Month

A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which is approximately as long as a natural period related to the motion of the Moon; month and Moon are cognates. The traditional concept arose with the cycle of Moon phases; such months (lunations) are synodic months and last approximately 29.53 days. From excavated tally sticks, researchers have deduced that people counted days in relation to the Moon's phases as early as the Paleolithic age. Synodic months, based on the Moon's orbital period with respect to the Earth-Sun line, are still the basis of many calendars today, and are used to divide the year.

Types of months in astronomy

The following types of months are mainly of significance in astronomy, most of them (but not the distinction between sidereal and tropical months) first recognized in Babylonian lunar astronomy.

  1. The sidereal month is defined as the Moon's orbital period in a non-rotating frame of reference (which on average is equal to its rotation period in the same frame). It is about 27.32166 days (27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes, 11.6 seconds). It is closely equal to the time it takes the Moon to pass twice a "fixed" star (different stars give different results because all have a very small proper motion and are not really fixed in position).
  2. A synodic month is the most familiar lunar cycle, defined as the time interval between two consecutive occurrences of a particular phase (such as new moon or full moon) as seen by an observer on Earth. The mean length of the synodic month is 29.53059 days (29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, 2.8 seconds). Due to the eccentricity of the lunar orbit around Earth (and to a lesser degree, the Earth's elliptical orbit around the Sun), the length of a synodic month can vary by up to seven hours.
  3. The tropical month is the average time for the Moon to pass twice through the same equinox point of the sky. It is 27.32158 days, very slightly shorter than the sidereal month (27.32166) days, because of precession of the equinoxes.
  4. An anomalistic month is the average time the Moon takes to go from perigee to perigee - the point in the Moon's orbit when it is closest to Earth. An anomalistic month is about 27.55455 days on average.
  5. The draconic month, draconitic month, or nodal month is the period in which the Moon returns to the same node of its orbit; the nodes are the two points where the Moon's orbit crosses the plane of the Earth's orbit. Its duration is about 27.21222 days on average.

A synodic month is longer than a sidereal month because the Earth-Moon system is orbiting the Sun in the same direction as the Moon is orbiting the Earth. The Sun moves eastward with respect to the stars (as does the Moon) and it takes about 2.2 days longer for the Moon to return to the same apparent position with respect to the Sun.

An anomalistic month is longer than a sidereal month because the perigee moves in the same direction as the Moon is orbiting the Earth, one revolution in nine years. Therefore, the Moon takes a little longer to return to perigee than to return to the same star.

A draconic month is shorter than a sidereal month because the nodes move in the opposite direction as the Moon is orbiting the Earth, one revolution in 18.6 years. Therefore, the Moon returns to the same node slightly earlier than it returns to the same star.

Calendrical consequences

At the simplest level, most well-known lunar calendars are based on the initial approximation that 2 lunations last 59 days: a 30-day full month followed by a 29-day hollow month — but this is only roughly accurate, and eventually needs correction by using larger cycles, or the equivalent of leap days. Additionally, the synodic month does not fit easily into the year, which makes accurate, rule-based lunisolar calendars complicated. The most common solution to this problem is the Metonic cycle, which takes advantage of the fact that 235 lunations are approximately 19 tropical years (which add up to not quite 6940 days). However, a Metonic calendar will drift against the seasons by about 1 day every 200 years. Metonic calendars include the calendar used in the Antikythera Mechanism about 2000 years ago, and the Hebrew calendar.

The complexity required in an accurate lunisolar calendar may explain why solar calendars (which have months which no longer relate to the phase of the Moon, but are based only on the motion of the Sun relative to the equinoxes and solstices) have generally replaced lunar calendars for civil use in most societies.

Months in various calendars

Beginning of the lunar month

The Hellenic calendars, the Hebrew Lunisolar calendar and the Islamic Lunar calendar started the month with the first appearance of the thin crescent of the new moon.

However, the motion of the Moon in its orbit is very complicated and its period is not constant. The date and time of this actual observation depends on the exact geographical longitude as well as latitude, atmospheric conditions, the visual acuity of the observers, etc. Therefore, the beginning and lengths of months defined by observation cannot be accurately predicted.

While some like the Jewish Karaites still rely on actual moon observations, most people use the Gregorian solar calendar.

Pingelapese, a language from Micronesia, also uses a lunar calendar. There are 12 months associated with their calendar. The moon first appears in March, they name this month Kahlek. This system has been used for hundreds of years and throughout many generations. This calendar is cyclical and relies on the position and shape of the moon.[1]

Julian and Gregorian calendars

The Gregorian calendar, like the Julian calendar before it, has twelve months:

Chronology Alphabetic Days
1 January 31 days
2 February 28 days, 29 in leap years
3 March 31 days
4 April 30 days
5 May 31 days
6 June 30 days
7 July 31 days
8 August 31 days
9 September 30 days
10 October 31 days
11 November 30 days
12 December 31 days
Month - Knuckles (en)
On top of the knuckles (yellow): 31 days
Between the knuckles (blue): 30 days
February (red) has 28 or 29 days.
Klaviatur-3-en
The white keys of the musical keyboard correlate to months with 31 days. ('F' correlates to January.)

The mean month length of the Gregorian calendar is 30.436875 days.

Months existing in the Roman calendar in the past include:

The famous mnemonic Thirty days hath September is a common way of teaching the lengths of the months in the English-speaking world.

Also, note that any five consecutive months (not including February) contain 153 days.

The knuckles of the four fingers of one's hand and the spaces between them can be used to remember the lengths of the months. By making a fist, each month will be listed as one proceeds across the hand. All months landing on a knuckle are 31 days long and those landing between them are not. When the knuckle of the index finger is reached (July), go back to the first knuckle (or over to the first knuckle on the other fist, held next to the first) and continue with August. This physical mnemonic has been taught to primary school students for many decades.[2][3]

This cyclical pattern of month lengths matches the musical keyboard alternation of white and black keys (with the note 'F' correlating to the month of January).

Calends, nones, and ides

The ides occur on the thirteenth day in eight of the months, but in March, May, July, and October, they occur on the fifteenth. The nones always occur 8 days (one Roman week) before the ides, i.e., on the fifth or the seventh. The calends are always the first day of the month, and before Julius Caesar's reform fell sixteen days (two Roman weeks) after the ides (except the ides of February and the intercalary month).

Relations between dates, weekdays, and months in the Gregorian calendar

Within a month, the following dates fall on the same weekday:

  • 01, 08, 15, 22, and 29 (e.g., in January 2019, all these dates fell on a Tuesday)
  • 02, 09, 16, 23, and 30 (e.g., in January 2019, all these dates fell on a Wednesday)
  • 03, 10, 17, 24, and 31 (e.g., in January 2019, all these dates fell on a Thursday)
  • 04, 11, 18, and 25 (e.g., in January 2019, all these dates fell on a Friday)
  • 05, 12, 19, and 26 (e.g., in January 2019, all these dates fell on a Saturday)
  • 06, 13, 20, and 27 (e.g., in January 2019, all these dates fell on a Sunday)
  • 07, 14, 21, and 28 (e.g., in January 2019, all these dates fell on a Monday)

Some months have the same date/weekday structure.

In a non-leap year:

  • January/October (e.g., in 2019, they began/begin on a Tuesday)
  • February/March/November (e.g., in 2019, they began/begin on a Friday)
  • April/July (e.g., in 2019, they began/begin on a Monday)
  • September/December (e.g., in 2019, they begin on a Sunday)
  • January 01 and December 31 fall on the same weekday (e.g. in 2019 on a Tuesday)

In a leap year:

  • February/August (e.g. in 2020, they begin on a Saturday)
  • March/November (e.g., in 2020, they begin on a Sunday)
  • April/July (e.g., in 2020, they begin on a Wednesday)
  • September/December (e.g., in 2020, they begin on a Tuesday)
  • February 29 (the leap day) falls on the same weekday like February 01, 08, 15, 22, and August 01 (see above; e.g. in 2020 on a Saturday)

Hebrew calendar

The Hebrew calendar has 12 or 13 months.

  1. Nisan, 30 days ניסן
  2. Iyar, 30 days אייר
  3. Sivan, 30 days סיון
  4. Tammuz, 29 days תמוז
  5. Av, 30 days אב
  6. Elul, 29 days אלול
  7. Tishri, 30 days תשרי
  8. Marcheshvan, 29/30 days מַרְחֶשְׁוָן
  9. Kislev, 30/29 days כסלו
  10. Tevet, 29 days טבת
  11. Shevat, 30 days שבט
  12. Adar 1, 30 days, intercalary month אדר א
  13. Adar 2, 29 days אדר ב

Adar 1 is only added 7 times in 19 years. In ordinary years, Adar 2 is simply called Adar.

Islamic calendar

There are also twelve months in the Islamic calendar. They are named as follows:

  1. Muharram (Restricted/sacred) محرّم
  2. Safar (Empty/Yellow) صفر
  3. Rabī' al-Awwal/Rabi' I (First Spring) ربيع الأول
  4. Rabī’ ath-Thānī/Rabi` al-Aakhir/Rabi' II (Second spring or Last spring) ربيع الآخر أو ربيع الثاني
  5. Jumada al-Awwal/Jumaada I (First Freeze) جمادى الأول
  6. Jumada ath-Thānī or Jumādā al-Thānī/Jumādā II (Second Freeze or Last Freeze) جمادى الآخر أو جمادى الثاني
  7. Rajab (To Respect) رجب
  8. Sha'bān (To Spread and Distribute) شعبان
  9. Ramadān (Parched Thirst) رمضان
  10. Shawwāl (To Be Light and Vigorous) شوّال
  11. Dhu al-Qi'dah (The Master of Truce) ذو القعدة
  12. Dhu al-Hijjah (The Possessor of Hajj) ذو الحجة

See Islamic calendar for more information on the Islamic calendar.

Arabic calendar

Gregorian month Arabic month
January يناير كانون الثاني Kanun Al-Thani
February فبراير شباط Shebat
March مارس اذار Adhar
April ابريل نيسان Nisan
May مايو أيّار Ayyar
June يونيو حزيران Ḩazayran
July يوليو تمّوز Tammuz
August أغسطس اَب ʕAb
September سبتمبر أيلول Aylul
October أكتوبر تشرين الأول Tishrin Al-Awwal
November نوفمبر تشرين الثاني Tishrin Al-Thani
December ديسمبر كانون الأول Kanun Al-Awwal

Hindu calendar

The Hindu calendar has various systems of naming the months. The months in the lunar calendar are:

Sanskrit name Tamil name Telugu name Nepali name
1 Caitra (चैत्र) Chitirai (சித்திரை) Chaithramu (చైత్రము) Chaitra (चैत्र/चैत)
2 Vaiśākha (वैशाख) Vaikasi (வைகாசி) Vaisaakhamu (వైశాఖము) Baisakh (बैशाख)
3 Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ) Aani (ஆனி) Jyeshttamu (జ్యేష్ఠము) Jesth (जेष्ठ/जेठ)
4 Ashadha (आषाढ) Aadi (ஆடி) Aashaadhamu (ఆషాఢము) Aasad (आषाढ/असार)
5 Śrāvaṇa (श्रावण) Aavani (ஆவணி) Sraavanamu (శ్రావణము) Srawan (श्रावण/साउन)
6 Bhadrapada (भाद्रपद) Purratasi (புரட்டாசி) Bhaadhrapadamu (భాద్రపదము) Bhadau (भाद्र|भदौ)
7 Āśvina (अश्विन) Aiypasi (ஐப்பசி) Aasveeyujamu (ఆశ్వయుజము) Asoj (आश्विन/असोज)
8 Kārtika (कार्तिक) Kaarthigai (கார்த்திகை) Kaarthikamu (కార్తీకము) Kartik (कार्तिक)
9 Mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष) Maargazhi (மார்கழி) Maargaseershamu (మార్గశిరము) Mangsir (मार्ग/मंसिर)
10 Pauṣa (पौष) Thai (தை) Pushyamu (పుష్యము) Push (पौष/पुष/पूस)
11 Māgha (माघ) Maasi (மாசி) Maaghamu (మాఘము) Magh (माघ)
12 Phālguna (फाल्गुन) Panguni (பங்குனி) Phaalgunamu (ఫాల్గుణము) Falgun (फाल्गुन/फागुन)

These are also the names used in the Indian national calendar for the newly redefined months. Purushottam Maas or Adhik Maas (translit. adhika = 'extra', māsa = 'month') is an extra month in the Hindu calendar that is inserted to keep the lunar and solar calendars aligned. "Purushottam" is an epithet of Vishnu, to whom the month is dedicated.

The names in the solar calendar are just the names of the zodiac sign in which the sun travels. They are

  1. Mesha
  2. Vrishabha
  3. Mithuna
  4. Kataka
  5. Simha
  6. Kanyaa
  7. Tulaa
  8. Vrishcika
  9. Dhanus
  10. Makara
  11. Kumbha
  12. Miina

Bahá'í calendar

The Bahá'í calendar is the calendar used by the Bahá'í Faith. It is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and leap years of 366 days. Years are composed of 19 months of 19 days each (361 days), plus an extra period of "Intercalary Days" (4 in regular and 5 in leap years).[4] The months are named after the attributes of God. Days of the year begin and end at sundown.[4]

Iranian calendar (Persian calendar)

The Iranian / Persian calendar, currently used in Iran and Afghanistan, also has 12 months. The Persian names are included in the parentheses. It begins on the northern Spring equinox.

  1. Farvardin (31 days, فروردین)
  2. Ordibehesht (31 days, اردیبهشت)
  3. Khordad (31 days, خرداد)
  4. Tir (31 days, تیر)
  5. Mordad (31 days, مرداد)
  6. Shahrivar (31 days, شهریور)
  7. Mehr (30 days, مهر)
  8. Aban (30 days, آبان)
  9. Azar (30 days, آذر)
  10. Dey (30 days, دی)
  11. Bahman (30 days, بهمن)
  12. Esfand (29 days- 30 days in leap year, اسفند)

Reformed Bengali calendar

The Bangla calendar, used in Bangladesh, follows solar months and it has six seasons. The months and seasons in the calendar are:

No. Name (Bengali) Name (Sylheti) Name (Rohingya) Season Days Julian months
1 Boishakh (বৈশাখ) Boishakh/Bohag Boicák Grishmo (গ্রীষ্ম) 31 14 April - May
2 Joishtho (জ্যৈষ্ঠ) Zoiht Zeth Grishmo (গ্রীষ্ম) 31 May - June
3 Asharh (আষাঢ়) Ahŗ Acár Borsha (বর্ষা) 31 June - July
4 Shrabon (শ্রাবণ) Haon Cón Borsha (বর্ষা) 31 July - August
5 Bhadro (ভাদ্র) Bhado Bádo Shorot (শরৎ) 31 August - September
6 Aashin (আশ্বিন) Ashin Acín Shorot (শরৎ) 30 September - October
7 Kartik (কার্তিক) Khati Hati Hemonto(হেমন্ত) 30 October - November
8 Ogrohayon (অগ্রহায়ণ) Aghon Óon Hemonto(হেমন্ত) 30 November - December
9 Poush (পৌষ) Phush Fuc Sheet (শীত) 30 December - January
10 Magh (মাঘ) Magh (মাঘ) Mak Sheet (শীত) 30 January - February
11 Falgun (ফাল্গুন) Fagun Fóon Boshonto (বসন্ত) 30 (31 in leap years) February - March
12 Choitro (চৈত্র) Soit Soit Boshonto (বসন্ত) 30 March - April

Nanakshahi calendar

The months in the Nanakshahi calendar are:[5]

No. Name Punjabi Days Julian months
1 Chet ਚੇਤ 31 14 March – 13 April
2 Vaisakh ਵੈਸਾਖ 31 14 April – 14 May
3 Jeth ਜੇਠ 31 15 May – 14 June
4 Harh ਹਾੜ 31 15 June – 15 July
5 Sawan ਸਾਵਣ 31 16 July – 15 August
6 Bhadon ਭਾਦੋਂ 30 16 August – 14 September
7 Assu ਅੱਸੂ 30 15 September – 14 October
8 Katak ਕੱਤਕ 30 15 October – 13 November
9 Maghar ਮੱਘਰ 30 14 November – 13 December
10 Poh ਪੋਹ 30 14 December – 12 January
11 Magh ਮਾਘ 30 13 January – 11 February
12 Phagun ਫੱਗਣ 30/31 12 February – 13 March

Khmer calendar

Like the Hindu calendar, the Khmer calendar consists of both a lunar calendar and a solar calendar.

The Khmer solar calendar is used more commonly than the lunar calendar. There are 12 months and the numbers of days follow the Julian and Gregorian calendar.

Julian and Gregorian name Khmer name Transliteration Meaning Zodiac sign
January មករា Makara មករ "naga" Capricorn
February កម្ភៈ Kompeak ក្អម "clay pitcher" Aquarius
March មិនា or មីនា Mik Nea or Me Na ត្រី "fish" Pisces
April មេសា Mesa ចៀម ពពៃ "ram" Aries
May ឧសភា Uk Sak Phea គោឈ្មោល "bull" Taurus
June មិថុនា Mik Thok Na គូបុរសនិងស្ត្រី "a pair of boy and girl" Gemini
July កក្កដា Kak Ka Da ក្ដាម "crab" Cancer
August សីហា Seiha សីហៈ "lion" Leo
September កញ្ញា Kagna ស្រីក្រមុំ "girl" Virgo
October តុលា Tola ជញ្ជីង "scales" Libra
November វិច្ឆិកា Vicheka ខ្ទួយ "scorpion" Scorpio
December ធ្នូ Thnu ធ្នូ "bow, arc" Sagittarius

The Khmer lunar calendar contains 12 months; however, the eighth month is repeated (as a "leap-month") every two or three years, making 13 months instead of 12.[6]

  • មិគសិរ
  • បុស្ស
  • មាឃ
  • ផល្គុន
  • ចេត្រ
  • វិសាខ/ ពិសាខ
  • ជេស្ឋ
  • ឤសាឍ, or in the case of a year with a leap-month:
    • បឋមសាឍ
    • ទុតិយាសាឍ
  • ស្រាពណ៍
  • ភទ្របទ
  • អស្សុជ
  • កត្តិក

Thai calendar

English name Thai name Abbr. Transcription Sanskrit word Zodiac sign
January มกราคม ม.ค. mokarakhom mokara "sea-monster" Capricorn
February กุมภาพันธ์ ก.พ. kumphaphan kumbha "pitcher, water-pot" Aquarius
March มีนาคม มี.ค. minakhom mīna "(a specific kind of) fish" Pisces
April เมษายน เม.ย. mesayon meṣa "ram" Aries
May พฤษภาคม พ.ค. phruetsaphakhom vṛṣabha "bull" Taurus
June มิถุนายน มิ.ย. mithunayon mithuna "a pair" Gemini
July กรกฎาคม ก.ค. karakadakhom karkaṭa "crab" Cancer
August สิงหาคม ส.ค. singhakhom siṃha "lion" Leo
September กันยายน ก.ย. kanyayon kanyā "girl" Virgo
October ตุลาคม ต.ค. tulakhom tulā "balance" Libra
November พฤศจิกายน พ.ย. phruetsachikayon vṛścika "scorpion" Scorpio
December ธันวาคม ธ.ค. thanwakhom dhanu "bow, arc" Sagittarius

Tongan calendar

The Tongan calendar is based on the cycles of the moon around the earth in one year. The months are:

  1. Liha Mu'a
  2. Liha Mui
  3. Vai Mu'a
  4. Vai Mui
  5. Faka'afu Mo'ui
  6. Faka'afu Mate
  7. Hilinga Kelekele
  8. Hilinga Mea'a
  9. 'Ao'ao
  10. Fu'ufu'unekinanga
  11. 'Uluenga
  12. Tanumanga
  13. 'O'oamofanongo

Kollam era (Malayalam) calendar

Malayalam name Transliteration Concurrent Gregorian months Sanskrit word and meaning Zodiac sign
ചിങ്ങം chi-ngnga-m August–September simha "lion" Leo
കന്നി ka-nni September–October kanyā "girl" Virgo
തുലാം thu-lā-m October–November tulā "balance" Libra
വൃശ്ചികം vRSh-chi-ka-m November–December vṛścika "scorpion" Scorpio
ധനു dha-nu December–January dhanu "bow, arc" Sagittarius
മകരം ma-ka-ra-m January–February mokara "sea-monster" Capricorn
കുംഭം kum-bha-m February–March kumbha "pitcher, water-pot" Aquarius
മീനം mee-na-m March–April mīna "(a specific kind of) fish" Pisces
മേടം mE-Da-m April–May meṣa "ram" Aries
ഇടവം i-Ta-va-m May - June vṛṣabha "bull" Taurus
മിഥുനം mi-thu-na-m June–July mithuna "a pair" Gemini
കർക്കടകം kar-kka-Ta-ka-m July–August karkaṭa "crab" Cancer

Sinhalese calendar

The Sinhalese calendar is the Buddhist calendar in Sri Lanka with Sinhala names. Each full moon Poya day marks the start of a Buddhist lunar month.[7] The first month is Vesak.[8]

  1. Duruthu (දුරුතු)
  2. Navam (නවම්)
  3. Mædin (මැදින්)
  4. Bak (බක්)
  5. Vesak (වෙසක්)
  6. Poson (පොසොන්)
  7. Æsala (ඇසල)
  8. Nikini (නිකිණි)
  9. Binara (බිනර)
  10. Vap (වප්)
  11. Il (iL) (ඉල්)
  12. Unduvap (උඳුවප්)

Germanic calendar

The old Icelandic calendar is not in official use anymore, but some Icelandic holidays and annual feasts are still calculated from it. It has 12 months, broken down into two groups of six often termed "winter months" and "summer months". The calendar is peculiar in that the months always start on the same weekday rather than on the same date. Hence Þorri always starts on a Friday sometime between January 22 and January 28 (Old style: January 9 to January 15), Góa always starts on a Sunday between February 21 and February 27 (Old style: February 8 to February 14).

  • Skammdegi ("Short days")
  1. Gormánuður (mid October - mid November, "slaughter month" or "Gór's month")
  2. Ýlir (mid November - mid December, "Yule month")
  3. Mörsugur (mid December - mid January, "fat sucking month")
  4. Þorri (mid January - mid February, "frozen snow month")
  5. Góa (mid February - mid March, "Góa's month, see Nór")
  6. Einmánuður (mid March - mid April, "lone" or "single month")
  • Náttleysi ("Nightless days")
  1. Harpa (mid April - mid May, Harpa is a female name, probably a forgotten goddess, first day of Harpa is celebrated as Sumardagurinn fyrsti - first day of summer)
  2. Skerpla (mid May - mid June, another forgotten goddess)
  3. Sólmánuður (mid June - mid July, "sun month")
  4. Heyannir (mid July - mid August, "hay business month")
  5. Tvímánuður (mid August - mid September, "two" or "second month")
  6. Haustmánuður (mid September - mid October, "autumn month")

Old Georgian calendar

Month Georgian Month Name Transliteration Georgian Other Names Transliteration
January აპნისი, აპანი Apnisi, Apani    
February სურწყუნისი Surtskunisi განცხადებისთვე Gantskhadebistve
March მირკანი Mirkani    
April იგრიკა Igrika    
May ვარდობისა Vardobisa ვარდობისთვე Vardobistve
June მარიალისა Marialisa თიბათვე, ივანობისთვე Tibatve, Ivanobistve
July თიბისა Tibisa მკათათვე, კვირიკობისთვე Mkatatve, Kvirikobistve
August ქველთობისა Kveltobisa მარიამობისთვე Mariamobistve
September ახალწლისა Akhaltslisa ენკენისთვე Enkenistve
October სთვლისა Stvlisa ღვინობისთვე Gvinobistve
November ტირისკონი Tiriskoni გიორგობისთვე, ჭინკობისთვე Giorgobistve, Chinkobistve
December ტირისდენი Tirisdeni ქრისტეშობისთვე Kristeshobistve

*NOTE: New Year in ancient Georgia started from September.

Old Swedish calendar

  1. Torsmånad (January, 'Torre's month' (ancient god))
  2. Göjemånad (February, 'Goe's month' (ancient goddess))
  3. Vårmånad (March, 'Spring month')
  4. Gräsmånad (April, 'Grass month')
  5. Blomstermånad (May, 'Bloom month')
  6. Sommarmånad (June, 'Summer month')
  7. Hömånad (July, 'Hay month')
  8. Skördemånad, Rötmånad (August, 'Harvest month' or 'Rotten month')
  9. Höstmånad (September, 'Autumn month')
  10. Slaktmånad (October, 'Slaughter month')
  11. Vintermånad (November, 'Winter month')
  12. Julmånad (December, 'Christmas month')

Old English calendar

Like the Old Norse calendar, the Anglo-Saxons had their own calendar before they were Christianized which reflected native traditions and deities. These months were attested by Bede in his works On Chronology and The Reckoning of Time written in the 8th century.[9] His months are probably those as written in the Northumbrian dialect of Old English which he was familiar with. The months were so named after the moon; the new moon marking the end of an old month and start of a new month; the full moon occurring in the middle of the month, after which the month was named.

  1. Æfterra-ġēola mōnaþ (January, 'After-Yule month')
  2. Sol-mōnaþ (February, 'Sol month')
  3. Hrēð-mōnaþ (March, 'Hreth month')
  4. Ēostur-mōnaþ (April, 'Ēostur month')
  5. Ðrimilce-mōnaþ (May, 'Three-milkings month')
  6. Ærra-Liþa (June, 'Ere-Litha')
  7. Æftera-Liþa (July, 'After-Litha')
  8. Weōd-mōnaþ (August, 'Weed month')
  9. Hāliġ-mōnaþ or Hærfest-mōnaþ (September, 'Holy month' or 'Harvest month')
  10. Winter-fylleþ (October, 'Winter-filleth')
  11. Blōt-mōnaþ (November, 'Blót month')
  12. Ærra-ġēola mōnaþ (December, 'Ere-Yule')

Old Hungarian calendar

Nagyszombati kalendárium (in Latin: Calendarium Tyrnaviense) from 1579. Historically Hungary used a 12-month calendar that appears to have been zodiacal in nature[10] but eventually came to correspond to the Gregorian months as shown below:[11]

  1. Boldogasszony hava (January, 'month of the happy/blessed lady')
  2. Böjtelő hava (February, 'month of early fasting/Lent' or 'month before fasting/Lent')
  3. Böjtmás hava (March, 'second month of fasting/Lent')
  4. Szent György hava (April, 'Saint George's month')
  5. Pünkösd hava (May, 'Pentecost month')
  6. Szent Iván hava (June, 'Saint John [the Baptist]'s month')
  7. Szent Jakab hava (July, 'Saint James' month')
  8. Kisasszony hava (August, 'month of the Virgin')
  9. Szent Mihály hava (September, 'Saint Michael's month')
  10. Mindszent hava (October, 'all saints' month')
  11. Szent András hava (November, 'Saint Andrew's month')
  12. Karácsony hava (December, 'month of Yule/Christmas')

Czech calendar

  1. Leden - derives from 'led' (ice)
  2. Únor - derives from 'nořit' (to dive, referring to the ice sinking into the water due to melting)
  3. Březen - derives from 'bříza' (birch)
  4. Duben - derives from 'dub' (oak)
  5. Květen - derives from 'květ' (flower)
  6. Červen - derives from 'červená' (red - for the color of apples and tomatoes)
  7. Červenec - is the second 'červen' (formerly known as 2nd červen)
  8. Srpen - derives from old Czech word 'sirpsti' (meaning to reflect, referring to the shine on the wheat)
  9. Září - means 'to shine'
  10. Říjen - derives from 'jelení říje', which refers to the estrous cycle of female elk
  11. Listopad - falling leaves
  12. Prosinec - derives from old Czech 'prosiněti', which means to shine through (refers to the sun light shining through the clouds)[12]

Old Egyptian calendar

The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long and was divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days (epagomenes) at the end of the year. The months were divided into 3 "weeks" of ten days each. Because the ancient Egyptian year was almost a quarter of a day shorter than the solar year and stellar events "wandered" through the calendar, it is referred to as Annus Vagus or "Wandering Year".

  1. Thout
  2. Paopi
  3. Hathor
  4. Koiak
  5. Tooba
  6. Emshir
  7. Paremhat
  8. Paremoude
  9. Pashons
  10. Paoni
  11. Epip
  12. Mesori

Nisga'a calendar

The Nisga'a calendar coincides with the Gregorian calendar with each month referring to the type of harvesting that is done during the month.

  1. K'aliiyee = Going North - referring to the Sun returning to its usual place in the sky
  2. Buxwlaks = Needles Blowing About - February is usually a very windy month in the Nass River Valley
  3. Xsaak = To Eat Oolichans - Oolichans are harvested during this month
  4. Mmaal = Canoes - The river has defrosted, hence canoes are used once more
  5. Yansa'alt = Leaves are Blooming - Warm weather has arrived and leaves on the trees begin to bloom
  6. Miso'o = Sockeye - majority of Sockeye Salmon runs begin this month
  7. Maa'y = Berries - berry picking season
  8. Wii Hoon = Great Salmon - referring to the abundance of Salmon that are now running
  9. Genuugwwikw = Trail of the Marmot - Marmots, Ermines and animals as such are hunted
  10. Xlaaxw = To Eat Trout - trout are mostly eaten this time of year
  11. Gwilatkw = To Blanket - The earth is "blanketed" with snow
  12. Luut'aa = Sit In - the Sun "sits" in one spot for a period of time

French Republican calendar

This calendar was proposed during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about twelve years from late 1793. There were twelve months of 30 days each, grouped into three ten-day weeks called décades. The five or six extra days needed to approximate the tropical year were placed after the months at the end of each year. A period of four years ending on a leap day was to be called a Franciade. It began at the autumn equinox:

  • Autumn:
  1. Vendémiaire
  2. Brumaire
  3. Frimaire
  • Winter:
  1. Nivôse
  2. Pluviôse
  3. Ventôse
  • Spring:
  1. Germinal
  2. Floréal
  3. Prairial
  • Summer:
  1. Messidor
  2. Thermidor
  3. Fructidor

Adhik Maas

Purushottam Maas or Adhik Maas is an extra month in the Hindu calendar that is inserted to keep the lunar and solar calendars aligned. "Purushottam" is an epithet of Vishnu, to whom the month is dedicated.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ Solomon, Stenson (2009). Pingelap Non-Sacred Knowledge. Historic Preservation Fund Grant Department of Land and Natural Resources.
  2. ^ "Days in each Month". Mnemonics to Improve Memory. EUdesign. 1997. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  3. ^ The Boy Mechanic: A Handy Calendar. Project Gutenberg. 1. 1913 – via Full Books.
  4. ^ a b Esslemont, J. E. (1980). Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (5th ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 178–179. ISBN 0-87743-160-4.
  5. ^ "What is the Sikh Nanakshahi calendar". All About Sikhs. Gateway to Sikhism. 2007. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
  6. ^ "Khmer Chhankitek Calendar". Cambodian Coordinating Council. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  7. ^ "Sri Lanka – Festival Calendar". Premlanka Hotel. Curlew Communications Ltd. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  8. ^ "The Significance of Poya". Lanka Library. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  9. ^ Newton, Dr Sam (2000). "The Old English Calendar". Wuffings. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  10. ^ Bodroghy, Gabor Z. (1998). "The Calendar by Marsigli: the ancient Hungarian Calendar". The Ancient Hungarian Rovas. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  11. ^ "Hónapok nevei". Free Web (in Hungarian). Archived from the original on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  12. ^ KEBRLE, Vojtěch. Česká jména měsíců, jejich význam a původ, Naše řeč 23, 1939
  13. ^ Shukla, Ritu (24 January 2017). "12 important facts about Adhik Mass you must know!". Astro Speak. Archived from the original on 29 March 2018. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
2018–19 NBA season

The 2018–19 NBA season is the 73rd season of the National Basketball Association (NBA). The regular season began on October 16, 2018 and ended on April 10, 2019. The playoffs began on April 13, 2019, with the NBA Finals concluding in June. The 2019 NBA All-Star Game was played on February 17, 2019, at the Spectrum Center in Charlotte, North Carolina.

2018–19 Premier League

The 2018–19 Premier League is the 27th season of the Premier League, the top English professional league for association football clubs, since its establishment in 1992. The season started on 10 August 2018 and is scheduled to finish on 12 May 2019. Fixtures for the 2018–19 season were announced on 14 June 2018.Manchester City are the defending champions. Wolverhampton Wanderers, Cardiff City and Fulham joined as the promoted clubs from the 2017–18 EFL Championship. They replaced West Bromwich Albion, Swansea City and Stoke City who were relegated to the 2018–19 EFL Championship.

The season saw the occurrence of two aviation incidents involving Premier League personnel. On 27 October 2018, Leicester City owner Vichai Srivaddhanaprabha was killed in a helicopter crash outside the King Power Stadium, shortly after a 1–1 home draw against West Ham United. Almost three months later, on 21 January 2019, Cardiff City player Emiliano Sala, en route to join the club following his record signing from Nantes, died on board a Piper PA-46 Malibu aircraft that crashed off Alderney.Huddersfield Town were the first team to be relegated, following their 2–0 defeat at Crystal Palace on 30 March 2019, coinciding with victories for Burnley and Southampton. They were relegated with six games remaining. This made Huddersfield the second team to be relegated before March ended, following Derby County in 2007–08. Fulham joined them after a 4–1 defeat at Watford on 2 April, relegated with five games remaining.

The fastest goal in Premier League history was scored this season on 23 April by Shane Long in a 1–1 draw between his side Southampton and Watford with 7.69 seconds.

April

April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar, the fifth in the early Julian, the first of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the second of five months to have a length of less than 31 days.

April is commonly associated with the season of autumn in parts of the Southern Hemisphere, and spring in parts of the Northern Hemisphere, where it is the seasonal equivalent to October in the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa.

August

August is the eighth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, and the fifth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. It was originally named Sextilis in Latin because it was the sixth month in the original ten-month Roman calendar under Romulus in 753 BC, and March was the first month of the year. About 700 BC, it became the eighth month when January and February were added to the year before March by King Numa Pompilius, who also gave it 29 days. Julius Caesar added two days when he created the Julian calendar in 46 BC (708 AUC), giving it its modern length of 31 days. In 8 BC, it was renamed in honor of Augustus. According to a Senatus consultum quoted by Macrobius, he chose this month because it was the time of several of his great triumphs, including the conquest of Egypt.In the Southern Hemisphere, August is the seasonal equivalent of February in the Northern Hemisphere. In many European countries, August is the holiday month for most workers. Numerous religious holidays occurred during August in ancient Rome.Certain meteor showers take place in August. The Kappa Cygnids take place in August, with the dates varying each year. The Alpha Capricornids meteor shower takes place as early as July 10 and ends at around August 10, and the Southern Delta Aquariids take place from mid-July to mid-August, with the peak usually around July 28–29. The Perseids, a major meteor shower, typically takes place between July 17 and August 24, with the days of the peak varying yearly. The star cluster of Messier 30 is best observed around August.

Among the aborigines of the Canary Islands, especially among the Guanches of Tenerife, the month of August received in the name of Beñesmer or Beñesmen, which was also the harvest festival held this month.

Chinese calendar

The traditional China calendar (officially known as the Rural Calendar [農曆; 农历; Nónglì; 'farming calendar']), or Former Calendar (舊曆; 旧历; Jiùlì), Traditional Calendar (老曆; 老历; Lǎolì) or Lunar Calendar (陰曆; 阴历; Yīnlì; 'yin calendar'), is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena. It is defined by GB/T 33661-2017, "Calculation and promulgation of the Chinese calendar", issued by the Standardisation Administration of China on 12 May 2017.

Although modern day China uses the Gregorian calendar, the traditional Chinese calendar governs holidays (such as the Chinese New Year) in China and in overseas Chinese communities. It lists the dates of traditional Chinese holidays and guides people in selecting auspicious days for weddings, funerals, moving, or starting a business.

Like Chinese characters, variants of this calendar are used in different parts of the Chinese cultural sphere. Korea, Vietnam, and the Ryukyu Islands adopted the calendar, and it evolved into Korean, Vietnamese, and Ryukyuan calendars. The main difference from the traditional Chinese calendar is the use of different meridians, which leads to some astronomical events—and calendar events based on them—falling on different dates. The traditional Japanese calendar also derived from the Chinese calendar (based on a Japanese meridian), but its official use in Japan was abolished in 1873 as part of reforms after the Meiji Restoration. Calendars in Mongolia and Tibet have absorbed elements of the traditional Chinese calendar, but are not direct descendants of it.Days begin and end at midnight, and months begin on the day of the new moon. Years begin on the second (or third) new moon after the winter solstice. Solar terms govern the beginning and end of each month. Written versions in ancient China included stems and branches of the year and the names of each month, including leap months as needed. Characters indicated whether a month was long (大, 30 days) or short (小, 29 days); stem branches for the first, eleventh, and 21st days, and the date, stem branch and time of the solar terms.

Full moon

The full moon is the lunar phase when the Moon appears fully illuminated from Earth's perspective. This occurs when Earth is located between the Sun and the Moon (more exactly, when the ecliptic longitudes of the Sun and Moon differ by 180°). This means that the lunar hemisphere facing Earth – the near side – is completely sunlit and appears as a circular disk, while the far side is dark. The full moon occurs once roughly every month.

When the Moon moves into Earth's shadow, a lunar eclipse occurs, during which all or part of the Moon's face may appear reddish due to the Rayleigh scattering of blue wavelengths and the refraction of sunlight through Earth's atmosphere. Lunar eclipses happen only during full moon and around points on its orbit where the satellite may pass through the planet's shadow. A lunar eclipse does not occur every month because the Moon's orbit is inclined 5.14° with respect to the ecliptic plane of Earth; thus, the Moon usually passes north or south of Earth's shadow, which is mostly restricted to this plane of reference. Lunar eclipses happen only when the full moon occurs around either node of its orbit (ascending or descending). Therefore, a lunar eclipse occurs approximately every 6 months and often 2 weeks before or after a solar eclipse, which occurs during new moon around the opposite node.

The interval period between a new or full moon and the next same phase, a synodic month, averages about 29.53 days. Therefore, in those lunar calendars in which each month begins on the day of the new moon, the full moon falls on either the 14th or 15th day of the lunar month. Because a calendar month consists of a whole number of days, a lunar month may be either 29 or 30 days long.

Gay pride

Gay pride or LGBT pride is the positive stance against discrimination and violence toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people to promote their self-affirmation, dignity, equality rights, increase their visibility as a social group, build community, and celebrate sexual diversity and gender variance. Pride, as opposed to shame and social stigma, is the predominant outlook that bolsters most LGBT rights movements throughout the world. Pride has lent its name to LGBT-themed organizations, institutes, foundations, book titles, periodicals and even a cable TV station and the Pride Library.

Ranging from solemn to carnivalesque, pride events are typically held during LGBT Pride Month or some other period that commemorates a turning point in a country's LGBT history, for example Moscow Pride in May for the anniversary of Russia's 1993 decriminalization of homosexuality. Some pride events include LGBT pride parades and marches, rallies, commemorations, community days, dance parties, and large festivals.

As of 2017, plans were advancing by the State of New York to host in 2019 the largest international celebration of LGBT pride in history, known as Stonewall 50 / WorldPride, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots. In New York City, the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events produced by Heritage of Pride will be enhanced through a partnership made with the I LOVE NY program's LGBT division and shall include a welcome center during the weeks surrounding the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events that will be open to all. Additional commemorative arts, cultural, and educational programming to mark the 50th anniversary of the rebellion at the Stonewall Inn will be taking place throughout the city and the world.Common symbols of pride are the rainbow or pride flag, the lowercase Greek letter lambda (λ), the pink triangle and the black triangle, these latter two reclaimed from use as badges of shame in Nazi concentration camps.

Gregorian calendar

The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582. The calendar spaces leap years to make the average year 365.2425 days long, approximating the 365.2422-day tropical year that is determined by the Earth's revolution around the Sun. The rule for leap years is:

Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the year 2000 is.

The calendar was developed as a correction to the Julian calendar, shortening the average year by 0.0075 days to stop the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes. To deal with the 10 days' difference (between calendar and reality) that this drift had already reached, the date was advanced so that 4 October 1582 was followed by 15 October 1582. There was no discontinuity in the cycle of weekdays or of the Anno Domini calendar era. The reform also altered the lunar cycle used by the Church to calculate the date for Easter (computus), restoring it to the time of the year as originally celebrated by the early Church.

The reform was adopted initially by the Catholic countries of Europe and their overseas possessions. Over the next three centuries, the Protestant and Eastern Orthodox countries also moved to what they called the Improved calendar, with Greece being the last European country to adopt the calendar in 1923. To unambiguously specify a date during the transition period, (or in history texts), dual dating is sometimes used to specify both Old Style and New Style dates (abbreviated as O.S and N.S. respectively). Due to globalization in the 20th century, the calendar has also been adopted by most non-Western countries for civil purposes. The calendar era carries the alternative secular name of "Common Era".

Hebrew calendar

The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (הַלּוּחַ הָעִבְרִי, Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances. It determines the dates for Jewish holidays and the appropriate public reading of Torah portions, yahrzeits (dates to commemorate the death of a relative), and daily Psalm readings, among many ceremonial uses. In Israel, it is used for religious purposes, provides a time frame for agriculture and is an official calendar for civil purposes, although the latter usage has been steadily declining in favor of the Gregorian calendar.

The present Hebrew calendar is the product of evolution, including a Babylonian influence. Until the Tannaitic period (approximately 10–220 CE), the calendar employed a new crescent moon, with an additional month normally added every two or three years to correct for the difference between twelve lunar months and the solar year. The year in which it was added was based on observation of natural agriculture-related events in ancient Israel. Through the Amoraic period (200–500 CE) and into the Geonic period, this system was gradually displaced by the mathematical rules used today. The principles and rules were fully codified by Maimonides in the Mishneh Torah in the 12th century. Maimonides' work also replaced counting "years since the destruction of the Temple" with the modern creation-era Anno Mundi.

The Hebrew lunar year is about eleven days shorter than the solar year and uses the 19-year Metonic cycle to bring it into line with the solar year, with the addition of an intercalary month every two or three years, for a total of seven times per 19 years. Even with this intercalation, the average Hebrew calendar year is longer by about 6 minutes and 40 seconds than the current mean tropical year, so that every 217 years the Hebrew calendar will fall a day behind the current mean tropical year; and about every 238 years it will fall a day behind the mean Gregorian calendar year.The era used since the Middle Ages is the Anno Mundi epoch (Latin for "in the year of the world"; Hebrew: לבריאת העולם‎, "from the creation of the world"). As with Anno Domini (A.D. or AD), the words or abbreviation for Anno Mundi (A.M. or AM) for the era should properly precede the date rather than follow it.

AM 5779 began at sunset on 9 September 2018 and will end at sunset on 29 September 2019.

Hindu calendar

Hindu calendar is a collective term for the various lunisolar calendars traditionally used in the Indian subcontinent. They adopt a similar underlying concept for timekeeping, but differ in their relative emphasis to moon cycle or the sun cycle and the names of months and when they consider the New Year to start. Of the various regional calendars, the most studied and known Hindu calendars are the Shalivahana Shaka found in South India, Vikram Samvat (Bikrami) found in North and Central regions of India, Tamil calendar used in Tamil Nadu, and the Bengali calendar used in the Bengal – all of which emphasize the lunar cycle. Their new year starts in spring. In contrast, in regions such as Kerala, the solar cycle is emphasized and this is called the Malayalam calendar, their new year starts in autumn, and these have origins in the second half of the 1st millennium CE. A Hindu calendar is sometimes referred to as Panchanga (पञ्चाङ्ग).The ancient Hindu calendar conceptual design is also found in the Jewish calendar, but different from the Gregorian calendar. Unlike Gregorian calendar which adds additional days to lunar month to adjust for the mismatch between twelve lunar cycles (354 lunar days) and nearly 365 solar days, the Hindu calendar maintains the integrity of the lunar month, but insert an extra full month by complex rules, every few years, to ensure that the festivals and crop-related rituals fall in the appropriate season.The Hindu calendars have been in use in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times, and remains in use by the Hindus in India and Nepal particularly to set the Hindu festival dates such as Holi, Maha Shivaratri, Vaisakhi, Raksha Bandhan, Pongal, Onam, Krishna Janmashtami, Durga Puja, Ram Navami, Pana Sankranti, Vishu and Diwali. Early Buddhist communities of India adopted the ancient Indian calendar, later Vikrami calendar and then local Buddhist calendars. Buddhist festivals continue to be scheduled according to a lunar system. The Buddhist calendar and the traditional lunisolar calendars of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand are also based on an older version of the Hindu calendar. Similarly, the ancient Jain traditions have followed the same lunisolar system as the Hindu calendar for festivals, texts and inscriptions. However, the Buddhist and Jain timekeeping systems have attempted to use the Buddha and the Mahavira's lifetimes as their reference points.The Hindu calendar is also important to the practice of Hindu astrology and zodiac system.

Islamic calendar

The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري‎ at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca. The civil calendar of almost all countries where the religion is predominantly Muslim is the Gregorian calendar. Notable exceptions to this rule are Iran and Afghanistan, which use the Solar Hijri calendar. Rents, wages and similar regular commitments are generally paid by the civil calendar.The Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was established as the Islamic New Year of 622 AD/CE. During that year, Muhammad and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib (now Medina) and established the first Muslim community (ummah), an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are usually denoted AH (Latin: Anno Hegirae, "in the year of the Hijra") in parallel with the Christian (AD), Common (CE) and Jewish eras (AM). In Muslim countries, it is also sometimes denoted as H from its Arabic form (سَنة هِجْريّة, abbreviated هـ). In English, years prior to the Hijra are reckoned as BH ("Before the Hijra").The current Islamic year is 1440 AH. In the Gregorian calendar, 1440 AH runs from approximately 11 September 2018 to 30 August 2019.

January

January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as New Year's Day. It is, on average, the coldest month of the year within most of the Northern Hemisphere (where it is the second month of winter) and the warmest month of the year within most of the Southern Hemisphere (where it is the second month of summer). In the Southern hemisphere, January is the seasonal equivalent of July in the Northern hemisphere and vice versa.

Ancient Roman observances during this month include Cervula and Juvenalia, celebrated January 1, as well as one of three Agonalia, celebrated January 9, and Carmentalia, celebrated January 11. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar

Julian calendar

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC (709 AUC), by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

The Julian calendar is still used in parts of the Eastern Orthodox Church, in parts of Oriental Orthodoxy and Anabaptism, as well as by the Berbers.

During the 20th and 21st centuries, the date according to the Julian calendar is 13 days behind the Gregorian date, and after the year 2100 will be one day more.

Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1954, 1961) introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.The Köppen climate classification divides climates into five main climate groups, with each group being divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). Each group and subgroup is represented by a letter. All climates are assigned a main group (the first letter). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation subgroup (the second letter). For example, Af indicates a tropical rainforest climate. The system assigns a temperature subgroup for all groups other than those in the A group, indicated by the third letter for climates in B, C, and D, and the second letter for climates in E. For example, Cfb indicates an oceanic climate with warm summers as indicated by the ending b. Climates are classified based on specific criteria unique to each climate type.Köppen designed the system based on his experience as a botanist, so the main climate groups are based on the different variety of vegetation that grows in climates belonging to each group. In addition to identifying climates, the system can be used to analyze ecosystem conditions and identify the main types of vegetation within climates. Due to its link with the plant life of a region, the system is useful in predicting future changes in plant life within a region.The Köppen climate classification system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980). The Trewartha system sought to create a more refined middle latitude climate zone, which was one of the criticisms of the Köppen system (the C climate group was too broad).

Light-year

The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.46 trillion kilometres (9.46 x 1012 km) or 5.88 trillion miles (5.88 x 1012 mi). As defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), a light-year is the distance that light travels in vacuum in one Julian year (365.25 days). Because it includes the word "year", the term light-year is sometimes misinterpreted as a unit of time.

The light-year is most often used when expressing distances to stars and other distances on a galactic scale, especially in nonspecialist and popular science publications. The unit most commonly used in professional astrometry is the parsec (symbol: pc, about 3.26 light-years; the distance at which one astronomical unit subtends an angle of one second of arc).

List of Penthouse Pets

This is a list of the models who have appeared in the American edition of Penthouse magazine and were either named Pet of the Month or Pet of the Year from September 1969 to present. Pets of the Year names are in bold type and are typically featured in the January issue of the year for which they are selected. Unlike Playboy, it may be several years before a model becomes "Pet of the Year" after their initial centerfold. No model was selected in 1985.

May

May is the fifth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the third of seven months to have a length of 31 days.

May is a month of spring in the Northern Hemisphere and autumn in the Southern Hemisphere. Therefore, May in the Southern Hemisphere is the seasonal equivalent of November in the Northern Hemisphere and vice versa. Late May typically marks the start of the summer vacation season in the United States and Canada and ends on Labor Day, the first Monday of September.

The month of May (in Latin, Maius) was named for the Greek Goddess Maia, who was identified with the Roman era goddess of fertility, Bona Dea, whose festival was held in May. Conversely, the Roman poet Ovid provides a second etymology, in which he says that the month of May is named for the maiores, Latin for "elders," and that the following month (June) is named for the iuniores, or "young people" (Fasti VI.88).

Mayovka, in the context of the late Russian Empire, was a picnic in the countryside or in a park in the early days of May, hence the name. Eventually, "mayovka" (specifically, "proletarian mayovka") came to mean an illegal celebration of May 1 by revolutionary public, typically presented as an innocent picnic.Special devotions to the Virgin Mary take place in May. See May devotions to the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Eta Aquariids meteor shower appears in May. It is visible from about April 21 to about May 20 each year with peak activity on or around May 6. The Arietids shower from May 22 – July 2, and peaks on June 7. The Virginids also shower at various dates in May.

Playboy Playmate

A Playmate is a female model featured in the centerfold/gatefold of Playboy magazine as Playmate of the Month (PMOM). The PMOM's pictorial includes nude photographs and a centerfold poster, along with a pictorial biography and the "Playmate Data Sheet", which lists her birthdate, measurements, turn-ons, and turn-offs. At the end of the year, one of the twelve Playmates of the Month is named Playmate of the Year (PMOY). Currently, Playmates of the Month are paid US$25,000 and Playmates of the Year receive an additional US$100,000 plus a car and a motorcycle. In addition, Anniversary Playmates are usually chosen to celebrate a milestone year of the magazine.

Playboy encourages potential Playmates to send photos with "girl next door" appeal for consideration; others may submit photos of Playmate candidates, and may be eligible for a finder's fee if their model is selected. In addition, "casting calls" are held regularly in major US cities to offer opportunities for women to test for

Playboy. The Playboy photographers and Hugh Hefner then select which models become Playmates. The Playmate of the Year is chosen personally by Hugh Hefner, taking into account an annual readers' poll.According to Playboy, there is no such thing as a former Playmate because "Once a Playmate, always a Playmate".

Ramadan

Ramadan (; Arabic: رمضان‎ Ramaḍān, IPA: [ramaˈdˤaːn]; also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief. This annual observance is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The month lasts 29–30 days based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon, according to numerous biographical accounts compiled in the hadiths.The word Ramadan comes from the Arabic root ramiḍa or ar-ramaḍ, which means scorching heat or dryness. Fasting is fard (obligatory) for adult Muslims, except those who are suffering from an illness, travelling, are elderly, pregnant, breastfeeding, diabetic, chronically ill or menstruating. Fasting the month of Ramadan was made obligatory (wājib) during the month of Sha'ban, in the second year after the Muslims migrated from Mecca to Medina. Fatwas have been issued declaring that Muslims who live in regions with a natural phenomenon such as the midnight sun or polar night should follow the timetable of Mecca, but the more commonly accepted opinion is that Muslims in those areas should follow the timetable of the closest country to them in which night can be distinguished from day.While fasting from dawn until sunset, Muslims refrain from consuming food, drinking liquids, smoking, and engaging in sexual relations. Muslims are also instructed to refrain from sinful behavior that may negate the reward of fasting, such as false speech (insulting, backbiting, cursing, lying, etc.) and fighting except in self-defense. Pre-fast meals before dawn are referred to as Suhoor, while the post-fast breaking feasts after sunset are called Iftar. Spiritual rewards (thawab) for fasting are also believed to be multiplied within the month of Ramadan. Fasting for Muslims during Ramadan typically includes the increased offering of salat (prayers), recitation of the Quran and an increase of doing good deeds and charity.

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