Montreal

Montreal (/ˌmʌntriˈɔːl/ (listen) MUN-tree-AWL;[14] French: [mɔ̃ʁeal] (listen); officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada (after Toronto). Originally called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary",[15] it is named after Mount Royal,[16] the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city,[17][18] and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with warm to hot summers and cold, snowy winters.[19]

In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694.[9] Montreal's metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927[11] and a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, with all of the municipalities on the Island of Montreal included.[9] French is the city's official language[20][21] and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages (in the 2016 census, not including multi-language responses).[9] In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.[11] The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French.[9] Montreal is the second-largest primarily French-speaking city in the world, after Paris.[22][23][24][25] It is situated 258 kilometres (160 mi) south-west of Quebec City.

Historically the commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s.[26] It remains an important centre of commerce, aerospace, transport, finance, pharmaceuticals, technology, design, education, art, culture, tourism, food, fashion, gaming, film, and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America,[27] serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, and was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006.[28][29] In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking,[30] and the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings.[31]

Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.[32][33] It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as a Alpha− world city.[34] As of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One,[35] the Montreal International Jazz Festival[36] and the Just for Laughs festival.[37]

Montréal

Montréal  (French)
City of Montreal
Ville de Montréal  (French)
From top to bottom, left to right: Downtown Montreal, Notre-Dame Basilica, Olympic Stadium, McGill University, Old Montreal featuring the Clock Tower and Jacques Cartier Bridge at the Fireworks Festival, Saint Joseph's Oratory
Flag of Montréal

Flag
Coat of arms of Montréal
Coat of arms
Official logo of Montréal
Wordmark
Nickname(s): 
Motto(s): 
Concordia Salus ("well-being through harmony")
Montréal is located in Quebec
Montréal
Montréal
Location within Quebec
Montréal is located in Canada
Montréal
Montréal
Location within Canada
Montréal is located in North America
Montréal
Montréal
Location within North America
Coordinates: 45°30′32″N 73°33′42″W / 45.50889°N 73.56167°WCoordinates: 45°30′32″N 73°33′42″W / 45.50889°N 73.56167°W
CountryCanada
ProvinceQuebec
RegionMontreal
UAUrban agglomeration of Montreal
FoundedMay 17, 1642
Incorporated1832
ConstitutedJanuary 1, 2002
Boroughs
Government
 • TypeMontreal City Council
 • MayorValérie Plante
 • Federal riding
 • Prov. riding
 • MPs
Area
 • City431.50 km2 (166.60 sq mi)
 • Land365.13 km2 (140.98 sq mi)
 • Urban1,545.30 km2 (596.64 sq mi)
 • Metro4,258.31 km2 (1,644.14 sq mi)
Highest elevation
233 m (764 ft)
Lowest elevation
6 m (20 ft)
Population
(2016)[9]
 • City1,704,694
 • Density3,889.8/km2 (10,075/sq mi)
 • Urban3,519,595
 • Urban density2,719.9/km2 (7,045/sq mi)
 • Metro4,098,927 (2nd)
 • Metro density890.2/km2 (2,306/sq mi)
 • Pop 2011–2016
Increase 2.9%
 • Dwellings
939,112
Demonym(s)Montrealer
Montréalais(e)[12]
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Postal code(s)
H (except H7 for Laval)
Area code(s)514 and 438
GDPUS$155.9 billion[13]
GDP per capitaUS$38,867[13]
Websiteville.montreal.qc.ca

Name

In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi. It is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's southwest or Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide".

In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang[38] which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy.

The city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary",[15] named for the Virgin Mary.[39] Its current name comes from Mount Royal,[16] the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal, (Mont Royal in modern French, although in 16th-century French the terms réal and royal were used interchangeably); Cartier's 1535 diary entry, naming the mountain, refers to le mont Royal.[40] A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real;[41] this misconception has been dismissed by the Commission de toponymie du Québec.[40]

History

Pre-European contact

Jacques Cartier a Hochelaga
Jacques Cartier at Hochelaga. Arriving in 1535, Cartier was the first European to visit the area.

Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago.[42] By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages.[43] The Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnicity distinct from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee then based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century.[44] The French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, and estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people".[44] Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have effectively been removed.

Early European settlement (1600–1760)

Seventy years later, the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley. This is believed to be due to outmigration, epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars.[44][45] In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site initially named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands.[46] On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary who was seeking the viceroyship of New France.[47] In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives.

Capitulation Montreal
French authorities surrender the city of Montreal to the British after the Articles of Capitulation was signed in 1760.

Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, then 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury. The colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, and arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal island, with Maisonneuve as its first governor. The settlement included a chapel and a hospital, under the command of Jeanne Mance.[48] By 1643, Ville-Marie had already been attacked by Iroquois raids. In the spring of 1651, the Iroquois attacks became so frequent and so violent that Ville Marie thought its end had come. Maisonneuve made all the settlers take refuge in the fort. By 1652 the colony at Montreal had been so reduced that he was forced to return to France to raise 100 volunteers to go with him to the colony the following year. If the effort had failed, Montreal was to be abandoned and the survivors re-located downriver to Quebec City. Before these 100 arrived in the fall of 1653, the population of Montreal was barely 50 people.

By 1685 Ville Marie was home to some 600 colonists, most of them living in modest wooden houses. Ville Marie became a centre for the fur trade and a base for further exploration.[48] In 1689 the English-allied Iroquois attacked Lachine on the Island of Montreal, committing the worst massacre in the history of New France.[49] By the early 18th century, the Sulpician Order was established there. To encourage French settlement, they wanted the Mohawk to move away from the fur trading post at Ville Marie. They had a mission village, known as Kahnewake, south of the St Lawrence River. The fathers persuaded some Mohawk to make a new settlement at their former hunting grounds north of the Ottawa River. This became Kanesatake.[50] In 1745 several Mohawk families moved upriver to create another settlement, known as Akwesasne. All three are now Mohawk reserves in Canada. The Canadian territory was ruled as a French colony until 1760, when it was surrendered to Great Britain after the Seven Years' War.[51]

Ville Marie was the name for the settlement that appeared in all official documents until 1705, when Montreal appeared for the first time, although people referred to the "Island of Montreal" long before then.[52]

Modern history (1761–present)

Lachine Canal, Montreal, 1826
View of Lachine Canal in 1826, a year after it opened. It bypassed the rapids west of the city, linking Montreal with other continental markets.

Montreal was incorporated as a city in 1832.[53] The opening of the Lachine Canal permitted ships to bypass the unnavigable Lachine Rapids,[54] while the construction of the Victoria Bridge established Montreal as a major railway hub. The leaders of Montreal's business community had started to build their homes in the Golden Square Mile (~2.6 km2) from about 1850. By 1860, it was the largest municipality in British North America and the undisputed economic and cultural centre of Canada.[55][56]

In the 19th century maintaining Montreal's drinking water became increasingly difficult with the rapid increase in population. A majority of the drinking water was still coming from the city's harbor, which was busy and heavily trafficked leading to the deterioration of the water within. In the mid 1840s the City of Montreal installed a water system that would pump water from the St. Lawrence and into cisterns. The cisterns would then be transported to the desired location. This was not the first water system of its type in Montreal as there had been one in private ownership since 1801. In the middle of the 19th century water distribution was carried out by "fontainiers". The fountainiers would open and close water valves outside of buildings, as directed, all over the city. As they lacked modern plumbing systems it was impossible to connect all buildings at once and it also acted as a conservation method. The population was not finished rising yet however, from 58,000 in 1852 it rose to 267,000 by 1901.[57][58][59]

Incendie Parlement Montreal
Political protests from Tories led to the burning of the Parliament Buildings in Montreal in 1849.

Montreal was the capital of the Province of Canada from 1844 to 1849, but lost its status when a Tory mob burnt down the Parliament building to protest the passage of the Rebellion Losses Bill.[60] For strategic reasons, Queen Victoria herself established Ottawa as the capital. The reasons were twofold; as it was located more in the interior of the nation, it was less susceptible to US attack. Perhaps more importantly, as it lay on the border between French and English Canada, the small town of Ottawa was seen as a compromise between Montreal, Toronto, Kingston and Quebec City, who were all vying to become the young nation's official capital.

An internment camp was set up at Immigration Hall in Montreal from August 1914 to November 1918.[61]

After World War I, the prohibition movement in the United States led to Montreal becoming a destination for Americans looking for alcohol.[62] Unemployment remained high in the city, and was exacerbated by the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression.[63]

Anti-conscription parade at Victoria Square
An anti-conscription rally in Montreal, 1917. During both World Wars, the city saw protest against the implementation of conscription.

During World War II, Mayor Camillien Houde protested against conscription and urged Montrealers to disobey the federal government's registry of all men and women.[64] The Government, part of the Allied forces, was furious over Houde's stand and held him at a prison camp until 1944.[65] That year the government decided to institute conscription to expand the armed forces and fight the Nazis. (See Conscription Crisis of 1944.)[64]

Montreal was the official residence of the Luxembourg royal family in exile during World War II.[66]

By 1951 Montreal's population had surpassed one million.[67] However, Toronto's growth had begun challenging Montreal's status as the economic capital of Canada. Indeed, the volume of stocks traded at the Toronto Stock Exchange had already surpassed that traded at the Montreal Stock Exchange in the 1940s.[68] The Saint Lawrence Seaway opened in 1959, allowing vessels to bypass Montreal. In time this development led to the end of the city's economic dominance as businesses moved to other areas.[69] During the 1960s there was continued growth, including the World's Fair known as Expo 67, and the construction of Canada's tallest skyscrapers, new expressways and the subway system known as the Montreal Metro.

Stephane Prefontaine, Sandra Henderson 1976
Lighting of the Olympic Torch inside Montreal's Olympic Stadium. The city hosted the 1976 Summer Olympics.

The 1970s ushered in a period of wide-ranging social and political changes, stemming largely from the concerns of the French speaking majority about the conservation of their culture and language, given the traditional predominance of the English Canadian minority in the business arena.[70] The October Crisis and the 1976 election of the Parti Québécois, supporting sovereign status for Quebec, resulted in the departure of many businesses and people from the city.[71] In 1976 Montreal was the host of the Olympics.[72] During the 1980s and early 1990s, Montreal experienced a slower rate of economic growth than many other major Canadian cities. Montreal was the site of the 1989 École Polytechnique massacre, Canada's worst mass shooting, where 25-year-old Marc Lépine shot and killed 14 people, all of them women, and wounding 14 other people before shooting himself at École Polytechnique.

Montreal was merged with the 27 surrounding municipalities on the Island of Montreal on January 1, 2002, creating a unified city covering the entire island. There was great resistance from the suburbs to the merger, with the perception being that it was forced on the mostly English suburbs by the Parti Québécois. As expected, this move proved unpopular and several mergers were later rescinded. Several former municipalities, totalling 13% of the population of the island, voted to leave the unified city in separate referendums in June 2004. The demerger took place on January 1, 2006, leaving 15 municipalities on the island, including Montreal. De-merged municipalities remain affiliated with the city through an agglomeration council that collects taxes from them to pay for numerous shared services.[73] The 2002 mergers were not the first in the city's history. Montreal annexed 27 other cities, towns, and villages beginning with Hochelaga in 1883 with the last prior to 2002 being Pointe-aux-Trembles in 1982.

The 21st century has brought with it a revival of the city's economic and cultural landscape. The construction of new residential skyscrapers, two super-hospitals (the Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal and McGill University Health Centre), the creation of the Quartier des Spectacles, reconstruction of the Turcot Interchange, reconfiguration of the Decarie and Dorval interchanges, construction of the new Réseau électrique métropolitain, gentrification of Griffintown, subway line extensions and the purchase of new subway cars, the complete revitalization and expansion of Trudeau International Airport, the completion of Quebec Autoroute 30, the reconstruction of the Champlain Bridge, and the construction of a new toll bridge to Laval are helping Montreal continue to grow.

Geography

Montreal Canada from ISS014
The island of Montreal at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa rivers.

Montreal is in the southwest of the province of Quebec. The city covers most of the Island of Montreal at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers. The port of Montreal lies at one end of the Saint Lawrence Seaway, the river gateway that stretches from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic.[74] Montreal is defined by its location between the Saint Lawrence river to its south and the Rivière des Prairies to its north. The city is named after the most prominent geographical feature on the island, a three-head hill called Mount Royal, topped at 232 metres (761 feet) above sea level.[75]

Montreal is at the centre of the Montreal Metropolitan Community, and is bordered by the city of Laval to the north; Longueuil, Saint-Lambert, Brossard, and other municipalities to the south; Repentigny to the east and the West Island municipalities to the west. The anglophone enclaves of Westmount, Montreal West, Hampstead, Côte Saint-Luc, the Town of Mount Royal and the francophone enclave Montreal East are all surrounded by Montreal.[76]

Climate

Montreal is classified as a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfa/Dfb).[77][78] Summers are, on the whole, warm and humid with a daily maximum average of 26 to 27 °C (79 to 81 °F) in July; temperatures in excess of 30 °C (86 °F) are common. Conversely, cold fronts can bring crisp, drier and windy weather in the early and later parts of summer.

Montreal Winter Snowing
Winters in Montreal bring cold, snowy, windy, and at times, icy weather.

Winter brings cold, snowy, windy, and, at times, icy weather, with a daily average ranging from −10.5 to −9 °C (13 to 16 °F) in January. However, some winter days rise above freezing, allowing for rain on an average of 4 days in January and February each. Usually, snow covering some or all bare ground lasts on average from the first or second week of December until the last week of March.[79] While the air temperature does not fall below −30 °C (−22 °F) every year,[80] the wind chill often makes the temperature feel this low to exposed skin.

Spring and fall are pleasantly mild but prone to drastic temperature changes; spring even more so than fall.[81] Late season heat waves as well as "Indian summers" are possible. Early and late season snow storms can occur in November and March, and more rarely in April. Montreal is generally snow free from late April to late October. However, snow can fall in early to mid-October as well as early to mid-May on rare occasions.

The lowest temperature in Environment Canada's books was −37.8 °C (−36 °F) on January 15, 1957, and the highest temperature was 37.6 °C (99.7 °F) on August 1, 1975, both at Dorval International Airport.[82]

Before modern weather record keeping (which dates back to 1871 for McGill),[83] a minimum temperature almost 5 degrees lower was recorded at 7 a.m. on January 10, 1859, where it registered at −42 °C (−44 °F).[84]

Annual precipitation is around 1,000 mm (39 in), including an average of about 210 cm (83 in) of snowfall, which occurs from November through March. Thunderstorms are common in the period beginning in late spring through summer to early fall; additionally, tropical storms or their remnants can cause heavy rains and gales. Montreal averages 2,050 hours of sunshine annually, with summer being the sunniest season, though slightly wetter than the others in terms of total precipitation—mostly from thunderstorms.[85]

Climate data for Montreal (Montréal-Trudeau Airport), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1941–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high humidex 13.5 14.7 28.0 33.8 39.7 45.0 45.8 46.8 42.8 33.5 24.6 18.1 46.8
Record high °C (°F) 13.9
(57.0)
15.0
(59.0)
25.8
(78.4)
30.0
(86.0)
34.7
(94.5)
35.0
(95.0)
35.6
(96.1)
37.6
(99.7)
33.5
(92.3)
28.3
(82.9)
21.7
(71.1)
18.0
(64.4)
37.6
(99.7)
Average high °C (°F) −5.3
(22.5)
−3.2
(26.2)
2.5
(36.5)
11.6
(52.9)
18.9
(66.0)
23.9
(75.0)
26.3
(79.3)
25.3
(77.5)
20.6
(69.1)
13.0
(55.4)
5.9
(42.6)
−1.4
(29.5)
11.5
(52.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −9.7
(14.5)
−7.7
(18.1)
−2
(28)
6.4
(43.5)
13.4
(56.1)
18.6
(65.5)
21.2
(70.2)
20.1
(68.2)
15.5
(59.9)
8.5
(47.3)
2.1
(35.8)
−5.4
(22.3)
6.8
(44.2)
Average low °C (°F) −14
(7)
−12.2
(10.0)
−6.5
(20.3)
1.2
(34.2)
7.9
(46.2)
13.2
(55.8)
16.1
(61.0)
14.8
(58.6)
10.3
(50.5)
3.9
(39.0)
−1.7
(28.9)
−9.3
(15.3)
2.0
(35.6)
Record low °C (°F) −37.8
(−36.0)
−33.9
(−29.0)
−29.4
(−20.9)
−15
(5)
−4.4
(24.1)
0.0
(32.0)
6.1
(43.0)
3.3
(37.9)
−2.2
(28.0)
−7.2
(19.0)
−19.4
(−2.9)
−32.4
(−26.3)
−37.8
(−36.0)
Record low wind chill −49.1 −46 −42.9 −26.3 −9.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 −4.8 −10.9 −30.7 −46 −49.1
Average precipitation mm (inches) 77.2
(3.04)
62.7
(2.47)
69.1
(2.72)
82.2
(3.24)
81.2
(3.20)
87.0
(3.43)
89.3
(3.52)
94.1
(3.70)
83.1
(3.27)
91.3
(3.59)
96.4
(3.80)
86.8
(3.42)
1,000.3
(39.38)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 27.3
(1.07)
20.9
(0.82)
29.7
(1.17)
67.7
(2.67)
81.2
(3.20)
87.0
(3.43)
89.3
(3.52)
94.1
(3.70)
83.1
(3.27)
89.1
(3.51)
76.7
(3.02)
38.8
(1.53)
784.9
(30.90)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 49.5
(19.5)
41.2
(16.2)
36.2
(14.3)
12.9
(5.1)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
1.8
(0.7)
19.0
(7.5)
48.9
(19.3)
209.5
(82.5)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 16.7 13.7 13.6 12.9 13.6 13.3 12.3 11.6 11.1 13.3 14.8 16.3 163.3
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 4.2 4.0 6.9 11.6 13.6 13.3 12.3 11.6 11.1 13.0 11.7 5.9 119.1
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 15.3 12.1 9.1 3.2 0.07 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.72 5.4 13.0 58.9
Average relative humidity (%) (at 1500) 68.1 63.4 58.3 51.9 51.4 55.3 56.1 56.8 59.7 62.0 68.0 71.4 60.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 101.2 127.8 164.3 178.3 228.9 240.3 271.5 246.3 182.2 143.5 83.6 83.6 2,051.3
Percent possible sunshine 35.7 43.7 44.6 44.0 49.6 51.3 57.3 56.3 48.3 42.2 29.2 30.7 44.4
Source: Environment Canada[86][87]
Climate data for McGill University (McTavish), 1971–2000 normals, extremes 1871–present[note 1]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.8
(55.0)
15.0
(59.0)
25.9
(78.6)
30.1
(86.2)
34.2
(93.6)
34.5
(94.1)
36.6
(97.9)
35.6
(96.1)
33.5
(92.3)
28.9
(84.0)
22.2
(72.0)
17.0
(62.6)
36.6
(97.9)
Average high °C (°F) −5.4
(22.3)
−3.7
(25.3)
2.4
(36.3)
11.0
(51.8)
19.0
(66.2)
23.7
(74.7)
26.6
(79.9)
24.8
(76.6)
19.4
(66.9)
12.3
(54.1)
5.1
(41.2)
−2.3
(27.9)
11.1
(52.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −8.9
(16.0)
−7.2
(19.0)
−1.2
(29.8)
7.0
(44.6)
14.5
(58.1)
19.3
(66.7)
22.3
(72.1)
20.8
(69.4)
15.7
(60.3)
9.2
(48.6)
2.5
(36.5)
−5.6
(21.9)
7.4
(45.3)
Average low °C (°F) −12.4
(9.7)
−10.6
(12.9)
−4.8
(23.4)
2.9
(37.2)
10.0
(50.0)
14.9
(58.8)
17.9
(64.2)
16.7
(62.1)
11.9
(53.4)
5.9
(42.6)
−0.2
(31.6)
−8.9
(16.0)
3.6
(38.5)
Record low °C (°F) −33.5
(−28.3)
−33.3
(−27.9)
−28.9
(−20.0)
−17.8
(0.0)
−5
(23)
1.1
(34.0)
7.8
(46.0)
6.1
(43.0)
0.0
(32.0)
−7.2
(19.0)
−27.8
(−18.0)
−33.9
(−29.0)
−33.9
(−29.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 73.6
(2.90)
70.9
(2.79)
80.2
(3.16)
76.9
(3.03)
86.5
(3.41)
87.5
(3.44)
106.2
(4.18)
100.6
(3.96)
100.8
(3.97)
84.3
(3.32)
93.6
(3.69)
101.5
(4.00)
1,062.5
(41.83)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 28.4
(1.12)
22.7
(0.89)
42.2
(1.66)
65.2
(2.57)
86.5
(3.41)
87.5
(3.44)
106.2
(4.18)
100.6
(3.96)
100.8
(3.97)
82.1
(3.23)
68.9
(2.71)
44.4
(1.75)
834.9
(32.87)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 45.9
(18.1)
46.6
(18.3)
36.8
(14.5)
11.8
(4.6)
0.4
(0.2)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
2.2
(0.9)
24.9
(9.8)
57.8
(22.8)
226.2
(89.1)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 15.8 12.8 13.6 12.5 12.9 13.8 12.3 13.4 12.7 13.1 15.0 16.2 163.9
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 4.3 4.0 7.4 10.9 12.8 13.8 12.3 13.4 12.7 12.7 11.5 6.5 122.2
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 13.6 11.1 8.3 3.0 0.14 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.62 5.3 12.0 53.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 99.2 119.5 158.8 181.7 229.8 250.1 271.6 230.7 174.1 138.6 80.4 80.7 2,015.2
Source: Environment Canada,[88][89][90][91][92][93][94] record maximum[95][96]

Architecture

Vieux-Montréal (525744602)
Many colonial era buildings can be found in Old Montreal with several dating as far back as the late 17th century.

For over a century and a half, Montreal was the industrial and financial centre of Canada.[97] This legacy has left a variety of buildings including factories, elevators, warehouses, mills, and refineries, that today provide an invaluable insight into the city's history, especially in the downtown area and the Old Port area. There are 50 National Historic Sites of Canada, more than any other city.[98]

Some of the city's earliest still-standing buildings date back to the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Although most are clustered around the Old Montreal area, such as the Sulpician Seminary adjacent to Notre Dame Basilica that dates back to 1687, and Château Ramezay, which was built in 1705, examples of early colonial architecture are dotted throughout the city. Situated in Lachine, the Le Ber-Le Moyne House is the oldest complete building in the city. In Point St. Charles visitors can see the Maison Saint-Gabriel, which can trace its history back to 1698.[99] There are many historic buildings in Old Montreal in their original form: Notre Dame of Montreal Basilica, Bonsecours Market, and the 19th‑century headquarters of all major Canadian banks on St. James Street (French: Rue Saint Jacques). Montreal's earliest buildings are characterized by their uniquely French influence and grey stone construction.

Habitat-67 side view with holes visible in the structure
Habitat 67 is a model community and housing complex developed for Expo 67 World Fair.

Saint Joseph's Oratory, completed in 1967, Ernest Cormier's Art Deco Université de Montréal main building, the landmark Place Ville Marie office tower, the controversial Olympic Stadium and surrounding structures, are but a few notable examples of the city's 20th-century architecture. Pavilions designed for the 1967 International and Universal Exposition, popularly known as Expo 67, featured a wide range of architectural designs. Though most pavilions were temporary structures, several have become landmarks, including Buckminster Fuller's geodesic dome U.S. Pavilion, now the Montreal Biosphere, and Moshe Safdie's striking Habitat 67 apartment complex.

The Montreal Metro has public artwork by some of the biggest names in Quebec culture.

In 2006 Montreal was named a UNESCO City of Design, only one of three design capitals of the world (the others being Berlin and Buenos Aires).[28] This distinguished title recognizes Montreal's design community. Since 2005 the city has been home for the International Council of Graphic Design Associations (Icograda);[100] the International Design Alliance (IDA).[101]

The Underground City (officially RESO) is an important tourist attraction. It is the set of interconnected shopping complexes (both above and below ground). This impressive network connects pedestrian thoroughfares to universities, as well as hotels, restaurants, bistros, subway stations and more, in and around downtown with 32 kilometres (20 miles) of tunnels over twelve square kilometres (4.6 square miles) of the most densely populated part of Montreal.

Neighbourhoods

ArrondissementsQuartiersMontreal
Map of neighbourhoods on the island of Montreal.

The city is composed of 19 large boroughs, subdivided into neighbourhoods.[102] The boroughs are: Côte-des-Neiges–Notre-Dame-de-Grace, The Plateau Mount Royal, Outremont and Ville Marie in the centre; Mercier–Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, Rosemont–La Petite-Patrie and Villeray–Saint-Michel–Parc-Extension in the east; Anjou, Montréal-Nord, Rivière-des-Prairies–Pointe-aux-Trembles and Saint-Leonard in the northeast; Ahuntsic-Cartierville, L'Île-Bizard–Sainte-Geneviève, Pierrefonds-Roxboro and Saint-Laurent in the northwest; and Lachine, LaSalle, The South West and Verdun in the south.

Many of these boroughs were independent cities that were forced to be merged with Montreal in January 2002 following the 2002 Municipal Reorganization of Montreal.

Montreal August 2017 05
A view of Downtown Montreal from Mont Royal. Many neighbourhoods, including downtown, are located in the borough of Ville-Marie.

The borough with the most neighbourhoods is Ville Marie, which includes downtown, the historical district of Old Montreal, Chinatown, the Gay Village, the Latin Quarter, the gentrified Quartier international and Cité Multimédia as well as the Quartier des Spectacles which is under development. Other neighbourhoods of interest in the borough include the affluent Golden Square Mile neighbourhood at the foot of Mount Royal and the Shaughnessy Village/Concordia U area home to thousands of students at Concordia University. The borough also comprises most of Mount Royal Park, Saint Helen's Island, and Notre-Dame Island.

The Plateau Mount Royal borough was a working class francophone area. The largest neighbourhood is the Plateau (not to be confused with the whole borough), which is undergoing considerable gentrification,[103] and a 2001 study deemed it as Canada's most creative neighbourhood because artists comprise 8% of its labour force.[104] The neighbourhood of Mile End in the northwestern part of the borough, has been a very multicultural area of the city, and features two of Montreal's well-known bagel establishments, St-Viateur Bagel and Fairmount Bagel. The McGill Ghetto is in the extreme southwestern portion of the borough, its name being derived from the fact that it is home to thousands of McGill University students and faculty members.

The South West borough was home to much of the city's industry during the late 19th and early-to-mid 20th century. The borough included Goose Village and is home to the traditionally working-class Irish neighbourhoods of Griffintown and Point Saint Charles as well as the low-income neighbourhoods of Saint Henri and Little Burgundy.

Other notable neighbourhoods include the multicultural areas of Notre-Dame-de-Grâce and Côte-des-Neiges in the Côte-des-Neiges–Notre-Dame-de-Grace borough, and Little Italy in the borough of Rosemont–La Petite-Patrie and Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, home of the Olympic Stadium in the borough of Mercier–Hochelaga-Maisonneuve.

Old Montreal

Place Jacques-Cartier Jan 2006
Place Jacques-Cartier is a major public square and attraction in Old Montreal.

Old Montreal is a historic area southeast of downtown containing many attractions such as the Old Port of Montreal, Place Jacques-Cartier, Montreal City Hall, the Bonsecours Market, Place d'Armes, Pointe-à-Callière Museum, the Notre-Dame de Montréal Basilica, and the Montreal Science Centre.

Architecture and cobbled streets in Old Montreal have been maintained or restored and are frequented by horse-drawn buggies carrying tourists. Old Montreal is accessible from the downtown core via the underground city and is served by several STM bus routes and Metro stations, ferries to the South Shore and a network of bicycle paths.

The riverside area adjacent to Old Montreal is known as the Old Port. The Old Port was the site of the Port of Montreal, but its shipping operations have been moved to a larger site downstream, leaving the former location as a recreational and historical area maintained by Parks Canada. The new Port of Montreal is Canada's largest container port and the largest inland port on Earth.[105]

Mount Royal

The mountain is the site of Mount Royal Park, one of Montreal's largest greenspaces. The park, most of which is wooded, was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, who also designed New York's Central Park, and was inaugurated in 1876.[106]

Mtroyal
View of Mont-Royal's eastern slope from the George-Étienne Cartier monument. The park is one of Montreal's largest open space reserves.

The park contains two belvederes, the more prominent of which is the Kondiaronk Belvedere, a semicircular plaza with a chalet overlooking Downtown Montreal. Other features of the park are Beaver Lake, a small man-made lake, a short ski slope, a sculpture garden, Smith House, an interpretive centre, and a well-known monument to Sir George-Étienne Cartier. The park hosts athletic, tourist and cultural activities.

The mountain is home to two major cemeteries, Notre-Dame-des-Neiges (founded in 1854) and Mount Royal (1852). Mount Royal Cemetery is a 165 acres (67 ha) terraced cemetery on the north slope of Mount Royal in the borough of Outremont. Notre Dame des Neiges Cemetery is much larger, predominantly French-Canadian and officially Catholic.[107] More than 900,000 people are buried there.[108]

Mount Royal Cemetery contains more than 162,000 graves and is the final resting place for a number of notable Canadians. It includes a veterans section with several soldiers who were awarded the British Empire's highest military honour, the Victoria Cross. In 1901 the Mount Royal Cemetery Company established the first crematorium in Canada.[109]

The first cross on the mountain was placed there in 1643 by Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, the founder of the city, in fulfilment of a vow he made to the Virgin Mary when praying to her to stop a disastrous flood.[106] Today, the mountain is crowned by a 31.4 m-high (103 ft) illuminated cross, installed in 1924 by the John the Baptist Society and now owned by the city.[106] It was converted to fibre optic light in 1992.[106] The new system can turn the lights red, blue, or purple, the last of which is used as a sign of mourning between the death of the Pope and the election of the next.[110]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1871 141,276—    
1881 189,168+33.9%
1891 271,352+43.4%
1901 347,817+28.2%
1911 533,341+53.3%
1921 693,225+30.0%
1931 959,198+38.4%
1941 1,064,653+11.0%
1951 1,247,647+17.2%
1956 1,402,704+12.4%
1961 1,607,601+14.6%
1966 1,750,969+8.9%
1971 1,765,553+0.8%
1976 1,664,527−5.7%
1981 1,554,761−6.6%
1986 1,541,251−0.9%
1991 1,553,356+0.8%
1996 1,550,369−0.2%
2001 1,583,590+2.1%
2006 1,620,639+2.3%
2011 1,649,519+1.8%
2016 1,704,694+3.3%
Based on current city limits
Source: [111][112][113]

According to Statistics Canada, at the 2016 Canadian census the city had 1,704,694 inhabitants.[114] A total of 4,098,927 lived in the Montreal Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) at the same 2016 census, up from 3,934,078 at the 2011 census (within 2011 CMA boundaries), which is a population growth of 4.19% from 2011 to 2016.[115] In the 2016 census, children under 14 years of age (691,345) constituted 16.9%, while inhabitants over 65 years of age (671,690) numbered 16.4% of the total population of the CMA.[115]

Montréal petite Italie - Jean Talon 509 (8212619147)
View of Montreal's Little Italy. Italian is the third-most spoken language in Montreal.

People of European ethnicities formed the largest cluster of ethnic groups. The largest reported European ethnicities in the 2006 census were French 23%, Italians 10%, Irish 5%, English 4%, Scottish 3%, and Spanish 2%.[116] Some 26% of the population of Montreal and 16.5% that of Greater Montreal, are members of a visible minority (non-white) group,[117] up from 5.2% in 1981.[118]

Visible minorities comprised 34.2% of the population in the 2016 census. The five most numerous visible minorities are Blacks (10.3%), Arabs, mainly Lebanese (7.3%), Latin Americans (4.1%), South Asians (3.3%), and Chinese (3.3%).[119] Visible minorities are defined by the Canadian Employment Equity Act as "persons, other than Aboriginals, who are non-white in colour".[120]

According to a report published by the city, the population of the island was expected to number 1,991,200 by 2012, with 3.9 million in the Greater Montreal Area, an increase of 15.8% over 2001. However, in 2009, the Greater Montreal Area was estimated to number 3.86 million people, suggesting that the area would surpass the four million threshold by 2012. The four million landmark however, wasn't reached until 2014. In 2015, the Greater Montreal population was estimated at 4,060,700.[121][122] According to StatsCan, by 2030, the Greater Montreal Area is expected to number 5,275,000 with 1,722,000 being visible minorities.[123]

In terms of mother language (first language learned), the 2006 census reported that in the Greater Montreal Area, 66.5% spoke French as a first language, followed by English at 13.2%, while 0.8% spoke both as a first language.[124] The remaining 22.5% of Montreal-area residents are allophones, speaking languages including Italian (3.5%), Arabic (3.1%), Spanish (2.6%), Creole (1.3%), Chinese (1.2%), Greek (1.2%), Portuguese (0.8%), Romanian (0.7%), Vietnamese (0.7%), and Russian (0.7%).[124] In terms of additional languages spoken, a unique feature of Montreal among Canadian cities, noted by Statistics Canada, is the working knowledge of both French and English possessed by most of its residents.

Canada 2016 Census[125] Population % of total population
Visible minority group South Asian 55,595 3.3%
Chinese 54,670 3.3%
Black 171,385 10.3%
Filipino 23,500 1.4%
Latin American 67,525 4.1%
Arab 122,185 7.3%
Southeast Asian 34,815 2.1%
West Asian 15,340 0.9%
Korean 4,225 0.3%
Japanese 2,505 0.2%
Other visible minority 4,750 0.3%
Mixed visible minority 12,085 0.7%
Total visible minority population 568,570 34.2%
Aboriginal group First Nations 36,565 2.2%
Métis 5,565 0.3%
Inuit 905 0.1%
Total Aboriginal population 42,225 2.5%
European Canadian 1,052,430 63.3%
Total population 1,663,225 100%
Canada Census Mother Tongue – Montreal, Quebec[126]
Census Total
French
English
French and English
Other
Year Responses Count Trend Pop % Count Trend Pop % Count Trend Pop % Count Trend Pop %
2016
1,680,910
833,280 Increase 1.75% 49.57% 208,140 Increase 0.93% 12.38% 20,705 Increase 18.79% 1.27% 559,035 Increase 4.19% 34.34%
2011
1,627,945
818,970 Decrease 1.86% 50.3% 206,210 Increase 3.1% 12.67% 17,430 Increase 44.58% 1.07% 536,560 Decrease 1.93% 32.30%
2006
1,593,725
834,520 Decrease 4.45% 52.36% 200,000 Decrease 2.92% 12.5% 12,055 Decrease 28.27% 0.75% 547,150 Increase 13.01% 34.33%
2001
1,608,024
873,564 Increase 2.07% 54.32% 206,025 Decrease 4.21% 12.81% 16,807 Increase 14.02% 1.04% 484,165 Increase 13.72% 30.1%
1996
1,569,437
855,780 n/a 54.53% 215,100 n/a 13.7% 14,740 n/a 0.94% 425,725 n/a 27.12%

The Greater Montreal Area is predominantly Roman Catholic; however, weekly attendance in Quebec is among the lowest in Canada.[128] Historically Montreal has been a centre of Catholicism in North America with its numerous seminaries and churches, including the Notre-Dame Basilica, the Cathédrale Marie-Reine-du-Monde, and Saint Joseph's Oratory. Some 65.8% of the total population is Christian,[127] largely Roman Catholic (52.8%), primarily because of descendants of original French settlers, and others of Italian and Irish origins. Protestants which include Anglican Church in Canada, United Church of Canada, Lutheran, owing to British and German immigration, and other denominations number 5.90%, with a further 3.7% consisting mostly of Orthodox Christians, fuelled by a large Greek population. There is also a number of Russian and Ukrainian Orthodox parishes. Islam is the largest non-Christian religious group, with 154,540 members,[129] the second-largest concentration of Muslims in Canada at 9.6%. The Jewish community in Montreal has a population of 90,780.[130] In cities such as Côte Saint-Luc and Hampstead, Jewish people constitute the majority, or a substantial part of the population. As recently as 1971 the Jewish community in Greater Montreal was as high as 109,480.[131] Political and economic uncertainties led many to leave Montreal and the province of Quebec.[132]

Economy

Montreal has the second-largest economy of Canadian cities based on GDP[133] and the largest in Quebec. In 2014, Metropolitan Montreal was responsible for C$118.7 billion of Quebec's C$340.7 billion GDP.[134] The city is today an important centre of commerce, finance, industry, technology, culture, world affairs and is the headquarters of the Montreal Exchange. In recent decades, the city was widely seen as weaker than that of Toronto and other major Canadian cities, but it has recently experienced a revival.[135]

Navette Montreal - Ile Charron 36
The Port of Montreal is one of the largest inland ports in the world, handling over 26 million tonnes of cargo annually.

Industries include aerospace, electronic goods, pharmaceuticals, printed goods, software engineering, telecommunications, textile and apparel manufacturing, tobacco, petrochemicals, and transportation. The service sector is also strong and includes civil, mechanical and process engineering, finance, higher education, and research and development. In 2002, Montreal was the fourth-largest centre in North America in terms of aerospace jobs.[136] The Port of Montreal is one of the largest inland ports in the world handling 26 million tonnes of cargo annually.[137] As one of the most important ports in Canada, it remains a transshipment point for grain, sugar, petroleum products, machinery, and consumer goods. For this reason, Montreal is the railway hub of Canada and has always been an extremely important rail city; it is home to the headquarters of the Canadian National Railway,[138] and was home to the headquarters of the Canadian Pacific Railway until 1995.[139]

The headquarters of the Canadian Space Agency is in Longueuil, southeast of Montreal.[140] Montreal also hosts the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO, a United Nations body);[141] the World Anti-Doping Agency (an Olympic body);[142] the Airports Council International (the association of the world's airports – ACI World);[143] the International Air Transport Association (IATA),[144] IATA Operational Safety Audit and the International Gay and Lesbian Chamber of Commerce (IGLCC),[145] as well as some other international organizations in various fields.

Montreal is a centre of film and television production. The headquarters of Alliance Films and five studios of the Academy Award-winning documentary producer National Film Board of Canada are in the city, as well as the head offices of Telefilm Canada, the national feature-length film and television funding agency and Télévision de Radio-Canada. Given its eclectic architecture and broad availability of film services and crew members, Montreal is a popular filming location for feature-length films, and sometimes stands in for European locations.[146][147] The city is also home to many recognized cultural, film and music festivals (Just For Laughs, Just For Laughs Gags, Montreal International Jazz Festival, Montreal World Film Festival, and others), which contribute significantly to its economy. It is also home to one of the world's largest cultural enterprises, the Cirque du Soleil.[148]

TourDeLaBourse night
Tour de la Bourse has been home to the Montreal Exchange since 1965. The Exchange is a derivatives exchange that trades futures contracts and options on equities, currencies, interest rates, and more.

Montreal is also a global hub for artificial intelligence research with many companies involved in this sector, such as Facebook AI Research (FAIR), Microsoft Research, Google Brain, DeepMind, Samsung Research and Thales Group (cortAIx).[149][150]

The video game industry has been booming in Montreal since 1997, coinciding with the opening of Ubisoft Montreal.[151] Recently, the city has attracted world leading game developers and publishers studios such as EA, Eidos Interactive, BioWare, Artificial Mind and Movement, Strategy First, THQ, Gameloft mainly because of the quality of local specialized labor, and tax credits offered to the corporations. Recently, Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment, a division of Warner Bros., announced that it would open a video game studio.[152] Relatively new to the video game industry, it will be Warner Bros. first studio opened, not purchased, and will develop games for such Warner Bros. franchises as Batman and other games from their DC Comics portfolio. The studio will create 300 jobs.

Montreal plays an important role in the finance industry. The sector employs approximately 100,000 people in the Greater Montreal Area.[153] As of March 2018, Montreal is ranked in the 13th position in the Global Financial Centres Index, a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres around the world.[154] The city is home to the Montreal Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in Canada and the only financial derivatives exchange in the country.[155] The corporate headquarters of the Bank of Montreal and Royal Bank of Canada, two of the biggest banks in Canada, were in Montreal. While both banks moved their headquarters to Toronto, Ontario, their legal corporate offices remain in Montreal. The city is home to head offices of two smaller banks, National Bank of Canada and Laurentian Bank of Canada. The Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, an instutitonal investor managing assets totalling $248 billion CAD, has its main business office in Montreal.[156] Many foreign subsidiaries operating in the financial sector also have offices in Montreal, including HSBC, Aon, Société Générale, BNP Paribas and AXA.[155][157]

Several companies are headquartered in Greater Montreal Area including Rio Tinto Alcan,[158] Bombardier Inc.,[159] Canadian National Railway,[160] CGI Group,[161] Air Canada,[162] Air Transat,[163] CAE,[164] Saputo,[165] Cirque du Soleil, Quebecor,[166] Ultramar, Kruger Inc., Jean Coutu Group,[167] Uniprix,[168] Proxim,[169] Domtar, Le Château,[170] Power Corporation, Cellcom Communications,[171] Bell Canada.[172] Standard Life,[173] Hydro-Québec, AbitibiBowater, Pratt and Whitney Canada, Molson,[174] Tembec, Canada Steamship Lines, Fednav, Alimentation Couche-Tard, SNC-Lavalin,[175] MEGA Brands,[176] Aeroplan,[177] Agropur,[178] Metro Inc.,[179] Laurentian Bank of Canada,[180] National Bank of Canada,[181] Transat A.T.,[182] Via Rail,[183] Novacam Technologies, SOLABS,[184] Dollarama,[185] Rona[186] and the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec.

The Montreal Oil Refining Centre is the largest refining centre in Canada, with companies like Petro-Canada, Ultramar, Gulf Oil, Petromont, Ashland Canada, Parachem Petrochemical, Coastal Petrochemical, Interquisa (Cepsa) Petrochemical, Nova Chemicals, and more. Shell decided to close the refining centre in 2010, throwing hundreds out of work and causing an increased dependence on foreign refineries for eastern Canada.

Culture

Montreal was referred to as "Canada's Cultural Capital" by Monocle magazine.[29] The city is Canada's centre for French-language television productions, radio, theatre, film, multimedia, and print publishing. Montreal's many cultural communities have given it a distinct local culture.

Montreal Clock Tower, Fireworks
Montreal Fireworks Festival is the world's largest annual fireworks festival. The city hosts a number of festivals annually.

As a North American city, Montreal shares many cultural characteristics with the rest of the continent. It has a tradition of producing both jazz and rock music. The city has also produced much talent in the fields of visual arts, theatre, music, and dance. Yet, being at the confluence of the French and the English traditions, Montreal has developed a unique and distinguished cultural face. Another distinctive characteristic of cultural life is the animation of its downtown, particularly during summer, prompted by cultural and social events, particularly festivals. The city's largest festival is the Montreal International Jazz Festival, which is the largest jazz festival in the world. Other popular festivals include the Just for Laughs (largest comedy festival in the world), Montreal World Film Festival, Les FrancoFolies de Montréal, Nuits d'Afrique, Pop Montreal, Divers/Cité, Fierté Montréal and the Montreal Fireworks Festival. There are many smaller festivals, totalling over 100 each year in Montreal.

A cultural heart of classical art and the venue for many summer festivals, the Place des Arts is a complex of different concert and theatre halls surrounding a large square in the eastern portion of downtown. Place des Arts has the headquarters of one of the world's foremost orchestras, the Montreal Symphony Orchestra. The Orchestre Métropolitain du Grand Montréal and the chamber orchestra I Musici de Montréal are two other well-regarded Montreal orchestras. Also performing at Place des Arts are the Opéra de Montréal and the city's chief ballet company Les Grands Ballets Canadiens. Internationally recognized avant-garde dance troupes such as Compagnie Marie Chouinard, La La La Human Steps, O Vertigo, and the Fondation Jean-Pierre Perreault have toured the world and worked with international popular artists on videos and concerts. The unique choreography of these troupes has paved the way for the success of the world-renowned Cirque du Soleil.

Basílica de Notre-Dame, Montreal, Canadá, 2017-08-11, DD 26-28 HDR
View of the Notre-Dame Basilica from Place d'Armes. The number of churches in Montreal led it to be called "the city of a hundred steeples".

Nicknamed la ville aux cent clochers (the city of a hundred steeples), Montreal is renowned for its churches. As Mark Twain noted, "This is the first time I was ever in a city where you couldn't throw a brick without breaking a church window."[187] The city has four Roman Catholic basilicas: Mary, Queen of the World Cathedral, the aforementioned Notre-Dame Basilica, St Patrick's Basilica, and Saint Joseph's Oratory. The Oratory is the largest church in Canada, with the second largest copper dome in the world, after Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome.[188]

Sports

The most popular sport is ice hockey. The professional hockey team, the Montreal Canadiens, is one of the Original Six teams of the National Hockey League (NHL), and has won an NHL-record 24 Stanley Cup championships. The Canadiens' most recent Stanley Cup victory came in 1993. They have major rivalries with the Toronto Maple Leafs and Boston Bruins, both of which are also Original Six hockey teams, and with the Ottawa Senators, the closest team geographically. The Canadiens have played at the Bell Centre since 1996. Prior to that they played at the Montreal Forum.

CentreBell
Opened in 1996, the Bell Centre is a sports and entertainment complex, and also serves as the home arena for the Montreal Canadiens.

The Montreal Alouettes of the Canadian Football League (CFL) play at Molson Stadium on the campus of McGill University for their regular-season games. Late season and playoff games are played at the much larger, enclosed Olympic Stadium, which also played host to the 2008 Grey Cup. The Alouettes have won the Grey Cup seven times, most recently in 2010. The Alouettes has had two periods on hiatus. During the second one, the Montreal Machine played in the World League of American Football in 1991 and 1992. The McGill Redmen, Concordia Stingers, and Université de Montréal Carabins play in the CIS university football league.

Montreal has a storied baseball history. The city was the home of the minor-league Montreal Royals of the International League until 1960. In 1946 Jackie Robinson broke the baseball colour barrier with the Royals in an emotionally difficult year; Robinson was forever grateful for the local fans' fervent support.[189] Major League Baseball came to town in the form of the Montreal Expos in 1969. They played their games at Jarry Park until moving into Olympic Stadium in 1977. After 36 years in Montreal, the team relocated to Washington, D.C. in 2005 and re-branded themselves as the Washington Nationals.[190] Discussions about MLB returning to Montreal remain active.[191]

2015 Canadian GP opening lap
Montreal is the site of the Canadian Grand Prix, an annual Formula One auto race.

The Montreal Impact are the city's professional soccer team. They play at a soccer-specific stadium called Saputo Stadium. They joined North America's biggest soccer league, Major League Soccer in 2012. The Montreal games of the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup[192] and 2014 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup[193] were held at Olympic Stadium, and the venue hosted Montreal games in the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup.[194]

Montreal is the site of a high-profile auto racing event each year: the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One (F1) racing. This race takes place on the famous Circuit Gilles Villeneuve on Île Notre-Dame. In 2009, the race was dropped from the Formula One calendar, to the chagrin of some fans,[195] but the Canadian Grand Prix returned to the Formula 1 calendar in 2010. The Circuit Gilles Villeneuve also hosted a round of the Champ Car World Series from 2002–2007, and was home to the NAPA Auto Parts 200, a NASCAR Nationwide Series race, and the Montréal 200, a Grand Am Rolex Sports Car Series race.

Uniprix Stadium, built in 1993 on the site of Jarry Park, is used for the Rogers Cup men's and women's tennis tournaments. The men's tournament is a Masters 1000 event on the ATP Tour, and the women's tournament is a Premier tournament on the WTA Tour. The men's and women's tournaments alternate between Montreal and Toronto every year.[196]

Le Stade Olympique 3
The Olympic Stadium was built for the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. It is presently used by MLS's Montreal Impact for select games.

Montreal was the host of the 1976 Summer Olympic Games. The stadium cost $1.5 billion;[197] with interest that figure ballooned to nearly $3 billion, and was only paid off in December 2006.[198] Montreal also hosted the first ever World Outgames in the summer of 2006, attracting over 16,000 participants engaged in 35 sporting activities.

Montreal was the host city for the 17th unicycling world championship and convention (UNICON) in August 2014.

Montreal and the National Basketball Association (NBA) have been in early discussions for an expansion franchise located in the city.

Active professional sports teams in Montreal
Club League Sport Venue Established Championships
Montreal Canadiens NHL Ice hockey Bell Centre 1909 24
Montreal Alouettes CFL Canadian football Percival Molson Memorial Stadium
Olympic Stadium
1946 7
Montreal Impact MLS Soccer Saputo Stadium 1992 3

Media

Montreal is Canada's second-largest media market, and the centre of francophone Canada's media industry.

There are four over-the-air English-language television stations: CBMT-DT (CBC Television), CFCF-DT (CTV), CKMI-DT (Global) and CJNT-DT (City). There are also five over-the-air French-language television stations: CBFT-DT (Radio-Canada), CFTM-DT (TVA), CFJP-DT (V), CIVM-DT (Télé-Québec), and CFTU-DT (Canal Savoir).

Montreal has three daily newspapers, the English-language Montreal Gazette and the French-language Le Journal de Montréal, and Le Devoir; another French-language daily, La Presse, became an online daily in 2018. There are two free French dailies, Métro and 24 Heures. Montreal has numerous weekly tabloids and community newspapers serving various neighbourhoods, ethnic groups and schools.

Government

The head of the city government in Montreal is the mayor, who is first among equals in the city council.

Hotel de ville de Montreal 03
Completed in 1878, Montreal City Hall is the seat of local government.

The city council is a democratically elected institution and is the final decision-making authority in the city, although much power is centralized in the executive committee. The Council consists of 65 members from all boroughs.[199] The Council has jurisdiction over many matters, including public security, agreements with other governments, subsidy programs, the environment, urban planning, and a three-year capital expenditure program. The Council is required to supervise, standardize or approve certain decisions made by the borough councils.

Reporting directly to the council, the executive committee exercises decision-making powers similar to those of the cabinet in a parliamentary system and is responsible for preparing various documents including budgets and by-laws, submitted to the council for approval. The decision-making powers of the executive committee cover, in particular, the awarding of contracts or grants, the management of human and financial resources, supplies and buildings. It may also be assigned further powers by the city council.

Standing committees are the prime instruments for public consultation. They are responsible for the public study of pending matters and for making the appropriate recommendations to the council. They also review the annual budget forecasts for departments under their jurisdiction. A public notice of meeting is published in both French and English daily newspapers at least seven days before each meeting. All meetings include a public question period. The standing committees, of which there are seven, have terms lasting two years. In addition, the City Council may decide to create special committees at any time. Each standing committee is made up of seven to nine members, including a chairman and a vice-chairman. The members are all elected municipal officers, with the exception of a representative of the government of Quebec on the public security committee.

The city is only one component of the larger Montreal Metropolitan Community (Communauté Métropolitaine de Montréal, CMM), which is in charge of planning, coordinating, and financing economic development, public transportation, garbage collection and waste management, etc., across the metropolitan area. The president of the CMM is the mayor of Montreal. The CMM covers 4,360 square kilometres (1,680 sq mi), with 3.6 million inhabitants in 2006.[200]

Montreal is the seat of the judicial district of Montreal, which includes the city and the other communities on the island.[201]

Crime

The overall crime rate in Montreal has declined, with a few notable exceptions, with murders at the lowest rate since 1972 (23 murders in 2016).[202] Sex crimes have increased 14.5 percent between 2015 and 2016 and fraud cases have increased by 13 percent over the same period.[202] The major criminal organizations active in Montreal are the Rizzuto crime family, Hells Angels and West End Gang.

Education

With four universities, seven other degree-awarding institutions, and 12 CEGEPs in an 8-kilometre (5.0 mi) radius, Montreal has the highest concentration of post-secondary students of all major cities in North America (4.38 students per 100 residents, followed by Boston at 4.37 students per 100 residents).[203]

Higher education (English)

McGillArtsBuilding
Established in 1821, McGill University is the oldest operating university in Montreal.
  • McGill University is one of Canada's leading post-secondary institutions, and widely regarded as a world-class institution. In 2015, McGill was ranked as the top University in Canada for the eleventh consecutive year by Macleans,[204] and as the best University in Canada; 24th best University in the world, by the QS World University Rankings.[205]
  • Concordia University was created from the merger of Sir George Williams University and Loyola College in 1974.[206] The university has been ranked as one of the most comprehensive universities in Canada by Macleans.[207]

Higher education (French)

Université de Montréal (Roger-Gaudry)
Université de Montréal from the Montreal Metro station. The institution is the largest university in the city.

Additionally, two French-language universities, Université de Sherbrooke and Université Laval have campuses in the nearby suburb of Longueuil on Montreal's south shore. Also, l'Institut pastorale des Dominicains is Montreal's university centre of Ottawa's Collège Universitaire Dominicain/Dominican University College. The Faculté de théologie évangélique is Nova Scotia's Acadia University Montreal based serving French Protestant community in Canada by offering both a Bachelor and a Master program in theology

The education system in Quebec is different from other systems in North America. Between high school (which ends at grade 11) and university students must go through an additional school called CEGEP. CEGEPs offer pre-university (2-years) and technical (3-years) programs. In Montreal, seventeen CEGEPs offer courses in French and five in English.

English-language elementary and secondary public schools on Montreal Island are operated by the English Montreal School Board and the Lester B. Pearson School Board.[209][210] French-language elementary and secondary public schools in Montreal are operated by the Commission scolaire de Montréal (CSDM),[211] Commission scolaire Marguerite-Bourgeoys (CSMB)[212] and the Commission scolaire Pointe-de-l'Île (CSPI).[213]

Transportation

Montreal autoroute
Montreal serves as a hub for Quebec's autoroute system of controlled-access highways.

Like many major cities, Montreal has a problem with vehicular traffic congestion. Commuting traffic from the cities and towns in the West Island (such as Dollard-des-Ormeaux and Pointe-Claire) is compounded by commuters entering the city that use twenty-four road crossings from numerous off-island suburbs on the North and South Shores. The width of the Saint Lawrence River has made the construction of fixed links to the south shore expensive and difficult. There are presently four road bridges (including two of the country's busiest) along with one bridge-tunnel, two railway bridges, and a Metro line. The far narrower Rivière des Prairies to the city's north, separating Montreal from Laval, is spanned by nine road bridges (seven to the city of Laval and two that span directly to the north shore) and a Metro line. The island of Montreal is a hub for the Quebec Autoroute system, and is served by Quebec Autoroutes A-10 (known as the Bonaventure Expressway on the island of Montreal), A-15 (aka the Decarie Expressway south of the A-40 and the Laurentian Autoroute to the north of it), A-13 (aka Chomedey Autoroute), A-20, A-25, A-40 (part of the Trans-Canada Highway system, and known as "The Metropolitan" or simply "The Met" in its elevated mid-town section), A-520 and A-720 (aka the Ville-Marie Autoroute). Many of these Autoroutes are frequently congested at rush hour.[214] However, in recent years, the government has acknowledged this problem and is working on long-term solutions to alleviate the congestion. One such example is the extension of Quebec Autoroute 30 on Montreal's south shore, which will serve as a bypass.[215]

Société de transport de Montréal

Métro Acadie
A train departs from Acadie station. The Montreal Metro has 68 stations over four lines.

Public local transport is served by a network of buses, subways, and commuter trains that extend across and off the island. The subway and bus system are operated by the Société de transport de Montréal (STM). The STM bus network consists of 197 daytime and 20 nighttime routes. STM bus routes serve 1,347,900 passengers on an average weekday in 2010.[216] It also provides adapted transport and wheelchair-accessible buses.[217] The STM won the award of Outstanding Public Transit System in North America by the APTA in 2010. It was the first time a Canadian company won this prize.

The Metro was inaugurated in 1966 and has 68 stations on four lines.[218] It is Canada's second busiest subway system in total daily passenger usage, serving 1,050,800 passengers on an average weekday (as of Q1 2010).[216] Each station was designed by different architects with individual themes and features original artwork, and the trains run on rubber tires, making the system quieter than most.[219] The project was initiated by Montreal Mayor Jean Drapeau, who later brought the Summer Olympic Games to Montreal in 1976. The Metro system has long had a station on the South Shore in Longueuil, and in 2007 was extended to the city of Laval, north of Montreal, with three new stations.[220]

Air

AirCanadaHQMontreal
An Air Canada flight flies past the company's corporate headquarters, located at Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport.

Montreal has two international airports, one for passengers only, the other for cargo. Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport (also known as Dorval Airport) in the City of Dorval serves all commercial passenger traffic and is the headquarters of Air Canada[221] and Air Transat.[222] To the north of the city is Montreal Mirabel International Airport in Mirabel, which was envisioned as Montreal's primary airport but which now serves cargo flights along with MEDEVACs and general aviation and some passenger services.[223][224][225][226][227] In 2015, Trudeau was the third busiest airport in Canada by passenger traffic and fourth by aircraft movements, handling 15.5 million passengers,[228][229] and 232,648 aircraft movements.[230] With 60.8% of its passengers being on non-domestic flights it has the largest percentage of international flights of any Canadian airport.[231] Trudeau airport is served by 40 carriers to over 100 destinations worldwide.[232]

Airlines serving Trudeau offer flights to Europe, the United States, Western Asia, the Middle East, Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, Mexico and other destinations within Canada and it contains the largest duty-free shop in North America.[233]

Rail

Montreal-based Via Rail provides rail service to other cities in Canada, particularly to Quebec City and Toronto along the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor. Amtrak, the U.S. national passenger rail system, operates its Adirondack daily to New York. All intercity trains and most commuter trains operate out of Central Station.

Gare centrale de Montreal - 011
Central Station is a major inter-city and commuter rail hub for the city.

Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, was founded here in 1881.[234] Its corporate headquarters occupied Windsor Station at 910 Peel Street until 1995.[139] With the Port of Montreal kept open year-round by icebreakers, lines to Eastern Canada became surplus, and now Montreal is the railway's eastern and intermodal freight terminus.[235] CPR connects at Montreal with the Port of Montreal, the Delaware and Hudson Railway to New York, the Quebec Gatineau Railway to Quebec City and Buckingham, the Central Maine and Quebec Railway to Halifax, and CN Rail. The CPR's flagship train, The Canadian, ran daily from Windsor Station to Vancouver, but all passenger services have since been transferred to Via Rail Canada. Since 1990, The Canadian has terminated in Toronto.

Montreal-based Canadian National Railways (CN) was formed in 1919 by the Canadian government following a series of country-wide rail bankruptcies. It was formed from the Grand Trunk, Midland and Canadian Northern Railways, and has risen to become CPR's chief rival in freight carriage in Canada.[236] Like the CPR, CN has divested itself of passenger services in favour of Via Rail Canada.[237] CN's flagship train, the Super Continental, ran daily from Central Station to Vancouver and subsequently became a Via train in the late 1970s. It was eliminated in 1990 in favour of rerouting The Canadian.

The commuter rail system is managed and operated by Exo, and reaches the outlying areas of Greater Montreal with six lines. It carried an average of 79,000 daily passengers in 2014, making it the seventh busiest in North America following New York, Chicago, Toronto, Boston, Philadelphia, and Mexico City.[238]

On 22 April 2016 the forthcoming automated rapid transit system, the Réseau express métropolitain, was unveiled. Groundbreaking occurred 12 April 2018, and construction of the 67-kilometre-long (42 mi) network - consisting of three branches, 26 stations, and the conversion of the region's busiest commuter railway - commenced the following month. To be opened in three phases as of 2021, the REM will be completed by mid-2023, becoming the fourth largest automated rapid transit network after the Dubai Metro, the Singapore Mass Rapid Transit, and the Vancouver SkyTrain. Most of it will be financed by pension fund manager Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec.[239]

International relations

Sister cities
Friendship cities

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Extreme high and low temperatures in the table below are from Montreal McGill (July 1871 to March 1993) and McTavish (July 1994 to present).

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Further reading

  • Collard, Edgar A. (1976). Montréal: the Days That Are No More, in series, Totem Book[s]. This ed. slightly edited [anew]. Toronto, Ont.: Doubleday Canada, [1978], cop. 1976. x, 140, [4] p., ill. in b&w with maps and numerous sketches. ISBN 0-00-216686-0
  • Gagnon, Robert (1996). Anglophones at the C.E.C.M.: a Reflection of the Linguistic Duality of Montréal. Trans. by Peter Keating. Montréal: Commission des écoles catholiques de Montréal. 124 p., ill. with b&w photos. ISBN 2-920855-98-0
  • Harris; Lyon, Patricia David (2004). Montréal. Fodor's. ISBN 978-1-4000-1315-9.
  • Heritage Montréal (1992). Steps in Time = Patrimoine en marche. Montréal: Québécor. 4 vol. of 20, 20 p. each. Text printed "tête-bêche" in English and in French. On title covers: "Montréal, fête, 350 ans".
  • Marsan, Jean-Claude (1990). Montreal in evolution. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-0798-2.
  • Tomàs, Mariona. "Exploring the metropolitan trap: the case of Montreal." International Journal of Urban and Regional Research (2012) 36#3 pp: 554–567. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2427.2011.01066.x.
  • "2006 Census of Canada". Statistics Canada. 2008. Retrieved May 28, 2008.
  • "Montreal". 2006 Census of Canada: Community Profiles. Statistics Canada. 2008. Retrieved May 28, 2008.
  • Natural Resources Canada (2005). Canadian Geographical Names: Island of Montreal. Retrieved August 29, 2005.
  • Michael Sletcher, "Montréal", in James Ciment, ed., Colonial America: An Encyclopedia of Social, Political, Cultural, and Economic History, (5 vols., N.Y., 2005).

External links

1976 Summer Olympics

The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially called the Games of the XXI Olympiad (French: Les XXIes olympiques d'été), was an international multi-sport event in Montreal, Quebec, in 1976, and the first Olympic Games held in Canada.

Montreal was awarded the rights to the 1976 Games on May 12, 1970, at the 69th IOC Session in Amsterdam, over the bids of Moscow and Los Angeles. It was the first and, so far, only Summer Olympic Games to be held in Canada. Calgary and Vancouver later hosted the Winter Olympic Games in 1988 and 2010, respectively.

Twenty-nine countries, mostly African, boycotted the Montreal Games when the International Olympic Committee (IOC) refused to ban New Zealand, after the New Zealand national rugby union team had toured South Africa earlier in 1976 in defiance of the United Nations' calls for a sporting embargo.

Bank of Montreal

The Bank of Montreal, doing business as BMO Financial Group, is a Canadian multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in Montreal, Canada. One of the Big Five banks in Canada, it is the fourth-largest bank in Canada by market capitalization and assets, as well as one of the ten largest banks in North America. It is commonly known by its acronym BMO (pronounced ), which is also its stock symbol on both the Toronto Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange.On June 23, 1817, John Richardson and eight merchants signed the Articles of Association to establish the Bank of Montreal in a rented house in Montreal, Quebec. The bank officially began conducting business on November 3, 1817, making it Canada's oldest bank. BMO's Institution Number (or bank number) is 001. In Canada, the bank operates as BMO Bank of Montreal and has more than 900 branches, serving over seven million customers. The company also has substantial operations in the Chicago area and elsewhere in the United States, where it operates as BMO Harris Bank. BMO Capital Markets is BMO's investment and corporate banking division, while the wealth management division is branded as BMO Nesbitt Burns. The company is ranked at number 131 on the Forbes Global 2000 list.The company has not missed a dividend payment since 1829, paying dividends consistently through major world crises such as World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, and the 2008 financial crisis; this makes the Bank of Montreal's dividend payment history one of the longest in the world.

Concordia University

Concordia University (French: Université Concordia; commonly referred to as Concordia) is a public comprehensive university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada on unceded Indigenous lands. Founded in 1974 following the merger of Loyola College and Sir George Williams University, Concordia is one of the three universities in Quebec where English is the primary language of instruction. As of the 2017–2018 academic year, there were 46,093 students enrolled at Concordia, making the university among the largest in Canada by enrolment. The university has two campuses, set approximately 7 kilometres (4 miles) apart: Sir George Williams Campus is the main campus in Downtown Montreal, in an area known as Quartier Concordia, and Loyola Campus in the residential district of Notre-Dame-de-Grâce. With four faculties, a school of graduate studies and numerous colleges, centres and institutes, Concordia offers over 300 undergraduate and 100 graduate programs and courses.The university's John Molson School of Business is consistently ranked within the top 10 Canadian business schools, and within the top 100 worldwide. Moreover, Concordia was ranked 7th among Canadian and 229th among world universities in the International Professional Classification of Higher Education Institutions, a worldwide ranking compiled by the École des Mines de Paris that uses as its sole criterion the number of graduates occupying the rank of Chief Executive Officer at Fortune 500 companies.Concordia is a non-sectarian and coeducational institution, with more than 200,000 living alumni worldwide.

The university is a member of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, the International Association of Universities, the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Canadian Association of Research Libraries, the Canadian University Society for Intercollegiate Debate as well as the Canadian Bureau for International Education and the Canadian University Press. The university's varsity teams, known as the Stingers, compete in the Quebec Student Sport Federation of Canadian Interuniversity Sport.

Jackie Robinson

Jack Roosevelt Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) was an American professional baseball player who became the first African American to play in Major League Baseball (MLB) in the modern era. Robinson broke the baseball color line when the Brooklyn Dodgers started him at first base on April 15, 1947. When the Dodgers signed Robinson, they heralded the end of racial segregation in professional baseball that had relegated black players to the Negro leagues since the 1880s. Robinson was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962.Robinson had an exceptional 10-year MLB career. He was the recipient of the inaugural MLB Rookie of the Year Award in 1947, was an All-Star for six consecutive seasons from 1949 through 1954, and won the National League Most Valuable Player Award in 1949—the first black player so honored. Robinson played in six World Series and contributed to the Dodgers' 1955 World Series championship.

In 1997, MLB retired his uniform number 42 across all major league teams; he was the first pro athlete in any sport to be so honored. MLB also adopted a new annual tradition, "Jackie Robinson Day", for the first time on April 15, 2004, on which every player on every team wears No. 42.

Robinson's character, his use of nonviolence, and his unquestionable talent challenged the traditional basis of segregation which then marked many other aspects of American life. He influenced the culture of and contributed significantly to the civil rights movement. Robinson also was the first black television analyst in MLB and the first black vice president of a major American corporation, Chock full o'Nuts. In the 1960s, he helped establish the Freedom National Bank, an African-American-owned financial institution based in Harlem, New York. After his death in 1972, in recognition of his achievements on and off the field, Robinson was posthumously awarded the Congressional Gold Medal and Presidential Medal of Freedom.

List of Stanley Cup champions

The Stanley Cup is a trophy awarded annually to the playoff champion club of the National Hockey League (NHL) ice hockey league. It was donated by the Governor General of Canada Lord Stanley of Preston in 1892, and is the oldest professional sports trophy in North America. Inscribed the Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup, the trophy was first awarded to Canada's amateur ice hockey clubs who won the trophy as the result of challenge games and league play. Professional clubs came to dominate the competition in the early years of the twentieth century, and in 1913 the two major professional ice hockey organizations, the National Hockey Association (NHA) (forerunner of the NHL) and the Pacific Coast Hockey Association (PCHA), reached a gentlemen's agreement in which their respective champions would face each other in an annual series for the Stanley Cup. After a series of league mergers and folds, it became the de facto championship trophy of the NHL in 1926, though it was nominally still subject to external challenge. After 1947, the Cup became the de jure NHL championship prize.

From 1914 to the end of the 2018 season, the trophy has been won 100 times. 24 teams have won the cup, 19 of which are still active in the NHL. Prior to that, the challenge cup was held by nine teams. The Montreal Canadiens have won the Stanley Cup 24 times and made the finals an additional ten times. There were two years when the Stanley Cup was not awarded: 1919, because of the Spanish flu epidemic, and 2005, because of the NHL lockout.

Montreal Alouettes

The Montreal Alouettes (French: Les Alouettes de Montréal, IPA: [alwɛt]) are a professional Canadian football team based in Montreal, Quebec. Founded in 1946, the team has folded and been revived twice. The Alouettes compete in the East Division of the Canadian Football League (CFL) and last won the Grey Cup championship in 2010. Their home field is Percival Molson Memorial Stadium for the regular season and as of 2014 also home of their playoff games.

The original Alouettes team (1946–1981) won four Grey Cups and were particularly dominant in the 1970s. After their collapse in 1982, they were immediately reconstituted under new ownership as the Montreal Concordes. After playing for four years as the Concordes, they revived the Alouettes name for the 1986 season. A second folding in 1987 led to a nine-year hiatus of CFL football in the city.

The current Alouettes franchise was established in 1996 by the owners of the Baltimore Stallions. The Stallions were disbanded at the same time as the Alouettes' re-establishment after having been the most successful of the CFL's American expansion franchises, culminating in a Grey Cup championship in 1995. Many players from the Stallions' 1995 roster signed with the Alouettes and formed the core of the team's 1996 roster.

The CFL considers all clubs that have played in Montreal as one franchise dating to 1946, and considers the Alouettes to have suspended operations in 1987 before returning in 1996. Although the Alouettes' re-establishment in 1996 is often considered a relocation of the Stallions, neither the league nor the Alouettes recognize the Baltimore franchise, or its records, as part of the Alouettes' official team history.

The latest incarnation of the Alouettes were arguably the best CFL team of the 2000s; they took home three Grey Cups in that decade bringing the franchise total to seven. The Alouettes had from 1996 to 2014 the CFL's longest active playoff streak, only having missed the playoffs three times since returning to the league. The streak came to an end in 2015. They have hosted a playoff game every year except 2001, 2007, 2013, and from 2015 to 2017. Their five losing seasons came in 2007, 2013 and from 2015 to 2017. The years 2015 to 2017 marked the first time the team missed the playoffs in consecutive years since their re-activation. Major stars of the recent era include Mike Pringle, the CFL career leader in rushing yards, and quarterback Anthony Calvillo, who leads all of pro football in career passing yards.

The Alouettes are owned by American investment banker Robert Wetenhall. It is currently the only CFL team to have non-Canadian ownership. Jim Popp served as the team's general manager (and has also served as head coach); his tenure with the franchise, which extended back to the Baltimore era, ended on November 7, 2016.

Montreal Canadiens

The Montreal Canadiens (French: Les Canadiens de Montréal) are a professional ice hockey team based in Montreal, Quebec. They are members of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL).

The club's official name is le Club de hockey Canadien. The team is frequently referred to in English and French as the Habs. French nicknames for the team include Les Canadiens (or Le Canadien), Le Bleu-Blanc-Rouge, La Sainte-Flanelle, Le Tricolore, Les Glorieux (or Nos Glorieux), Le CH, Le Grand Club and Les Habitants (from which "Habs" is derived).

Founded in 1909, the Canadiens are the longest continuously operating professional ice hockey team worldwide, and the only existing NHL club to predate the founding of the NHL. One of the oldest North American professional sports franchises, the Canadiens' history predates that of every other Canadian franchise outside football as well as every American franchise outside baseball and the National Football League's Arizona Cardinals. The franchise is one of the "Original Six" teams, a description used for the teams that made up the NHL from 1942 until the 1967 expansion. The team's championship season in 1992–93 was the last time a Canadian team won the Stanley Cup.The Canadiens have won the Stanley Cup more times than any other franchise. They have won 24 Stanley Cups, 23 of them since the founding of the NHL and 22 of them since 1927, when NHL teams became the only ones to compete for the Stanley Cup. On a percentage basis, as of 2014, the franchise has won 25.3% of all Stanley Cup championships contested after the Challenge Cup era, making it the second most successful professional sports team of the traditional four major sports of Canada and the United States, behind only the Boston Celtics. The Canadiens also had the most championships by a team of any of the four major North American sports until the New York Yankees won their 25th World Series title in 1999.

Since 1996, the Canadiens have played their home games at Bell Centre, originally known as Molson Centre. The team previously played at the Montreal Forum which housed the team for seven decades and all but their first two Stanley Cup championships.

Montreal Expos

The Montreal Expos (French: Les Expos de Montréal) were a Canadian professional baseball team based in Montreal, Quebec. The Expos were the first Major League Baseball (MLB) franchise located outside the United States. They played in the National League (NL) East Division from 1969 until 2004. Following the 2004 season, the franchise relocated to Washington, D.C., and became the Washington Nationals.

Immediately after the minor league Triple-A Montreal Royals folded in 1960, political leaders in Montreal sought an MLB franchise, and when the National League evaluated expansion candidates for the 1969 season, it awarded a team to Montreal. Named after the Expo 67 World's Fair, the Expos originally played at Jarry Park Stadium before moving to Olympic Stadium in 1977. The Expos failed to post a winning record in any of their first ten seasons. The team won its only division title in the strike-shortened 1981 season, but lost the 1981 National League Championship Series (NLCS) to the Los Angeles Dodgers. The team was sold in 1991 by its majority, founding owner, Charles Bronfman, to a consortium headed by Claude Brochu. Felipe Alou was promoted to the team's field manager in 1992, becoming MLB's first Dominican-born manager. He led the team to four winning seasons, including 1994, where the Expos had the best record in baseball before a players' strike ended the season. Alou became the Expos leader in games managed (1409).

The aftermath of the 1994 strike initiated a downward spiral as the Expos chose to sell off their best players, and attendance and interest in the team declined. Major League Baseball purchased the team prior to the 2002 season after the club failed to secure funding for a new ballpark. In their final two seasons, the team played 22 home games each year at Hiram Bithorn Stadium in San Juan, Puerto Rico. On September 29, 2004, MLB announced the franchise would relocate to Washington, D.C. for the 2005 season, and the Expos played their final home game in Montreal.

The Expos posted an all-time record of 2,753 wins, 2,943 losses and 4 ties during their 36 years in Montreal. Vladimir Guerrero led the franchise in both home runs and batting average, and Steve Rogers in wins and strikeouts. Three pitchers threw four no-hitters: Bill Stoneman (twice), Charlie Lea, and Dennis Martínez, who pitched the 13th official perfect game in Major League Baseball history. The Expos retired four numbers in Montreal, and nine former members have been elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame, with Gary Carter, Andre Dawson and Tim Raines' plaques depicting them with Expos caps.

Montreal Gazette

The Montreal Gazette, formerly titled The Gazette, is the only English-language daily newspaper published in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, after three other daily English newspapers shut down at various times during the second half of the 20th century. It is one of the French-speaking province's last two English-language dailies; the other is the Sherbrooke Record, which serves the anglophone community in the Eastern Townships southeast of Montreal.

Founded in 1778 by Fleury Mesplet, The Gazette is Quebec's oldest daily newspaper and Canada's oldest daily newspaper still in publication. The oldest newspaper overall is the English-language Quebec Chronicle-Telegraph, which was established in 1764 and is published weekly.

Montreal Impact

The Montreal Impact (French: Impact de Montréal) is a Canadian professional soccer team based in Montreal, Quebec. The Impact competes as a member of the Eastern Conference in Major League Soccer (MLS). The team began play in 2012 as an expansion team of the league, being the league's third Canadian club, and replaced the North American Soccer League team of the same name.

In 2015, the Impact became the second MLS club, and first Canadian club, to advance to the final of the CONCACAF Champions League, in its current format since 2008, where they had finished runners up in the two game aggregate goal series against Club América. The Impact had won the Canadian Championship in 2013 and 2014. The club plays its home games at Saputo Stadium and is coached by Rémi Garde.

Montréal–Mirabel International Airport

Montréal–Mirabel International Airport (IATA: YMX, ICAO: CYMX), originally called Montréal International Airport and widely known as Mirabel, is a cargo and former international passenger airport in Mirabel, Quebec, Canada, 21 nautical miles (39 km; 24 mi) northwest of Montreal. It opened on October 4, 1975, and the last commercial passenger flight took off on October 31, 2004.

The main role of the airport today is cargo flights, but it is also home to MEDEVAC and general aviation flights, and is a manufacturing base for Bombardier Aerospace, where final assembly of regional jet (CRJ700, CRJ900 and CRJ1000) aircraft and the Airbus A220 (formerly Bombardier CSeries) is conducted. The former passenger terminal apron is now a racing course, and the terminal building was demolished in 2016.Prior to the demolition of the terminal, Montréal–Mirabel International Airport was classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and was staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA). It was one of two airports in Canada with sufficient right-of-way that can be expanded to accommodate 50 million passengers per year, the other being Toronto Pearson International Airport. A lack of traffic meant that Mirabel was never expanded beyond its first phase. It is one of only two non-capital airports with fewer than 200,000 passengers a year to be part of the National Airports System.

The airport was intended to replace the existing Dorval Airport as the eastern air gateway to Canada. Accordingly, from 1975 to 1997, all international flights to and from Montreal (except for flights to and from the United States) were required to use Mirabel. However, Mirabel's distant location, the lack of adequate transport links to urban centres and the continued operation of domestic flights from Dorval Airport made Mirabel very unpopular with travellers and airlines. It did not help that Montreal's economy declined relative to that of Toronto during the 1970s and 1980s. As a result, passenger levels never approached the levels that had been anticipated, and indeed remained lower than what Dorval could handle when renovated.

When the decision was made to consolidate Montreal's passenger traffic at one airport, Dorval was chosen, and Mirabel was relegated to the role of a cargo airport. Mirabel thus turned out to be a white elephant. Dorval Airport was renamed Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, after the Canadian Prime Minister whose government initiated the Mirabel project, the aim of which was to close and replace the Dorval airport. By surface area, it was the largest airport in the world that had ever been envisioned, with a planned area of 39,660 hectares (396.6 km2; 98,000 acres); King Fahd International Airport in Saudi Arabia, completed in 1999, eventually surpassed its surface area. In 1989, 32,780 hectares (81,000 acres) of the 39,660 hectares (98,000 acres) were deeded back to their original owners.

Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport

Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport (IATA: YUL, ICAO: CYUL) (French: Aéroport international Pierre-Elliott-Trudeau de Montréal) or Montréal–Trudeau, formerly known as Montréal–Dorval International Airport (Aéroport international Montréal-Dorval), is an international airport serving Montreal, Quebec, Canada, located on the Island of Montreal, 20 km (12 mi) from Downtown Montreal. The airport terminals are located entirely in the suburb of Dorval, while one runway is located in the Montreal borough of Saint-Laurent. Air Canada, the country's flag carrier, also has its corporate headquarters complex on the Saint-Laurent side of the airport. It also serves Greater Montreal and adjacent regions in Quebec and eastern Ontario, as well as the states of Vermont and northern New York in the United States. The airport is named in honour of Pierre Elliott Trudeau, the 15th Prime Minister of Canada and father of current Prime Minister Justin Trudeau.

The airport is one of two managed and operated by Aéroports de Montréal (ADM), a not-for-profit corporation without share capital; the other being Montréal–Mirabel northwest of Montreal, which was initially intended to replace the one in Dorval but now deals almost solely with cargo. Montréal–Trudeau is owned by Transport Canada which has a 60-year lease with Aéroports de Montréal, as per Canada's National Airport Policy of 1994.Trudeau is the busiest airport in the province of Quebec and the third-busiest airport in Canada by both passenger traffic and aircraft movements, with 19.42 million passengers and 240,159 movements in 2018. It is one of eight Canadian airports with United States border preclearance and is one of the main gateways into Canada with 12.2 million or 63% of its passengers being on non-domestic flights, the highest proportion amongst Canada's airports during 2018. It is one of four Air Canada hubs and, in that capacity, serves mainly Quebec, the Atlantic Provinces and Eastern Ontario. On an average day, 53,000 passengers transit through Montréal-Trudeau.

Airlines servicing Trudeau offer year-round non-stop flights to five continents, namely Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America. It is one of only two airports in Canada with direct flights to five continents or more, the other being Toronto Pearson International Airport. Trudeau airport is the headquarters of and a large hub for Air Canada, the country's largest airline. It is also the headquarters of Air Inuit and Air Transat, and an operation base for Sunwing Airlines and Porter Airlines. It also plays a role in general aviation as home to the headquarters of Innotech-Execair, Starlink, ACASS and Maintenance Repair & Overhaul (MRO) facilities of Air Transat and Air Inuit. Transport Canada operates a Civil Aviation Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul facility on site, with a fleet of Government owned and operated civil aircraft. Bombardier Aerospace has an assembly facility on site where they build regional jets and Challenger business jets.

NHL Entry Draft

The NHL Entry Draft (French: Repêchage d'entrée dans la LNH) is an annual meeting in which every franchise of the National Hockey League (NHL) systematically select the rights to available ice hockey players who meet draft eligibility requirements (North American players 18–20 years old and European/international players 18–21 years old; all others enter league as unrestricted free agents). The NHL Entry Draft is held once every year, generally within two to three months after the conclusion of the previous season. During the draft, teams take turns selecting amateur players from junior or collegiate leagues and professional players from European leagues.

The first draft was held in 1963, and has been held every year since. The NHL Entry Draft was known as the NHL Amateur Draft until 1979. The entry draft has only been a public event since 1980, and a televised event since 1984. Up to 1994, the order was solely determined by the standings at the end of the regular season. In 1995, the NHL Draft Lottery was introduced where only teams who had missed the playoffs could participate. The one lottery winner would move up the draft order a maximum of four places, meaning only the top five-placed teams could pick first in the draft, and no team in the non-playoff group could move down more than one place. The chances of winning the lottery were weighted towards the teams at the bottom of the regular season standings. Beginning in 2013, the limit of moving up a maximum of four places in the draft order was eliminated, so the lottery winner would automatically receive the first overall pick, and any teams above it in the draft order would still move down one spot.

National Hockey League

The National Hockey League (NHL; French: Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, currently comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada. The NHL is considered to be the premier professional ice hockey league in the world, and one of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. The Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America, is awarded annually to the league playoff champion at the end of each season.

The National Hockey League was organized on November 26, 1917, at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal after the suspension of operations of its predecessor organization, the National Hockey Association (NHA), which had been founded in 1909 in Renfrew, Ontario. The NHL immediately took the NHA's place as one of the leagues that contested for the Stanley Cup in an annual interleague competition before a series of league mergers and folds left the NHL as the only league left competing for the Stanley Cup in 1926.

At its inception, the NHL had four teams—all in Canada, thus the adjective "National" in the league's name. The league expanded to the United States in 1924, when the Boston Bruins joined, and has since consisted of American and Canadian teams. From 1942 to 1967, the league had only six teams, collectively (if not contemporaneously) nicknamed the "Original Six". The NHL added six new teams to double its size at the 1967 NHL expansion. The league then increased to 18 teams by 1974 and 21 teams in 1979. Between 1991 and 2000, the NHL further expanded to 30 teams. It added its 31st team in 2017 and has approved the addition of a 32nd team in 2021.

The league's headquarters have been in New York City since 1989 when the head office moved there from Montreal.After a labour-management dispute that led to the cancellation of the entire 2004–05 season, the league resumed play in 2005–06 under a new collective agreement that included a salary cap. In 2009, the NHL enjoyed record highs in terms of sponsorships, attendance, and television audiences.The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) considers the Stanley Cup to be one of the "most important championships available to the sport". The NHL draws many highly skilled players from all over the world and currently has players from approximately 20 countries. Canadians have historically constituted the majority of the players in the league, with an increasing percentage of American and European players in recent seasons.

The current NHL Champions are the Washington Capitals, who defeated the Vegas Golden Knights four games to one in the 2018 Stanley Cup Finals.

P. K. Subban

Pernell-Karl Sylvester "P. K." Subban (born May 13, 1989) is a Canadian professional ice hockey defenceman for the Nashville Predators of the National Hockey League (NHL).

Subban was drafted by the Montreal Canadiens in the second round, 43rd overall, of the 2007 NHL Entry Draft. In 2013, he won the Norris Trophy as the NHL's top defenceman, and tied with Kris Letang as the leading scorer among defencemen. In the summer of 2014 he signed an eight-year, $72 million contract with the Canadiens, running through the 2021–22 season. After the 2015–16 season, Subban was dealt to Nashville in a highly publicized trade in exchange for Shea Weber.

Quebec

Quebec ( (listen); French: Québec [kebɛk] (listen)) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay; to the north by Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay; to the east by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador; and to the south by the province of New Brunswick and the U.S. states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York. It also shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division; only the territory of Nunavut is larger. It is historically and politically considered to be part of Central Canada (with Ontario).

Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario. It is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Approximately half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are also significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, and Gaspé regions. The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. Even in central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas.

Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995; both were rejected by voters, the latter defeated by a very narrow margin. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada".While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace, information and communication technologies, biotechnology, and the pharmaceutical industry also play leading roles. These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output.

Rizzuto crime family

The Rizzuto family is an organized crime family based in Montreal, Quebec. The family territory covers most of southern Quebec and Ontario. The FBI considers the family to be connected to the Bonanno crime family, but Canadian law enforcement considers it to be a separate crime family. It is sometimes referred to as the Sixth Family.The Rizzuto family was founded by Nicolo Rizzuto, a Sicilian immigrant, in the 1970s as part of the Sicilian faction of the Montreal Cotroni crime family. An internal war broke out by the late 1970s which resulted in the death of acting captain Paolo Violi and his brothers, allowing the Rizzutos to overtake the Cotronis as the preeminent crime family in Montreal. The indictment of Vito Rizzuto, son of Nicolo, in 2004, and subsequent imprisonment in 2007 until 2012 for murders he participated in 1981, caused a power struggle in organized crime in Montreal. During Vito's imprisonment, his son, Nicolo Jr. was killed in 2009, followed by his father by a sniper rife while in his home in 2010. Upon Vito's release, several people were killed in what was suspected to be retaliation for the hits on his family. Vito died of natural causes shortly after in 2013, and the head of the Montreal Mafia is now assumed to be his son Leonardo.

Shawarma

Shawarma (; Arabic: شاورما‎), also shaurma and other spellings, is a Middle Eastern meat preparation based on the döner kebab of Ottoman Turkey. Originally made of lamb or mutton, today's shawarma may also be chicken, turkey, beef, or veal, cut in thin slices and stacked in a cone-like shape on a vertical rotisserie. Thin slices are shaved off the cooked surface as it continuously rotates. Shawarma is one of the world's most popular street foods, especially in Egypt and the countries of the Levant and the Arabian Peninsula.

Université de Montréal

The Université de Montréal (UdeM; French pronunciation: ​[ynivɛʁsite də mɔ̃ʁeal]) is a French-language public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The university's main campus is located on the northern slope of Mount Royal in the Outremont and Côte-des-Neiges boroughs. The institution comprises thirteen faculties, more than sixty departments and two affiliated schools: the Polytechnique Montréal (School of Engineering; formerly the École Polytechnique de Montréal) and HEC Montréal (School of Business). It offers more than 650 undergraduate programmes and graduate programmes, including 71 doctoral programmes.

The university was founded as a satellite campus of the Université Laval in 1878. It became a independent institution after it was issued a papal charter in 1919, and a provincial charter in 1920. Université de Montréal moved from Montreal's Quartier Latin to its present location at Mount Royal in 1942. It was made a secular institution with the passing of another provincial charter in 1967.

The school is co-educational, and has over 34,335 undergraduate and over 11,925 post-graduate students (excluding affiliated schools). Alumni and former students reside across Canada and around the world, with notable alumni serving as government officials, academics, and business leaders. The university has been recognized by a number of publications that rank university performance, including the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, QS World University Rankings, and the U.S. News & World Report Best Global University Ranking.

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