reduced 2 feet in 1988. This enclosed the area, formerly in play, containing the flag pole and monuments. As this fenced in area between the two bullpens gathered additional plaques on the original wall it began to be referred to as "Monument Park".[6]

With the formalization of the area as an official Monument Park, the Mantle and DiMaggio plaques were removed from the wall upon their deaths and mounted on red granite blocks matching the original three of Huggins, Gehrig, and Ruth.

It was an achievement for a home run to reach Monument Park on the fly. Among those who did so were Thurman Munson (in Game 3 of the 1978 ALCS) and Alex Rodriguez (in August 2005).

Monument Park was inaccessible to fans until 1985.[6] After the center field fence was moved in, the Yankees enabled fans to visit Monument Park prior to most games at Yankee Stadium.[6] Monument Park was also part of the public tour of the venue.

Monument Park II

New Monument Park from Bleachers
The second Monument Park

When the Yankees moved to their new ballpark, the Yankees established a new Monument Park in the new stadium.[7] An area was built behind the fence in straightaway center field, below the Mohegan Sun Sports Bar that serves as the batter's eye. Built of pearl blue granite from Finland,[8] this new monument park features the five Yankee monuments in a central area around a black marble Yankees logo. This is flanked by two short stone walls which hold the retired numbers. The plaques are mounted on the back wall and the September 11 monument is on one end of the park.

In contrast to the old stadium, the new Monument Park is not readily visible from the field, and its relatively drab appearance and inconspicuous placement have led some to derisively nickname it "Monument Cave". Spectators can visit Monument Park prior to the beginning of each game. It closes 45 minutes before first pitch.[9][10]


Honored baseball members

The following players and other Yankees personnel are honored with monuments or plaques in Monument Park. Monuments are considered a greater honor than plaques, and are only awarded posthumously.[11] Often, the uniform number of the player being honored is retired in the same ceremony. Such events historically often took place either at home openers or on Old-Timers' Day, but have lately been scheduled on separate weekend home games. Figures are listed in the order in which their plaques were dedicated:

Monument park numbers
Plaques lined the rear wall of the original Monument Park
Honoree Name of the honoree
Position(s) Fielding position(s) or role in the organization
Yankee career Years with the Yankee organization
Number retired (x) Date number retired (and number), if applicable
Plaque Date plaque dedicated, if applicable
Monument Date monument dedicated, if applicable
Elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame
Recipient of the Hall of Fame's Ford C. Frick Award
Honoree Position(s) Yankee career Number retired Plaque Monument Ref
Miller Hugginsdagger Manager 1918–1929 May 30, 1932 May 30, 1932 [12]
Lou Gehrigdagger First baseman 1923–1939 July 4, 1939 (#4) July 6, 1941 July 6, 1941 [13]
Jacob Ruppertdagger Owner 1915–1939 April 19, 1940 [14]
Babe Ruthdagger Outfielder 1920–1934 June 13, 1948 (#3) April 19, 1949 April 19, 1949 [15]
Ed Barrowdagger General manager 1921–1946 April 15, 1954 [16]
Joe DiMaggiodagger Outfielder 1936–1951 April 18, 1952 (#5) June 8, 1969 April 25, 1999 [17]
Mickey Mantledagger Outfielder 1951–1968 June 8, 1969 (#7) June 8, 1969 August 25, 1996 [18]
Joe McCarthydagger Manager 1931–1946 April 29, 1976 [19]
Casey Stengeldagger Manager 1949–1960 August 8, 1970 (#37) July 30, 1976 [20]
Thurman Munson Catcher 1969–1979 August 2, 1979 (#15) September 20, 1980 [21]
Elston Howard Catcher / Outfielder 1955–1967 July 21, 1984 (#32) July 21, 1984 [22]
Roger Maris Outfielder 1960–1966 July 21, 1984 (#9) July 21, 1984 [22]
Phil Rizzutodagger Shortstop / Broadcaster 1941–1956, 1957–96 August 4, 1985 (#10) August 4, 1985 [23]
Billy Martin Second baseman / Manager 1950–1957, 1975–1978,
1979, 1983, 1985, 1988
August 10, 1986 (#1) August 10, 1986 [24]
Lefty Gomezdagger Pitcher 1930–1942 August 1, 1987 [25]
Whitey Forddagger Pitcher 1950–1967 August 3, 1974 (#16) August 1, 1987 [25]
Bill Dickeydagger Catcher 1928–1946 July 22, 1972 (#8) August 21, 1988 [26]
Yogi Berradagger Catcher / Outfielder 1946–1963 July 22, 1972 (#8) August 21, 1988 [26]
Allie Reynolds Pitcher 1947–1954 August 27, 1989 [27]
Don Mattingly First baseman 1982–1995 August 31, 1997 (#23) August 31, 1997 [28]
Mel Allendouble-dagger Broadcaster 1939–1964, 1976–1989 July 25, 1998 [29]
Bob Sheppard Public address announcer 1951–2007 May 7, 2000 [30]
Reggie Jacksondagger Outfielder 1977–1981 August 14, 1993 (#44) July 6, 2002 [31]
Ron Guidry Pitcher 1975–1988 August 23, 2003 (#49) August 23, 2003 [32]
Red Ruffingdagger Pitcher 1930–1946 July 10, 2004 [1]
Jackie Robinsondagger Second baseman April 15, 1997 (#42) April 17, 2007[a] [33]
George Steinbrenner Owner 1973–2010 September 20, 2010 September 20, 2010 [34]
Mariano Riveradagger Pitcher 1995–2013 September 22, 2013 (#42) August 14, 2016 [35]
Tino Martinez First baseman 1996–2001, 2005 June 21, 2014 [36]
Goose Gossagedagger Pitcher 1978–1983, 1989 June 22, 2014 [36]
Paul O'Neill Outfielder 1993–2001 August 9, 2014 [36]
Joe Torredagger Manager 1996–2007 August 23, 2014 (#6) August 23, 2014 [36]
Bernie Williams Outfielder 1991–2006 May 24, 2015 (#51) May 24, 2015 [37]
Willie Randolph Second baseman / Coach 1975–1988, 1994–2004 June 20, 2015 [38]
Mel Stottlemyre Pitcher / Coach 1964–1974, 1996–2005 June 20, 2015 [39]
Jorge Posada Catcher 1995–2011 August 22, 2015 (#20) August 22, 2015 [40]
Andy Pettitte Pitcher 1995–2003, 2007–2010, 2012–2013 August 23, 2015 (#46) August 23, 2015 [41]
Derek Jeter Shortstop 1995–2014 May 14, 2017 (#2) May 14, 2017 [42]

Although the Yankees adopted uniform numbers in 1929, McCarthy never wore a number with the Yankees.[43]

Ruppert's plaque was placed on the outfield wall, to the right of the flagpole. The Lou Gehrig monument was placed to the left of the Huggins monument. Gehrig was the first Major League Baseball player to have his uniform number retired.[44] The Babe Ruth monument was placed to the right of the Huggins monument. The Ed Barrow plaque was placed on the wall, to the left of the flagpole.

Jackie Robinson Monument park
The plaque in the first Monument Park in honor of Jackie Robinson

In honor of Jackie Robinson's unique place as the first black player of the modern era, his number 42 was retired throughout baseball on April 15, 1997, the 50th anniversary of his debut with the Brooklyn Dodgers. The Yankees erected a plaque for Robinson[33] reading: "In becoming the first Major League player to break the color barrier, Jackie will forever be an inspiration with his grace, dignity and perseverance. His story and the stories of those who never had the same opportunity must never be forgotten." 42s were also painted in front of each dugout. Players active at the time of the number's retirement in 1997 were granted a special exemption permitting them to continue wearing the number for the remainder of their careers; the last such active player to wear number 42 was Yankee relief pitcher Mariano Rivera.[45]

The Yankees honored Rivera by retiring his uniform number on September 22, 2013, during his final season, making him the first active player to be enshrined in Monument Park.[46] Mantle wore his #7 when he coached the Yankees in 1970, even though it was retired the previous year, while Berra wore his #8 while he coached the Yankees from 1976 through 1985, though it was retired in 1972. Similarly, when Martin returned to manage the Yankees in 1988, he wore his #1, which had been retired in his honor in 1986.[43]

Other honorees

In addition to baseball related recognitions, the Knights of Columbus donated plaques in honor of the Masses celebrated at Yankee Stadium by Pope Paul VI on October 4, 1965; Pope John Paul II on October 2, 1979; and Pope Benedict XVI on April 20, 2008.[47] The Yankees also dedicated a monument to the victims and rescue workers of the September 11 attacks on September 11, 2002, the first anniversary of the attacks.[48] The Yankees dedicated a plaque to Nelson Mandela on April 16, 2014, to commemorate his life and 1990 visit to Yankee Stadium.[49][50][51][b] On June 25, 2019, the Yankees dedicated a plaque commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Inn Uprising, which sparked the modern day movement for LGBT rights in the United States.[52]

Image gallery


Monument Park from the stadium's pressbox


Miller Huggins's Monument


Lou Gehrig's Monument


Babe Ruth's Monument


Mickey Mantle's Monument


Joe DiMaggio's Monument


Jacob Ruppert's Plaque


The September 11 Monument

Yankee Stadium II Center Field

Monument Park and surrounding area

Roger Maris Plaque

Roger Maris's plaque

Elston Howard Plaque

Elston Howard's plaque

Ed Barrow plaque

Ed Barrow's plaque

Joe McCarthy Plaque

Joe McCarthy's plaque

Whitey Ford Plaque

Whitey Ford's plaque

See also


  1. ^ Rededicated September 22, 2013
  2. ^ The ceremony was scheduled for April 15, which is Jackie Robinson Day, but it was delayed by rain.[51]


  1. ^ a b Moses, David (July 10, 2004). "Ruffing finally gets his plaque". Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  2. ^ "Results in Major Sports Yesterday". The New York Times. May 31, 1932. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  3. ^ a b Red, Christian (June 7, 2008). "Yankee Stadium's Monument Park: Stories of place where legends go". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
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  5. ^ Migoya, David (July 13, 2008). "Yankee Stadium>> In its final season, "The House That Ruth Built" hosts the All-Star Game at 6 p.m. Tuesday, KDVR-31". The Denver Post. p. C-09. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
  6. ^ a b c Sandomir, Richard (September 21, 2010). "Everyone Agrees: Steinbrenner's Plaque Is Big". The New York Times. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  7. ^ DiComo, Anthony (November 12, 2008). "Monument of Babe Ruth removed: Artifact will make its way to new Yankee Stadium by year's end". Retrieved September 17, 2009.
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  11. ^ Brunell, Evan (August 24, 2010). "Steinbrenner to be honored in Monument Park". CBS Sports. CBS Sports. Retrieved September 11, 2010.
  12. ^ "Mayor to Speak at Unveiling Of Huggins Memorial Today". The New York Times. May 30, 1932. Retrieved August 28, 2010. (subscription required)
  13. ^ "Memorial to Lou Gehrig Unveiled". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. July 7, 1941. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  14. ^ "Yankees Will Honor Col. Jacob Ruppert". The Spokesman-Review. Associated Press. April 9, 1940. p. 13. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  15. ^ Roden, Ralph (April 20, 1949). "Six Home Teams Score Victories in Opener". St. Petersburg Times. p. 8. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
  16. ^ Hand, Jack (April 15, 1954). "Baltimore Tops List of 'Second Openers' Today". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. p. 12. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
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  18. ^ Vecsey, George (June 9, 1969). "61,157 Hearts Here Throb for Mantle as No. 7 Joins 3, 4 and 5 in Retirement". The New York Times. p. 61. Retrieved April 18, 2012. (subscription required)
  19. ^ Wallace, William N. (April 21, 1976). "Yanks Top White Sox, 5–4, As Shirt Dispute Flares; Yankees Win, 5–4, In a Shirt Battle". The New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
  20. ^ "To Honor Casey". The Bryan Times. United Press International. October 2, 1975. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  21. ^ "Yankee Fans Pay Tribute to Catcher". Star-News. August 4, 1979. p. 3-B. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  22. ^ a b "The Man Who Beat The Babe". Waycross Journal-Herald. July 24, 1984. p. 6. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
  23. ^ Kerber, Fred (August 14, 2007). "For 'dreamer' Scooter, a moo-ving day". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  24. ^ "Yanks Retire Martin's Number". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. August 11, 1986. p. 5C. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  25. ^ a b Noble, Marty (August 3, 1987). "Well, 2 Out of 3 Ain't Bad: Yanks aren't overwhelmed by successful weekend". Newsday. Retrieved April 18, 2012. (subscription required)
  26. ^ a b Shaughnessy, Dan (August 21, 1988). "Is Balance Of Al Power Headed West?". Boston Globe. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
  27. ^ "Yankees Honor Allie Reynolds With Plaque". Deseret News. August 27, 1989. p. 36. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  28. ^ Chass, Murray (September 1, 1997). "On Baseball — Mattingly's Monument To Effort". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  29. ^ Davidoff, Ken (July 25, 1998). "Allen Joins Yankee Immortals". The Record. Bergen County, New Jersey. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  30. ^ Madden, Bill (May 8, 2000). "For Once, Sheppard Is Speechless: Yanks hail keeper of names". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  31. ^ Lupica, Mike (July 6, 2002). "Reggie Means World To Yanks". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  32. ^ "Baseball — Yankees Pay Tribute to Guidry". The New York Times. August 24, 2003. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  33. ^ a b "ESPN — Yankees honor Robinson — MLB". April 18, 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
  34. ^ Marchand, Andrew (September 20, 2010). "Yanks unveil Steinbrenner monument". ESPN. Retrieved September 20, 2010.
  35. ^ Feinsand, Mark (September 22, 2013). "Yankees retire Mariano Rivera's No. 42 in Monument Park during pregame ceremony". Daily News (New York). Retrieved September 22, 2013.
  36. ^ a b c d "Yankees to honor Joe Torre, Rich "Goose" Gossage, Tino Martinez, and Paul O'Neill in 2014 with plaques in Monument Park; Torre's uniform no. 6 to also be retired: Ceremonies are part of a recognition series that will include Bernie Williams in 2015". (Press release). May 8, 2014. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
  37. ^ Corcoran, Cliff (May 22, 2015). "Jersey retirement a chance to finally appreciate Bernie Williams: Five-time All-Star Bernie Williams to have number retired by Yankees". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved May 24, 2015.
  38. ^ "Willie Randolph being honored at Old-Timers' Day on Saturday – The LoHud Yankees Blog". The LoHud Yankees Blog. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
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  41. ^ O'Brien, Charles (August 23, 2015). "Yankees honor Pettitte by retiring his No. 46". The Charlotte Observer. Associated Press. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
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  43. ^ a b Callahan, Maureen (March 30, 2014). "Jeter's retirement marks end of Yanks' single-digit numbers". New York Post. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
  44. ^ "The Official Web Site". Lou Gehrig. June 3, 1932. Archived from the original on April 18, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
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  48. ^ "Baseball plans tributes for 9/11 | News". Retrieved April 22, 2013.
  49. ^ Glasspiegel, Ryan (December 9, 2013). "The Yankees Will Honor Nelson Mandela with a Plaque in Monument Park | Extra Mustard –". Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  50. ^ "New York Yankees to honor Nelson Mandela in Monument Park – ESPN Chicago". December 9, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  51. ^ a b  . "Rainout Postpones Yankee Stadium Ceremony Honoring Nelson Mandela – NY1". Archived from the original on April 16, 2014. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  52. ^ "Yankees Unveil Monument Park Plaque Commemorating Stonewall Inn Uprising". June 25, 2019. Retrieved June 26, 2019.

Coordinates: 40°49′47.22″N 73°55′31.7″W / 40.8297833°N 73.925472°W

Babe Ruth

George Herman "Babe" Ruth Jr. (February 6, 1895 – August 16, 1948) was an American professional baseball player whose career in Major League Baseball (MLB) spanned 22 seasons, from 1914 through 1935. Nicknamed "The Bambino" and "The Sultan of Swat", he began his MLB career as a stellar left-handed pitcher for the Boston Red Sox, but achieved his greatest fame as a slugging outfielder for the New York Yankees. Ruth established many MLB batting (and some pitching) records, including career home runs (714), runs batted in (RBIs) (2,213), bases on balls (2,062), slugging percentage (.690), and on-base plus slugging (OPS) (1.164); the latter still stands as of 2019. Ruth is regarded as one of the greatest sports heroes in American culture and is considered by many to be the greatest baseball player of all time. In 1936, Ruth was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame as one of its "first five" inaugural members.

At age seven, Ruth was sent to St. Mary's Industrial School for Boys, a reformatory where he learned life lessons and baseball skills from Brother Matthias Boutlier of the Xaverian Brothers, the school's disciplinarian and a capable baseball player. In 1914, Ruth was signed to play minor-league baseball for the Baltimore Orioles but was soon sold to the Red Sox. By 1916, he had built a reputation as an outstanding pitcher who sometimes hit long home runs, a feat unusual for any player in the pre-1920 dead-ball era. Although Ruth twice won 23 games in a season as a pitcher and was a member of three World Series championship teams with the Red Sox, he wanted to play every day and was allowed to convert to an outfielder. With regular playing time, he broke the MLB single-season home run record in 1919.

After that season, Red Sox owner Harry Frazee sold Ruth to the Yankees amid controversy. The trade fueled Boston's subsequent 86-year championship drought and popularized the "Curse of the Bambino" superstition. In his 15 years with the Yankees, Ruth helped the team win seven American League (AL) pennants and four World Series championships. His big swing led to escalating home run totals that not only drew fans to the ballpark and boosted the sport's popularity but also helped usher in baseball's live-ball era, which evolved from a low-scoring game of strategy to a sport where the home run was a major factor. As part of the Yankees' vaunted "Murderers' Row" lineup of 1927, Ruth hit 60 home runs, which extended his MLB single-season record by a single home run. Ruth's last season with the Yankees was 1934; he retired from the game the following year, after a short stint with the Boston Braves. During his career, Ruth led the AL in home runs during a season 12 times.

Ruth's legendary power and charismatic personality made him a larger-than-life figure during the Roaring Twenties. During his career, he was the target of intense press and public attention for his baseball exploits and off-field penchants for drinking and womanizing. His often reckless lifestyle was tempered by his willingness to do good by visiting children at hospitals and orphanages. After his retirement as a player, he was denied the opportunity to manage a major league club, most likely due to poor behavior during parts of his playing career. In his final years, Ruth made many public appearances, especially in support of American efforts in World War II. In 1946, he became ill with nasopharyngeal cancer and died from the disease two years later. Ruth remains a part of American culture and in 2018, President Donald Trump posthumously awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Monument Park

Monument Park may refer to:

Monument Park, Colorado, USA

Monument Park, Pretoria, South Africa

Monument Park (Yankee Stadium), New York

Monument Park, Lynn Haven, Florida, USA

Monument Park, Washington, USA; westernmost point of the US/Canada border on the 49th parallel

New York Yankees Museum

The New York Yankees Museum is a sports museum located at Yankee Stadium on the main level at Gate 6. It is sponsored and presented by Bank of America and is dedicated to baseball memorabilia for the New York Yankees. It is a key attraction at the stadium, which opened in 2009.

St. Louis Cardinals Hall of Fame Museum

The St. Louis Cardinals Hall of Fame Museum is a team hall of fame located in downtown St. Louis, Missouri, representing the history, players and personnel of the professional baseball franchise St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball (MLB). It is housed within Ballpark Village, a mixed-use development and adjunct of Busch Stadium, the home stadium of the Cardinals. To date, 43 members have been enshrined within the Cardinals Hall of Fame.

The Bronx

The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U.S. state of New York. It is south of Westchester County; northeast and east of Manhattan, across the Harlem River; and north of Queens, across the East River. Since 1914, the borough has had the same boundaries as Bronx County, the third-most densely populated county in the United States.The Bronx has a land area of 42 square miles (109 km2) and a population of 1,471,160 in 2017. Of the five boroughs, it has the fourth-largest area, fourth-highest population, and third-highest population density. It is the only borough predominantly on the U.S. mainland.

The Bronx is divided by the Bronx River into a hillier section in the west, and a flatter eastern section. East and west street names are divided by Jerome Avenue. The West Bronx was annexed to New York City in 1874, and the areas east of the Bronx River in 1895. Bronx County was separated from New York County in 1914. About a quarter of the Bronx's area is open space, including Woodlawn Cemetery, Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, the New York Botanical Garden, and the Bronx Zoo in the borough's north and center. These open spaces are situated primarily on land deliberately reserved in the late 19th century as urban development progressed north and east from Manhattan.

The name Bronx originated with Swedish-born Jonas Bronck, who established the first settlement in the area as part of the New Netherland colony in 1639. The native Lenape were displaced after 1643 by settlers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Bronx received many immigrant and migrant groups as it was transformed into an urban community, first from various European countries (particularly Ireland, Germany, and Italy) and later from the Caribbean region (particularly Puerto Rico, Haiti, Jamaica, and the Dominican Republic), as well as African American migrants from the southern United States. This cultural mix has made The Bronx a wellspring of Latin music, hip hop and rock.

The Bronx contains the poorest congressional district in the United States, the 15th. There are, however, some upper-income, and middle-income neighborhoods such as Riverdale, Fieldston, Spuyten Duyvil, Schuylerville, Pelham Bay, Pelham Gardens, Morris Park, and Country Club. The Bronx saw a sharp decline in population, livable housing, and quality of life in the late 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s culminating in a wave of arson. In addition, the South Bronx saw severe urban decay. The Bronx experienced some redevelopment starting in the 1990s.

Monument Park
Key personnel
Championships (27)
American League
Pennants (40)
Division titles (17)
Wild Card titles (7)


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