Montenegro

Coordinates: 42°30′N 19°18′E / 42.500°N 19.300°E

Montenegro

Црна Гора
Crna Gora
Anthem: 
"Ој, свијетла мајска зоро"
"Oj, svijetla majska zoro"
(English: "Oh, Bright Dawn of May")
Location of  Montenegro  (Green) in Europe  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]
Location of  Montenegro  (Green)

in Europe  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]

Location of Montenegro
Capital
and largest city
Podgorica
42°47′N 19°28′E / 42.783°N 19.467°E
Official languagesMontenegrin (national and official)[1]
Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian, Croatian (co-official)[2]
Writing systemLatin, Cyrillic
Ethnic groups
(2011[3])
Religion
(2011)
Demonym(s)Montenegrin
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Milo Đukanović
Duško Marković
Ivan Brajović
LegislatureParliament
Establishment history
• Formation of Duklja as a vassal of Byzantine Empire
625
• Duklja gains independence from the Byzantine Empire
7 October 1042
1077
• Kingdom of Zeta proclaimed
1373
1516
• De facto monarchy established under "False Emperor" Stephan the Little
1767
1 January 1852
28 August 1910
• Formation of Yugoslavia
1 December 1918
3 June 2006
Area
• Total
13,812 km2 (5,333 sq mi) (156th)
• Water (%)
2.6
Population
• July 2018 estimate
Increase 678,901[4] (164th)
• 2011 census
620,029[5]
• Density
45/km2 (116.5/sq mi) (121st)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$12.310 billion[6]
• Per capita
$19,734[6] (74th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$5.607 billion[6]
• Per capita
$8,988[6] (80th)
Gini (2014)Positive decrease 31.9[7]
medium · 9th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.814[8]
very high · 50th
CurrencyEuro ()a (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+382
ISO 3166 codeME
Internet TLD.me
  1. Adopted unilaterally; Montenegro is not a formal member of the Eurozone.

Montenegro (/ˌmɒntɪˈneɪɡroʊ, -ˈniːɡroʊ, -ˈnɛɡroʊ/ (listen); Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora [tsr̩̂ːnaː ɡɔ̌ra])[note 1] is a country in Southeastern Europe on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Bosnia and Herzegovina to the north; Serbia and Kosovo to the east, Albania to the south and Croatia to the west. Montenegro has an area of 13,812 square kilometres and a population of 678,000, most of whom are Orthodox Christians. Its capital Podgorica is one of the twenty-three municipalities in the country. Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital.

During the Early Medieval period, three principalities were located on the territory of modern-day Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half; Travunia, the west; and Rascia proper, the north.[9][10][11] In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja from the Byzantine Empire and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. The independent Principality of Zeta emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries, ruled by the House of Balšić between 1356 and 1421, and by the House of Crnojević between 1431 and 1498, when the name Montenegro started being used for the country. After falling under Ottoman rule, Montenegro regained de facto independence in 1697 under the rule of the House of Petrović-Njegoš, first under the theocratic rule of prince-bishops, before being transformed into a secular principality in 1852. Montenegro's de jure independence was recognised by the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, following the Montenegrin–Ottoman War. In 1905, the country became a kingdom. After World War I, it became part of Yugoslavia. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was renamed State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. On the basis of an independence referendum held in May 2006, Montenegro declared independence and the federation peacefully dissolved on 3 June of that year.

Since 1990, the sovereign state of Montenegro has been governed by the Democratic Party of Socialists and its minor coalition partners. Classified by the World Bank as an upper middle-income country, Montenegro is a member of the UN, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, and the Central European Free Trade Agreement. It is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean.

Etymology

The country's name derives from Venetian and translates to "Black Mountain", deriving from the appearance of Mount Lovćen when covered in dense evergreen forests.[12]

The native name Crna Gora came to denote the majority of contemporary Montenegro only in the 15th century.[13] Originally, it had referred to only a small strip of land under the rule of the Paštrovići, but the name eventually came to be used for the wider mountainous region after the Crnojević noble family took power in Upper Zeta.[13] The aforementioned region became known as Stara Crna Gora 'Old Montenegro' by the 19th century to distinguish the independent region from the neighbouring Ottoman-occupied Montenegrin territory of Brda '(The) Highlands'. Montenegro further increased its size several times by the 20th century, as the result of wars against the Ottoman Empire, which saw the annexation of Old Herzegovina and parts of Metohija and southern Raška. Its borders have changed little since then, losing Metohija and gaining the Bay of Kotor.

After the second session of the AVNOJ during World War II in Yugoslavia, the modern state of Montenegro was founded as the Federal State of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Савезна држава Црне Горе / Savezna država Crne Gore) on 15 November 1943 within the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia by the ZAVNOCGB. After DF Yugoslavia became the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, the Federal State of Montenegro was renamed to the People's Republic of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Народна Република Црна Гора / Narodna Republika Crna Gora) on 29 November 1945. In 1963, the FPRY was renamed to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and coincidentally, the People's Republic of Montenegro was renamed to the Socialist Republic of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Социјалистичка Република Црна Гора / Socijalistička Republika Crna Gora). As the breakup of Yugoslavia occurred, the SRCG was renamed to the Republic of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Република Црна Гора / Republika Crna Gora) on 27 April 1992 within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia by removing the adjective "socialist" from the republic's title. Since 22 October 2007, a year after its independence, the name of the country became simply known as Montenegro.

The ISO Alpha-2 code for Montenegro is ME and the Alpha-3 Code is MNE.[14]

History

Arrival of the Slavs

South-Eastern Europe, ca. 1090, by User-Hxseek
Kingdom of Duklja in the zenith of power, 1080 AD.

In the 9th century, three Slavic principalities were located on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia, the north.[9][10] Duklja gained its independence from the Byzantine Roman Empire in 1042. Over the next few decades, it expanded its territory to neighbouring Rascia and Bosnia, and also became recognised as a kingdom. Its power started declining at the beginning of the 12th century. After King Bodin's death (in 1101 or 1108), several civil wars ensued. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son, Mihailo (1046–81), and his grandson Constantine Bodin (1081–1101).[15] By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro (Zeta) came under the rule of the Balšić noble family, then the Crnojević noble family, and by the 15th century, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora (Venetian: monte negro).

As the nobility fought for the throne, the kingdom was weakened, and by 1186, it was conquered by Stefan Nemanja and incorporated into the Serbian realm as a province named Zeta. After the Serbian Empire collapsed in the second half of the 14th century, the most powerful Zetan family, the Balšićs, became sovereigns of Zeta.

In 1421, Zeta was annexed to the Serbian Despotate, but after 1455, another noble family from Zeta, the Crnojevićs, became sovereign rulers of the country, making it the last free monarchy of the Balkans before it fell to the Ottomans in 1496, and got annexed to the sanjak of Shkodër. During the reign of Crnojevićs, Zeta became known under its current name – Montenegro. For a short time, Montenegro existed as a separate autonomous sanjak in 1514–1528 (Sanjak of Montenegro). Also, Old Herzegovina region was part of Sanjak of Herzegovina.

Ottoman period

Petar II Petrovic-2
Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, was a Prince-Bishop (vladika) of Montenegro and Montenegrin national poet and philosopher.

Large portions fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire from 1496 to 1878. In the 16th century, Montenegro developed a unique form of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire permitting Montenegrin clans freedom from certain restrictions. Nevertheless, the Montenegrins were disgruntled with Ottoman rule, and in the 17th century, raised numerous rebellions, which culminated in the defeat of the Ottomans in the Great Turkish War at the end of that century.

Montenegro consisted of territories controlled by warlike clans. Most clans had a chieftain (knez), who was not permitted to assume the title unless he proved to be as worthy a leader as his predecessor. The great assembly of Montenegrin clans (Zbor) was held every year on 12 July in Cetinje, and any adult clansman could take part.

Parts of the territory were controlled by Republic of Venice and the First French Empire and Austria-Hungary, its successors. In 1515, Montenegro became a theocracy led by the Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral, which flourished after the Petrović-Njegoš of Cetinje became the traditional prince-bishops (whose title was "Vladika of Montenegro"). However, the Venetian Republic introduced governors who meddled in Montenegrin politics. The republic was succeeded by the Austrian Empire in 1797, and the governors were abolished by Prince-Bishop Petar II in 1832. His predecessor Petar I contributed to the unification of Montenegro with the Highlands.

Principality of Montenegro (1852–1910)

Battle of Vučji Do, Orao, 1877
Battle of Vučji Do between Montenegrin and Ottoman Army

Under Nicholas I, the principality was enlarged several times in the Montenegro-Turkish Wars and was recognised as independent in 1878. Under the rule of Nicholas I, diplomatic relations were established with the Ottoman Empire. Minor border skirmishes excepted, diplomacy ushered in about 30 years of peace between the two states until the deposition of Abdul Hamid II.[16]

The political skills of Abdul Hamid and Nicholas I played a major role in the mutually amicable relations.[16] Modernization of the state followed, culminating with the draft of a Constitution in 1905. However, political rifts emerged between the reigning People's Party, who supported the process of democratization and union with Serbia, and those of the True People's Party, who were monarchist.

During this period, one of the major Montenegrin victories over the Ottomans occurred at the Battle of Grahovac. Grand Duke Mirko Petrović, elder brother of Knjaz Danilo, led an army of 7,500 and defeated the numerically superior Ottomans who had 15,000 troops at Grahovac on 1 May 1858. The glory of Montenegrin victory was soon immortalized in the songs and literature of all the South Slavs, in particular the Montenegrins in Vojvodina, then part of Austria-Hungary. This forced the Great Powers to officially demarcate the borders between Montenegro and Ottoman Empire, de facto recognizing Montenegro's independence. Montenegro's independence was recognized by Ottoman Empire at Treaty of Berlin in 1878.

The first Montenegrin constitution was proclaimed in 1855; it was also known as the Danilo Code.

Kingdom of Montenegro (1910–1918)

Kralj i kraljica u krugu sire familije
Royal family of Montenegro: King Nicholas I with his wife, sons, daughters, grandchildren and sons- and daughters-in-law

In 1910, Montenegro became a kingdom, and as a result of the Balkan wars in 1912 and 1913 (in which the Ottomans lost all Balkan land), a common border with Serbia was established, with Shkodër being awarded to a newly created Albania, though the current capital city of Montenegro, Podgorica, was the old border of Albania and Yugoslavia.

Montenegro was among the Allied Powers during World War I (1914–18). From 1916 to October 1918, Montenegro was occupied by Austria-Hungary. During the occupation, King Nicholas fled the country and a government-in-exile was set up in Bordeaux.

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

In 1922, Montenegro formally became the Oblast of Cetinje in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, with the addition of the coastal areas around Budva and Bay of Kotor. In a further restructuring in 1929, it became a part of a larger Zeta Banate of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that reached the Neretva River.

Nicholas's grandson, the Serb King Alexander I, dominated the Yugoslav government. Zeta Banovina was one of nine banovinas which formed the kingdom; it consisted of the present-day Montenegro and parts of Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia.

World War II

Crna Gora - Oslobodjenje od strane okupacije 1711-1918
Liberation of Montenegro from 1711 to 1918
Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-185-0116-27A, Bucht von Kotor (-), jugoslawische Schiffe
Captured ships of the Yugoslavian Navy, Bay of Kotor 1941.
Borbe za oslobođenje Crne Gore
Uprising in Montenegro 1944.

In April 1941, Nazi Germany, the Kingdom of Italy, and other Axis allies attacked and occupied the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Italian forces occupied Montenegro and established it as a puppet Kingdom of Montenegro.

In May, the Montenegrin branch of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia started preparations for an uprising planned for mid-July. The Communist Party and its Youth League organised 6,000 of its members into detachments prepared for guerrilla warfare. The first armed uprising in Nazi-occupied Europe happened on 13 July 1941 in Montenegro.[17]

Unexpectedly, the uprising took hold, and by 20 July, 32,000 men and women had joined the fight. Except for the coast and major towns (Podgorica, Cetinje, Pljevlja, and Nikšić), which were besieged, Montenegro was mostly liberated. In a month of fighting, the Italian army suffered 5,000 dead, wounded, and captured. The uprising lasted until mid-August, when it was suppressed by a counter-offensive of 67,000 Italian troops brought in from Albania. Faced with new and overwhelming Italian forces, many of the fighters laid down their arms and returned home. Nevertheless, intense guerrilla fighting lasted until December.

Fighters who remained under arms fractured into two groups. Most of them went on to join the Yugoslav Partisans, consisting of communists and those inclined towards active resistance; these included Arso Jovanović, Sava Kovačević, Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo, Milovan Đilas, Peko Dapčević, Vlado Dapčević, Veljko Vlahović, and Blažo Jovanović. Those loyal to the Karađorđević dynasty and opposing communism went on to become Chetniks, and turned to collaboration with Italians against the Partisans.

War broke out between Partisans and Chetniks during the first half of 1942. Pressured by Italians and Chetniks, the core of the Montenegrin Partisans went to Serbia and Bosnia, where they joined with other Yugoslav Partisans. Fighting between Partisans and Chetniks continued through the war. Chetniks with Italian backing controlled most of the country from mid-1942 to April 1943. Montenegrin Chetniks received the status of "anti-communist militia" and received weapons, ammunition, food rations, and money from Italy. Most of them were moved to Mostar, where they fought in the Battle of Neretva against the Partisans, but were dealt a heavy defeat.

During the German operation Schwartz against the Partisans in May and June 1943, Germans disarmed large number of Chetniks without fighting, as they feared they would turn against them in case of an Allied invasion of the Balkans. After the capitulation of Italy in September 1943, Partisans managed to take hold of most of Montenegro for a brief time, but Montenegro was soon occupied by German forces, and fierce fighting continued during late 1943 and entire 1944. Montenegro was liberated by the Partisans in December 1944.

Odlazak predsednika Tita iz vile "Gorica"
Josip Broz Tito was the leader of SFR Yugoslavia from 1944 to 1980; Pictured: Tito in Podgorica

Montenegro within Socialist Yugoslavia

Montenegro, like the rest of Yugoslavia, was liberated by the Yugoslav Partisans in 1944.

Montenegro became one of the six constituent republics of the communist Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). Its capital became Podgorica, renamed Titograd in honour of President Josip Broz Tito. After the war, the infrastructure of Yugoslavia was rebuilt, industrialization began, and the University of Montenegro was established. Greater autonomy was established until the Socialist Republic of Montenegro ratified a new constitution in 1974.

Montenegro within FR Yugoslavia

After the dissolution of the SFRY in 1992, Montenegro remained part of a smaller Federal Republic of Yugoslavia along with Serbia.

In the referendum on remaining in Yugoslavia in 1992, the turnout was 66%, with 96% of the votes cast in favour of the federation with Serbia. The referendum was boycotted by the Muslim, Albanian, and Catholic minorities, as well as the pro-independence Montenegrins. The opponents claimed that the poll was organized under anti-democratic conditions with widespread propaganda from the state-controlled media in favour of a pro-federation vote. No impartial report on the fairness of the referendum was made, as it was unmonitored, unlike in 2006 when European Union observers were present.

During the 1991–1995 Bosnian War and Croatian War, Montenegrin police and military forces joined Serbian troops in the attacks on Dubrovnik, Croatia.[18] These operations, aimed at acquiring more territory, were characterized by a consistent pattern of large-scale violations of human rights.[19]

Montenegrin General Pavle Strugar was convicted for his part in the bombing of Dubrovnik.[20] Bosnian refugees were arrested by Montenegrin police and transported to Serb camps in Foča, where they were subjected to systematic torture and executed.[21][22]

In 1996, Milo Đukanović's government severed ties between Montenegro and its partner Serbia, which was led by Slobodan Milošević. Montenegro formed its own economic policy and adopted the German Deutsche Mark as its currency and subsequently adopted the euro, although not part of the Eurozone currency union. Subsequent governments pursued pro-independence policies, and political tensions with Serbia simmered despite the political changes in Belgrade. Targets in Montenegro were bombed by NATO forces during Operation Allied Force in 1999, although the extent of these attacks was very limited in both time and area affected.[23]

In 2002, Serbia and Montenegro came to a new agreement for continued cooperation and entered into negotiations regarding the future status of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. This resulted in the Belgrade Agreement, which saw the country's transformation into a more decentralised state union named Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. The Belgrade Agreement also contained a provision delaying any future referendum on the independence of Montenegro for at least three years.

Independence

Independent montenegro
Montenegro independence referendum in 2006, celebration in historical Royal capital Cetinje.

The status of the union between Montenegro and Serbia was decided by a referendum on Montenegrin independence on 21 May 2006. A total of 419,240 votes were cast, representing 86.5% of the total electorate; 230,661 votes (55.5%) were for independence and 185,002 votes (44.5%) were against.[24] This narrowly surpassed the 55% threshold needed to validate the referendum under the rules set by the European Union. According to the electoral commission, the 55% threshold was passed by only 2,300 votes. Serbia, the member-states of the European Union, and the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council all recognised Montenegro's independence.

The 2006 referendum was monitored by five international observer missions, headed by an Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)/ODIHR team, and around 3,000 observers in total (including domestic observers from CDT (OSCE PA), the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE), the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe (CLRAE), and the European Parliament (EP) to form an International Referendum Observation Mission (IROM). The IROM—in its preliminary report—"assessed compliance of the referendum process with OSCE commitments, Council of Europe commitments, other international standards for democratic electoral processes, and domestic legislation." Furthermore, the report stated that the competitive pre-referendum environment was marked by an active and generally peaceful campaign and that "there were no reports of restrictions on fundamental civil and political rights."

On 3 June 2006, the Montenegrin Parliament declared the independence of Montenegro,[25] formally confirming the result of the referendum. Serbia did not object to the declaration.

Euro-Atlantic integration in the 21st century

Secretary Kerry Poses With Montenegrin Prime Minister Djukanovic, NATO Secretary-General Stoltenberg, and Fellow NATO Foreign Ministers for a Family Photo at NATO Headquarters in Brussels (27080758736)
Milo Djukanovic poses with Secretary Kerry, NATO Secretary-General Stoltenberg and other alliance leaders after Montenegro's accession to the alliance, Brussels 2017.

The Law on the Status of the Descendants of the Petrović Njegoš Dynasty was passed by the Parliament of Montenegro on 12 July 2011. It rehabilitated the Royal House of Montenegro and recognized limited symbolic roles within the constitutional framework of the republic.

In 2015, the investigative journalists' network OCCRP named Montenegro's long-time President and Prime Minister Milo Đukanović "Person of the Year in Organized Crime".[26] The extent of Đukanović's corruption led to street demonstrations and calls for his removal.[27][28]

In October 2016, for the day of the parliamentary election, a coup d'état was prepared by a group of persons that included leaders of the Montenegrin opposition, Serbian nationals and Russian agents; the coup was prevented.[29] In 2017, fourteen people, including two Russian nationals and two Montenegrin opposition leaders, Andrija Mandić and Milan Knežević, were indicted for their alleged roles in the coup attempt on charges such as "preparing a conspiracy against the constitutional order and the security of Montenegro" and an "attempted terrorist act."[30]

Montenegro formally became a member of NATO in June 2017, though "Montenegro remains deeply divided over joining NATO",[31] an event that triggered a promise of retaliatory actions on the part of Russia's government.[32][33][34]

Montenegro has been in negotiations with the EU since 2012. In 2018, the earlier goal of acceding by 2022[35] was revised to 2025.[36]

Geography

Zla Kolata summit view with Kolata peaks (cropped)
Zla Kolata, highest point of Montenegro
HSV 654 07 Jan 2014 Montenegro Holokarst
Satellite view of Montenegro
Tursiops aduncus, Port River, Adelaide, Australia - 2003
The common bottlenose dolphin is often seen in the Bay of Kotor.

Internationally, Montenegro borders Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo,[a] and Albania. It lies between latitudes 41° and 44°N, and longitudes 18° and 21°E.

Montenegro ranges from high peaks along its borders with Serbia, Kosovo, and Albania, a segment of the Karst of the western Balkan Peninsula, to a narrow coastal plain that is only 1.5 to 6 kilometres (1 to 4 miles) wide. The plain stops abruptly in the north, where Mount Lovćen and Mount Orjen plunge into the inlet of the Bay of Kotor.

Montenegro's large karst region lies generally at elevations of 1,000 metres (3,280 ft) above sea level; some parts, however, rise to 2,000 m (6,560 ft), such as Mount Orjen (1,894 m or 6,214 ft), the highest massif among the coastal limestone ranges. The Zeta River valley, at an elevation of 500 m (1,600 ft), is the lowest segment.

The mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrain in Europe, averaging more than 2,000 metres (6,600 feet) in elevation. One of the country's notable peaks is Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor mountains, which reaches a height of 2,522 m (8,274 ft). Owing to the hyperhumid climate on their western sides, the Montenegrin mountain ranges were among the most ice-eroded parts of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period.

Name Established Area
Durmitor National Park 1952 390 square kilometres (39,000 ha)
Biogradska Gora 1952 54 square kilometres (5,400 ha)
Lovćen National Park 1952 64 square kilometres (6,400 ha)
Lake Skadar National Park 1983 400 square kilometres (40,000 ha)
Prokletije National Park 2009 166 square kilometres (16,600 ha)

Montenegro is a member of the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River, as more than 2,000 km2 (772 sq mi) of the country's territory lie within the Danube catchment area.

Biodiversity

The diversity of the geological base, landscape, climate, and soil, and the position of Montenegro on the Balkan Peninsula and Adriatic Sea, created the conditions for high biological diversity, putting Montenegro among the "hot-spots" of European and world biodiversity. The number of species per area unit index in Montenegro is 0.837, which is the highest index recorded in any European country.[38]

Biodiversity outlook
  • Freshwater algae of Montenegro – so far 1,200 species and varieties have been described.
  • The vascular flora of Montenegro has 3,250 species. The number of endemics is also high – there are 392 Balkan (regional) endemic species, equivalent to over 7% of Montenegrin flora.
  • There are 354 species of marine molluscs in Montenegro.[39]
  • Lake Skadar is among the most important habitats of freshwater fish, with 40 species, including species that migrate from marine to freshwater ecosystems, such as the eel (Anguilla anguilla) and shad (Alossa falax nilotica).
  • The diversity of marine fish fauna of the Adriatic Sea includes 117 recorded families, but with a low level of endemism. To date, 40,742 marine fish species have been recorded in Montenegro, which represent 70% of the species recorded in the Mediterranean.
  • Currently, 56 species (18 amphibian and 38 reptile) and 69 subspecies are recorded within 38 genera, and the list is probably incomplete. The mountain regions of Lovćen and Prokletije are particular hot spots for amphibians and reptiles.
  • Of 526 European bird species, 333 are assumed to be regularly present in Montenegro. Of these, 204 species nest in the country.[40]

Politics

Milo Đukanović in 2010 Dusko Markovic
Milo Đukanović
President
Duško Marković
Prime Minister
Eesti uus suursaadik Montenegros andis üle volikirja (8313238465)
Honorary Guard of the Army of Montenegro in the state protocol, Blue Palace residence of President of Montenegro in Cetinje.

The Constitution of Montenegro describes the state as a "civic, democratic, ecological state of social justice, based on the reign of Law."[41] Montenegro is an independent and sovereign republic that proclaimed its new constitution on 22 October 2007.

The President of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Predsjednik Crne Gore) is the head of state, elected for a period of five years through direct elections. The President represents the country abroad, promulgates laws by ordinance, calls elections for the Parliament, proposes candidates for Prime Minister, president and justices of the Constitutional Court to the Parliament. The President also proposes the calling of a referendum to Parliament, grants amnesty for criminal offences prescribed by the national law, confers decoration and awards and performs other constitutional duties and is a member of the Supreme Defence Council. The official residence of the President is in Cetinje.

The Government of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Vlada Crne Gore) is the executive branch of government authority of Montenegro. The government is headed by the Prime Minister, and consists of the deputy prime ministers as well as ministers.

The Parliament of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Skupština Crne Gore) is a unicameral legislative body. It passes laws, ratifies treaties, appoints the Prime Minister, ministers, and justices of all courts, adopts the budget and performs other duties as established by the Constitution. Parliament can pass a vote of no-confidence in the Government by a simple majority. One representative is elected per 6,000 voters. The present parliament contains 81 seats, with 39 seats held by the Coalition for a European Montenegro after the 2012 parliamentary election.

Foreign relations of Montenegro

After the promulgation of the Declaration of Independence in the Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro on 3 June 2006, following the independence referendum held on 21 May, the Government of the Republic of Montenegro assumed the competences of defining and conducting the foreign policy of Montenegro as a subject of international law and a sovereign state.

Global Investment Game Changers Summit I 2018 (30572772047)
President of Montenegro on the Global Investment Game Changers Summit 2018 Geneva.

The implementation of this constitutional responsibility was vested in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which was given the task of defining the foreign policy priorities and activities needed for their implementation. These activities are pursued in close cooperation with other state administration authorities, the President, the Speaker of the Parliament, and other relevant stakeholders.[42]

Integration into the European Union is Montenegro's strategic goal. This process will remain in the focus of Montenegrin foreign policy in the short term. The second strategic and equally important goal, but one attainable in a shorter time span, was joining NATO, which would guarantee stability and security for pursuing other strategic goals. Montenegro believes NATO integration would speed up EU integration.[42] In May 2017 NATO accepted Montenegro as a NATO member starting 5 June 2017.[43]

Although it only borders Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, and Serbia, Montenegro also counts former Yugoslav republics North Macedonia and Slovenia as its neighbouring countries, for historical and regional reasons, as well as the neighbours of former Yugoslavia: Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece.

Symbols

An official flag of Montenegro, based on the royal standard of King Nicholas I, was adopted on 12 July 2004 by the Montenegrin legislature. This royal flag was red with a silver border, a silver coat of arms, and the initials НІ, in Cyrillic script (corresponding to NI in Latin script), representing King Nicholas I. On the current flag, the border and arms are in gold and the royal cipher in the centre of the arms has been replaced with a golden lion.

The national day of 13 July marks the date in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world[44] and the start of one of the first popular uprisings in Europe against the Axis Powers on 13 July 1941 in Montenegro.

In 2004, the Montenegrin legislature selected a popular Montenegrin traditional song, "Oh, Bright Dawn of May", as the national anthem. Montenegro's official anthem during the reign of King Nicholas I was Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori ("To Our Beautiful Montenegro").

Military

The military of Montenegro is a fully professional standing army under the Ministry of Defence and is composed of the Montenegrin Ground Army, the Montenegrin Navy, and the Montenegrin Air Force, along with special forces. Conscription was abolished in 2006. The military currently maintains a force of 1,920 active duty members. The bulk of its equipment and forces were inherited from the armed forces of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro; as Montenegro contained the entire coastline of the former union, it retained practically the entire naval force.

Montenegro was a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace program and then became an official candidate for full membership in the alliance. Montenegro applied for a Membership Action Plan on 5 November 2008, which was granted in December 2009. Montenegro is also a member of Adriatic Charter.[45] Montenegro was invited to join NATO on 2 December 2015 and on 19 May 2016, NATO and Montenegro conducted a signing ceremony at NATO headquarters in Brussels for Montenegro's membership invitation.[46] Montenegro became NATO's 29th member on 5 June 2017, despite Russia's objections.[47] The government plans to have the army participate in peacekeeping missions through the UN and NATO such as the International Security Assistance Force.[48]

Administrative divisions

Montenegro is divided into twenty-three municipalities (opština). This includes 21 District-level Municipalities and 2 Urban Municipalities, with two subdivisions of Podgorica municipality, listed below. Each municipality can contain multiple cities and towns. Historically, the territory of the country was divided into "nahije".

Montenegro, administrative divisions - Nmbrs - colored
Municipalities of Montenegro.
Regions of Montenegro
Regions of Montenegro.

Cities in Montenegro

Economy

The port of Bar, view from Vrsuta mnt (39372956332)
Port of Bar is Montenegro's main sea port located in Bar.
Salaping papel Euro
Montenegro uses the Euro as its national currency.

The economy of Montenegro is mostly service-based and is in late transition to a market economy. According to the International Monetary Fund, the nominal GDP of Montenegro was $4.376 billion in 2016.[6] The GDP PPP for 2016 was $10.428 billion, or $16,749 per capita.[6] According to Eurostat data, the Montenegrin GDP per capita stood at 46% of the EU average in 2017.[50] The Central Bank of Montenegro is not part of the euro system but the country is "euroised", using the euro unilaterally as its currency.

GDP grew at 10.7% in 2007 and 7.5% in 2008.[51] The country entered a recession in 2008 as a part of the global recession, with GDP contracting by 4%. However, Montenegro remained a target for foreign investment, the only country in the Balkans to increase its amount of direct foreign investment.[52] The country exited the recession in mid-2010, with GDP growth at around 0.5%.[53] However, the significant dependence of the Montenegrin economy on foreign direct investment leaves it susceptible to external shocks and a high export/import trade deficit.

In 2007, the service sector made up 72.4% of GDP, with industry and agriculture making up the rest at 17.6% and 10%, respectively.[54] There are 50,000 farming households in Montenegro that rely on agriculture to fill the family budget.[55]

Infrastructure

Montenegro motorways
Roads of Montenegro in service and two planned: red – Bar–Boljare highway, blue – Adriatic–Ionian motorway

The Montenegrin road infrastructure is not yet at Western European standards. Despite an extensive road network, no roads are built to full motorway standards. Construction of new motorways is considered a national priority, as they are important for uniform regional economic development and the development of Montenegro as an attractive tourist destination.

Current European routes that pass through Montenegro are E65 and E80.

The backbone of the Montenegrin rail network is the Belgrade–Bar railway, which provides international connection towards Serbia. There is a domestic branch line, the Nikšić-Podgorica railway, which was operated as a freight-only line for decades, and is now also open for passenger traffic after the reconstruction and electrification works in 2012. The other branch line from Podgorica towards the Albanian border, the Podgorica–Shkodër railway, is not in use.

Montenegro has two international airports, Podgorica Airport and Tivat Airport. The two airports served 1.1 million passengers in 2008. Montenegro Airlines is the flag carrier of Montenegro.

The Port of Bar is Montenegro's main seaport. Initially built in 1906, the port was almost completely destroyed during World War II, with reconstruction beginning in 1950. Today, it is equipped to handle over 5 million tons of cargo annually, though the breakup of the former Yugoslavia and the size of the Montenegrin industrial sector has resulted in the port operating at a loss and well below capacity for several years. The reconstruction of the Belgrade-Bar railway and the proposed Belgrade-Bar motorway are expected to bring the port back up to capacity.

Tourism

Velke a male Skrcke jezero mezi Prutasem a Planinici (2330 m
Durmitor, Škrčko Lake
Wildpark Bad Mergentheim. Braunbären
The Eurasian brown bear, a protected species in Montenegro.
Buljarica beach
Buljarica beach
Durmitor, canyon Tara - Montenegro
Tara Canyon, deepest canyon in Europe

Montenegro has both a picturesque coast and a mountainous northern region. The country was a well-known tourist spot in the 1980s. Yet, the Yugoslav wars that were fought in neighbouring countries during the 1990s crippled the tourist industry and damaged the image of Montenegro for years.

With a total of 1.6 million visitors, the nation is the 36th (out of 47 countries) most visited country in Europe.[56]

The Montenegrin Adriatic coast is 295 km (183 mi) long, with 72 km (45 mi) of beaches, and with many well-preserved ancient old towns. National Geographic Traveler (edited once in decade) features Montenegro among the "50 Places of a Lifetime", and Montenegrin seaside Sveti Stefan was used as the cover for the magazine.[57] The coast region of Montenegro is considered one of the great new "discoveries" among world tourists. In January 2010, The New York Times ranked the Ulcinj South Coast region of Montenegro, including Velika Plaza, Ada Bojana, and the Hotel Mediteran of Ulcinj, as among the "Top 31 Places to Go in 2010" as part of a worldwide ranking of tourism destinations.[58]

Montenegro was also listed in "10 Top Hot Spots of 2009" to visit by Yahoo Travel, describing it as "Currently ranked as the second fastest growing tourism market in the world (falling just behind China)".[59] It is listed every year by prestigious tourism guides like Lonely Planet as top touristic destination along with Greece, Spain and other world touristic places.[60][61]

It was not until the 2000s that the tourism industry began to recover, and the country has since experienced a high rate of growth in the number of visits and overnight stays. The Government of Montenegro has set the development of Montenegro as an elite tourist destination a top priority. It is a national strategy to make tourism a major contributor to the Montenegrin economy. A number of steps were taken to attract foreign investors. Some large projects are already under way, such as Porto Montenegro, while other locations, like Jaz Beach, Buljarica, Velika Plaža and Ada Bojana, have perhaps the greatest potential to attract future investments and become premium tourist spots on the Adriatic.

Demographics

Ethnic structure

MontenegroEthnic2011
Predominant ethnic group in each municipality of Montenegro, 2011

According to the 2003 census, Montenegro has 620,145 citizens. If the methodology used up to 1991 had been adopted in the 2003 census, Montenegro would officially have recorded 673,094 citizens. The results of the 2011 census show that Montenegro has 620,029 citizens.[62]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1900 311,564—    
1909 317,856+2.0%
1921 311,341−2.0%
1931 360,044+15.6%
1953 419,873+16.6%
1971 529,604+26.1%
1981 584,310+10.3%
1991 615,035+5.3%
2003 620,145+0.8%
2011 620,029−0.0%

Montenegro is multiethnic state in which no ethnic group forms a majority.[63][64] Major ethnic groups include Montenegrins (Црногорци/Crnogorci) and Serbs (Срби/Srbi), others are Bosniaks (Bošnjaci), Albanians (Albanci – Shqiptarët) and Croats (Hrvati). The number of "Montenegrins" and "Serbs" fluctuates widely from census to census due to changes in how people perceive, experience, or choose to express, their identity and ethnic affiliation.[65][66][67]

Languages

MontenegroLanguage2011
Linguistic structure of Montenegro by settlements, 2011

The official language in Montenegro is Montenegrin. Also, Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian are recognized in usage. Montenegrin, Serbian, Bosnian, and Croatian are mutually intelligible, all being standard varieties of Serbo-Croatian language. Montenegrin is the plurality mother tongue of the population under 18 years of age.[68] In 2013, Matica crnogorska announced the results of public opinion research regarding the identity attitudes of the citizens of Montenegro, indicating that the majority of the population claims Montenegrin as their mother tongue.[69] Previous constitutions endorsed Serbo-Croatian as the official language in SR Montenegro and Serbian of Ijekavian standard during the 1992–2006 period.

Religion

Clockwise from left: 1. Orthodox Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ, Podgorica 2. Roman Catholic cathedral in Kotor 3. Church of Our Lady of the Rosary in Perast – in the background Saint George Benedictine monastery and Our Lady of the Rocks on the two islets off the coast of Perast in Bay of Kotor 4. Ostrog Monastery − the famous and most popular Christian pilgrimage site in Montenegro.

Podgorica, cattedrale della resurrezione di cristo, esterno 01
Kotor Cathedral church
Perast - panoramio (3)
Monasterio de Ostrog, Montenegro, 2014-04-14, DD 14
MontenegroReligion2011
Religious structure of Montenegro by settlements, 2011

Montenegro has been historically at the crossroads of multiculturalism and over centuries this has shaped its unique form of co-existence between Muslim and Christian populations.[70] Montenegrins have been, historically, members of the Serbian Orthodox Church (governed by the Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral), and Serbian Orthodox Christianity is the most popular religion today in Montenegro. The Montenegrin Orthodox Church was recently founded and is followed by a small minority of Montenegrins although it is not in communion with any other Christian Orthodox Church as it has not been officially recognized.

Despite tensions between religious groups during the Bosnian War, Montenegro remained fairly stable, mainly due its population having a historic perspective on religious tolerance and faith diversity.[71] Religious institutions from Montenegro all have guaranteed rights and are separate from the state. The second largest religion is Islam, which amounts to 19% of the total population of the country. One third of Albanians are Catholics (8,126 in the 2004 census) while the two other thirds (22,267) are mainly Sunni Muslims; in 2012 a protocol passed that recognizes Islam as an official religion in Montenegro, ensures that halal foods will be served at military facilities, hospitals, dormitories and all social facilities; and that Muslim women will be permitted to wear headscarves in schools and at public institutions, as well as ensuring that Muslims have the right to take Fridays off work for the Jumu'ah (Friday)-prayer.[72] There is also a small Roman Catholic population, mostly Albanians with some Croats, divided between the Archdiocese of Antivari headed by the Primate of Serbia and the Diocese of Kotor that is a part of the Church of Croatia.

Religious determination according to the 2011 census:[62]

Religion Number %
Total 620,029 100
Eastern Orthodox 446,858 72.1
Catholics 21,299 3.4
Protestants 143 0.1
Adventists 894 0.1
Jehovah's Witnesses 145 <0.1
Other Christians 1,460 0.2
Islam/Muslims 118,477
(99,038 Islam, 19,439 Muslims)
19.1
(16.0 Islam, 3.1 Muslims)
Buddhists 118 <0.1
Atheists 7,667 1.2
Agnostics 451 0.1
other 6,337 1.0
without declaration 16,180 2.6
Note: In the 2011 census, there are two separate columns for the adherents of Islam, one is called Islam, the other Muslims.

Education

Education in Montenegro is regulated by the Montenegrin Ministry of Education and Science.

Education starts in either pre-schools or elementary schools. Children enroll in elementary schools (Montenegrin: Osnovna škola) at the age of 6; it lasts 9 years. The students may continue their secondary education (Montenegrin: Srednja škola), which lasts 4 years (3 years for trade schools) and ends with graduation (Matura). Higher education lasts with a certain first degree after 3 to 6 years. There is one public university (University of Montenegro) and two private (Mediterranean University and University of Donja Gorica).

Elementary and secondary education

Elementary education in Montenegro is free and compulsory for all the children between the age of 6 and 15 when children attend the "nine-year school".

Various types of elementary education are available to all who qualify, but the vocational and technical schools (gymnasiums), where the students follow four-year course which will take them up to the university entrance, are the most popular. At the secondary level there are a number of art schools, apprentice schools and teacher training schools. Those who have attended the technical schools may pursue their education further at one of two-year post-secondary schools, created in response to the needs of industry and the social services.

Secondary schools are divided in three types, and children attend one depending on choice and primary school grades:

  • Gymnasium (Gimnazija / Гимназиjа), lasts for four years and offers a general, broad education. It is a preparatory school for university, and hence the most academic and prestigious.
  • Professional schools (Stručna škola / Стручна школа) last for three or four years and specialize students in certain fields which may result in their attending college; professional schools offer a relatively broad education.
  • Vocational schools (Zanatska škola / Занатска школа) last for three years and focus on vocational education (e.g., joinery, plumbing, mechanics) without an option of continuing education after three years.

Tertiary education

Tertiary level institutions are divided into "Higher education" (Više obrazovanje) and "High education" (Visoko obrazovanje) level faculties.

  • Colleges (Fakultet) and art academies (akademija umjetnosti) last between 4 and 6 years (one year is two semesters long) and award diplomas equivalent to a Bachelor of Arts or a Bachelor of Science degree.

Higher schools (Viša škola) lasts between two and four years.

Post-graduate education

Post-graduate education (post-diplomske studije) is offered after tertiary level and offers Masters' degrees, PhD and specialization education.

Culture

THEOTOKOS PHILERMON
Our Lady of Philermos the patroness of Montenegro, Rhodes and Sovereign Military Order of Malta, one of the first Christian icons, according to legend painted by St. Luke, National Museum of Montenegro, Cetinje.

Art

Museo Marítimo, Kotor, Bahía de Kotor, Montenegro, 2014-04-19, DD 31
Maritime Museum of Montenegro in Kotor.

The culture of Montenegro has been shaped by a variety of influences throughout history. The influence of Orthodox, Ottoman (Turk), Slavic, Central European, and seafaring Adriatic cultures (notably parts of Italy, like the Republic of Venice) have been the most important in recent centuries.

Montenegro has many significant cultural and historical sites, including heritage sites from the pre-Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque periods. The Montenegrin coastal region is especially well known for its religious monuments, including the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon in Kotor[73] (Cattaro under the Venetians), the basilica of St. Luke (over 800 years), Our Lady of the Rocks (Škrpjela), the Savina Monastery and others. Montenegro's medieval monasteries contain thousands of square metres of frescos on their walls.

A dimension of Montenegrin culture is the ethical ideal of Čojstvo i Junaštvo, "Humaneness and Gallantry".[74][75] The traditional folk dance of the Montenegrins is the Oro, the "eagle dance" that involves dancing in circles with couples alternating in the centre, and is finished by forming a human pyramid by dancers standing on each other's shoulders.

Literature

Montenegro's capital Podgorica and the former royal capital of Cetinje are the two most important centres of culture and the arts in the country.

The American author Rex Stout wrote a long series of detective novels featuring his fictional creation Nero Wolfe, who was born in Montenegro. His Nero Wolfe novel "The Black Mountain" was largely set in Montenegro during the 1950s.

Media

The media of Montenegro refers to mass media outlets based in Montenegro. Television, magazines, and newspapers are all operated by both state-owned and for-profit corporations which depend on advertising, subscription, and other sales-related revenues. The Constitution of Montenegro guarantees freedom of speech. As a country in transition, Montenegro's media system is under transformation.

Cuisine

Foods from Montenegro
Foods from Montenegro

Montenegrin cuisine is a result of Montenegro's long history. It is a variation of Mediterranean and Oriental. The most influence is from Italy, Turkey, Byzantine Empire/Greece, and as well from Hungary. Montenegrin cuisine also varies geographically; the cuisine in the coastal area differs from the one in the northern highland region. The coastal area is traditionally a representative of Mediterranean cuisine, with seafood being a common dish, while the northern represents more the Oriental.

Sport

The Sports in Montenegro revolves mostly around team sports, such as football, basketball, water polo, volleyball, and handball. Other sports involved are boxing, tennis, swimming, judo, karate, athletics, table tennis, and chess.
Most popular sport is football. Among many great players from Montenegro were Dejan Savićević, Predrag Mijatović, Mirko Vučinić, Stefan Savić or Stevan Jovetić. Montenegrin national football team, founded at 2006, played in playoffs for UEFA Euro 2012, which is the biggest success in the history of national team.
Water polo is often considered the national sport. Montenegro's national team is one of the top ranked teams in the world, winning the gold medal at the 2008 Men's European Water Polo Championship in Málaga, Spain, and winning the gold medal at the 2009 FINA Men's Water Polo World League, which was held in Montenegrin capital, Podgorica. Montenegrin team PVK Primorac from Kotor became a champion of Europe at the LEN Euroleague 2009 in Rijeka, Croatia.

MontenegrinFans2
Podgorica City Stadium, Montenegro fans with national features.

The Montenegro national basketball team is also known for good performances and had won a lot of medals in the past as part of the Yugoslavia national basketball team. In 2006, the Basketball Federation of Montenegro along with this team joined the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) on its own, following the Independence of Montenegro. Montenegro participated on two Eurobaskets until now.
Among women sports, the national handball team is the most successful, having won the 2012 European Championship and finishing as runners-up at the 2012 Summer Olympics. ŽRK Budućnost Podgorica won two times EHF Champions League.

Chess is another popular sport and some famous global chess players, like Slavko Dedić, were born in Montenegro.

At the 2012 Olympic Games in London, Montenegro women's national handball team won the Silver medal losing to defending World, Olympic and European Champions, Norway in an exciting match 26–23. This is also Montenegro's first ever Olympic medal. Less than half a year later the team won against Norway in the final of the 2012 European Championship, thus becoming champions for the first time.

Public holidays

Holidays
Date Name Notes
1 January New Year's Day (non-working holiday)
7 January Orthodox Christmas (non-working)
10 April Orthodox Good Friday Date for 2015 only
12 April Orthodox Easter Date for 2015 only
1 May Labor Day (non-working)
9 May Victory Day
21 May Independence Day (non-working)
13 July Statehood Day (non-working)

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Serbian and Bosnian: Црна Гора, Crna Gora; Albanian: Mali i Zi; Croatian: Crna Gora.
  1. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has been recognized as an independent state by 113 out of 193 United Nations member states, 10 of which have subsequently withdrawn recognition.

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  71. ^ Larkin, Barbara (2001). International Religious Freedom 2000: Annual Report: Submitted by the U.S. Department Of State. Diane Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7567-1229-7.
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  75. ^ Oblikovanje crnogorske nacije u doba petrovica njegosa, "Cojstvo je osobeno svojstvo Crnogoraca, koje su uzdigli u najvecu vrlinu i uzor."

Sources

Further reading

  • Banac, Ivo. The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics Cornell University Press, (1984) ISBN 0-8014-9493-1
  • Fleming, Thomas. Montenegro: The Divided Land (2002) ISBN 0-9619364-9-5
  • Longley, Norm. The Rough Guide to Montenegro (2009) ISBN 978-1-85828-771-3
  • Morrison, Kenneth. Montenegro: A Modern History (2009) ISBN 978-1-84511-710-8
  • Roberts, Elizabeth. Realm of the Black Mountain: A History of Montenegro (Cornell University Press, 2007) 521pp ISBN 978-1-85065-868-9
  • Stevenson, Francis Seymour. A History of Montenegro 2002) ISBN 978-1-4212-5089-2
  • Özcan, Uğur II. Abdulhamid Dönemi Osmanlı-Karadağ Siyasi İlişkileri [Political relations between the Ottoman Empire and Montenegro in the Abdul Hamid II era] (2013) Türk Tarih Kurumu Turkish Historical Society ISBN 978-975-16-2527-4

External links

Balkans

The Balkans, also known as the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various definitions and meanings, including geopolitical and historical. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch throughout the whole of Bulgaria from the Serbian-Bulgarian border to the Black Sea coast. The Balkan Peninsula is bordered by the Adriatic Sea on the northwest, the Ionian Sea on the southwest, the Aegean Sea in the south and southeast, and the Black Sea on the east and northeast. The northern border of the peninsula is variously defined. The highest point of the Balkans is Mount Musala, 2,925 metres (9,596 ft), in the Rila mountain range.

The concept of the Balkan peninsula was created by the German geographer August Zeune in 1808, who mistakenly considered the Balkan Mountains the dominant mountain system of Southeast Europe spanning from the Adriatic Sea to the Black Sea. The term of Balkan Peninsula was a synonym for European Turkey in the 19th century, the former provinces of the Ottoman Empire in Southeast Europe. It had a geopolitical rather than a geographical definition, further promoted during the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in the early 20th century. The definition of the Balkan peninsula natural borders are not coinciding with the technical definition of a peninsula and hence modern geographers are rejecting the idea of a Balkan peninsula, while the scholars usually discuss the Balkans as a region. The term steadily got, especially since the 1990s, a stigmatized and pejorative meaning related to the process of Balkanization, and hence the rather used alternative term for the region is Southeast Europe.

Bar, Montenegro

Bar (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Бар, Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: [bâr]) is a coastal town and seaport in southern Montenegro. It is the capital of the Bar Municipality and a center for tourism. According to the 2011 census, the city proper had 17,649 inhabitants, while the total population of Bar Municipality was 42,068.

First Balkan War

The First Balkan War (Bulgarian: Балканска война; Greek: Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; Serbian: Први балкански рат, Prvi Balkanski rat; Turkish: Birinci Balkan Savaşı), lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League (the kingdoms of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) against the Ottoman Empire. The combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies and achieved rapid success.

As a result of the war, the League captured and partitioned almost all remaining European territories of the Ottoman Empire. Ensuing events also led to the creation of an independent Albania which angered the Serbs. Despite having the greatest success, the main victor, Bulgaria, was dissatisfied over the division of the spoils in Macedonia, which provoked the start of the Second Balkan War.

History of Montenegro

The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, into the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. In the 9th century, there were three principalities on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia, the north. In 1042, Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son, Mihailo (1046–81), and his grandson Bodin (1081–1101). By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro (Zeta) came under the rule of the Balšić noble family, then the Crnojević noble family, and by the 15th century, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora (Venetian: monte negro). Large portions fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire from 1496 to 1878. Parts were controlled by Venice. From 1515 until 1851 the prince-bishops (vladikas) of Cetinje were the rulers. The House of Petrović-Njegoš ruled until 1918. From 1918, it was a part of Yugoslavia. On the basis of an independence referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.

Kingdom of Montenegro

The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнa Горa / Kraljevina Crna Gora) was a monarchy in southeastern Europe, present-day Montenegro, during the tumultuous years on the Balkan Peninsula leading up to and during World War I. Legally it was a constitutional monarchy, but absolutist in practice. On 28 November 1918, following the end of World War I, with the Montenegrin government still in exile, the Podgorica Assembly proclaimed unification with the Kingdom of Serbia which itself was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes three days later, on 1 December 1918.

List of Montenegrin films

A list of films produced in Montenegro. For an A-Z list see Category:Montenegrin films

Montenegrin language

Montenegrin (; црногорски / crnogorski) is the normative variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Montenegrins and the official language of Montenegro. Montenegrin is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Croatian, Serbian, and Bosnian.Montenegro's language has historically and traditionally been called either Montenegrin, "Our language", or Serbian. The idea of a standardized Montenegrin standard language separate from Serbian appeared in the 1990s during the breakup of Yugoslavia, through proponents of Montenegrin independence from Serbia. Montenegrin became the official language of Montenegro with the ratification of a new constitution on 22 October 2007.

The Montenegrin standard is still emerging. Its orthography was established on 10 July 2009 with the addition of two letters to the alphabet. Their usage remained controversial and they achieved only limited public acceptance, along with some proposed alternative spellings. They had been used for official documents since 2009, but in February 2017, the Assembly of Montenegro removed them from any type of governmental documentation.

Montenegrins

Montenegrins (Montenegrin: Crnogorci/Црногорци, pronounced [tsr̩nǒɡoːrtsi] or [tsr̩noɡǒːrtsi]), literally "People of the Black Mountain", are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Montenegro.

Montenegro in the Eurovision Song Contest

Montenegro has participated at the Eurovision Song Contest 10 times. The country debuted in 2007. Previously it participated as part of Yugoslavia (both the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1961 to 1991 and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992) and Serbia and Montenegro (from 2004 to 2006).

The 2005 entrants from Serbia and Montenegro, No Name, were from Montenegro, as were the 1983 and 1984 entrants for Yugoslavia.

Montenegro national football team

The Montenegro national football team (Montenegrin: Fudbalska reprezentacija Crne Gore / Фудбалска репрезентација Црне Горе) has represented Montenegro in association football since 2007. It is controlled by the Football Association of Montenegro, the governing body for football in Montenegro. Montenegro's home ground is Podgorica City Stadium in Podgorica.

Montenegro is one of the world's newest international teams, having joined FIFA and UEFA in 2007, following the restoration of Montenegrin independence in 2006.

Montenegro played its first official international match against Hungary in March 2007, and first competed in the 2010 FIFA World Cup qualifiers.

Municipalities of Montenegro

The municipalities (Montenegrin Latin: opštine, singular: opština) are the first level administrative subdivisions of Montenegro. The country is divided into 23 municipalities including the Old Royal Capital Cetinje and the Podgorica Capital City. Podgorica is divided into one subdivisions called city municipality (Montenegrin Latin: gradska opština), forming the basic level of local government.

Recently created:

Petnjica Municipality (2013)

Gusinje Municipality (2014)

Tuzi Municipality (2018)City municipality:

Podgorica Capital City:

Golubovci City MunicipalityThe Union of Municipalities of Montenegro is a national association of local authorities of Montenegro.

Podgorica

Podgorica ( POD-gorr-ih-tsə; Montenegrin Cyrillic: Подгорица, pronounced [pǒdɡoritsa], lit. "[area] below Gorica [the name of a hillock overlooking the city]") is the capital and largest city of Montenegro.

Between 1946 and 1992 – in the period that Montenegro formed, as the Socialist Republic of Montenegro, part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) – the city was known as Titograd (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Титоград, [tîtoɡraːd]) in honour of Josip Broz Tito.

Podgorica's favourable position at the confluence of the Ribnica and Morača rivers and at the meeting-point of the fertile Zeta Plain and Bjelopavlići Valley has encouraged settlement. The city is close to winter skiing centres in the north and to seaside resorts on the Adriatic Sea.

Podgorica Municipality covers 10.4% of Montenegro's territory and is home to 29.9% of the country's population. It is the nation's administrative centre and its economic, cultural, and educational focus.

Serbia and Montenegro

Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian: Србија и Црна Гора, СЦГ / Srbija i Crna Gora, SCG), officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Државна Заједница Србија и Црна Гора / Državna Zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora), also known as Yugoslavia before 2003, was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992. The republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation in 1992 as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FR Yugoslavia or FRY; Савезна Република Југославија / Savezna Republika Jugoslavija),.

For the first several years of its existence, the state aspired to be recognized as the sole legal successor to Yugoslavia, but those claims were opposed by other former constituent republics. The United Nations also denied its request to take up Yugoslavia's membership. Eventually, after the overthrow of Slobodan Milošević from power as president of the federation in 2000, the country rescinded those aspirations and accepted the opinion of the Badinter Arbitration Committee about shared succession. It re-applied for UN membership on 27 October and was admitted on 1 November 2000.The FRY was initially dominated by Slobodan Milošević as President of Serbia (1989–1997) and then President of Yugoslavia (1997–2000). Milošević installed and forced the removal of several federal presidents (such as Dobrica Ćosić) and prime ministers (such as Milan Panić). However, the Montenegrin government, initially enthusiastic supporters of Milošević, started gradually distancing themselves from his policies. That culminated in regime change in 1996, when his former ally Milo Đukanović reversed his policies, became leader of Montenegro's ruling party and subsequently dismissed former Montenegrin leader Momir Bulatović, who remained loyal to the Milošević government. As Bulatović was given central positions in Belgrade from that time (as federal Prime Minister), Đukanović continued to govern Montenegro and further isolated it from Serbia. Thus from 1996 to 2006 Montenegro and Serbia were only nominally one country—governance at every feasible level was conducted locally, in Belgrade for Serbia and in Podgorica for Montenegro.

As a loose union or confederacy, Serbia and Montenegro were united only in certain realms, such as defence. The two constituent republics functioned separately throughout the period of the Federal Republic, and continued to operate under separate economic policies, as well as using separate currencies (the euro was the only legal tender in Montenegro). On 21 May 2006, the Montenegrin independence referendum was held, and 55.5% of voters voted in favour of independence. The last remnants of the former Yugoslavia, after 88 years since its creation, came to an end upon Montenegro's formal declaration of independence on 3 June 2006, and Serbia's formal declaration of independence on 5 June. After the dissolution, Serbia became the legal successor of the union, while the newly independent Montenegro re-applied for membership in international organizations.

Serbia and Montenegro national football team

The Serbia and Montenegro national football team (Serbian: Fudbalska reprezentacija Srbije i Crne Gore / Фудбалска репрезентација Србије и Црне Горе) was a national football team that represented the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. It was controlled by the Football Association of Serbia and Montenegro. For 11 years, it was known as the FR Yugoslavia national football team (Fudbalska reprezentacija SR Jugoslavije / Фудбалска репрезентација СР Југославије) when the two countries were called the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, until February 2003, when the name of the country was changed to Serbia and Montenegro. In 2006, Montenegro declared its independence from Serbia, with the result that the country's football team was renamed as the Serbia national football team on 28 June 2006 with the Montenegro national football team created to represent the renewed state of Montenegro.

Serbian SuperLiga

The Serbian SuperLiga (Serbian: Суперлига Србије / Superliga Srbije) is a Serbian professional league for football clubs. At the top of the Serbian football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. It is contested by 16 clubs, operating a system of promotion and relegation with the Serbian First League (Prva liga Srbija, second Serbian football tier). The SuperLiga was formed during the summer of 2005 as the country's top football league competition in Serbia and Montenegro. Since summer 2006 after the secession of Montenegro from Serbia, the league only has had Serbian clubs.

Serbian clubs used to compete in the Yugoslav First League. This competition was formed in 1923 and lasted until 2003. After the downfall of SFR Yugoslavia in 1991 a new Yugoslavia would be formed that would be named FR Yugoslavia with Montenegro and Serbia. They kept the name Yugoslavia until 2003 when the country changed its name to Serbia and Montenegro: this union lasted until 2006 when Montenegro gained independence and formed its own league, the Montenegrin First League.

The current SuperLiga champions are Red Star Belgrade. UEFA currently ranks the league 19th in Europe of 55 leagues. The league was known as Meridian Prva liga/Super liga from 2004 until 2008. The league's official sponsor until 2015 was beer brand Jelen pivo, thus resulted in the league's official name to be Jelen Super liga.

Serbian language

Serbian (српски / srpski, pronounced [sr̩̂pskiː]) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs. It is the official language of Serbia, the territory of Kosovo, and one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Montenegro where it is spoken by the relative majority of the population, as well as in Croatia, North Macedonia, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic.

Standard Serbian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian (more specifically on Šumadija-Vojvodina and Eastern Herzegovinian dialects), which is also the basis of Standard Croatian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin. The other dialect spoken by Serbs is Torlakian in southeastern Serbia, which is transitional to Macedonian and Bulgarian.

Serbian is practically the only European standard language whose speakers are fully functionally digraphic, using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was devised in 1814 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić, who created the alphabet on phonemic principles. The Latin alphabet was designed by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1830.

Socialist Republic of Montenegro

The Socialist Republic of Montenegro (Serbo-Croatian: Socijalistička Republika Crna Gora / Социјалистичка Република Црна Гора) was one of the six republics forming the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It is a predecessor of the modern-day Montenegro. On 7 July 1963, the People's Republic of Montenegro (Serbo-Croatian: Narodna Republika Crna Gora / Народна Република Црна Гора) was renamed the "Socialist Republic of Montenegro" (a change ratified both by the Federal Constitution and the newly created Montenegrin Constitution in 1963) with Serbo-Croatian as the official language. In 1991, as the League of Communists in Montenegro changed its name to Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro after the first free elections, the adjective "Socialist" was deleted from the republic's title (ratified by the 1992 Constitution).

Southeast Europe

Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe (SEE) is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan Peninsula. There are overlapping and conflicting definitions as to where exactly Southeastern Europe begins or ends or how it relates to other regions of the continent. Sovereign states that are most frequently included in the region are, in alphabetical order: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia.

These boundaries can vary greatly and are widely disputed, due to political, economic, historical, cultural, and geographical considerations and point of view of the observer.

Yugoslavia

Yugoslavia (; Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslavija/Југославија [juɡǒslaːʋija]; Slovene: Jugoslavija [juɡɔˈslàːʋija]; Macedonian: Југославија [juɡɔˈsɫavija]; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija; literally "Land of Southern Slavs") was a country in Southeastern and Central Europe for most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I in 1918 under the name of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (it was formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire) with the Kingdom of Serbia, and constituted the first union of the South Slavic people as a sovereign state, following centuries in which the region had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. Peter I of Serbia was its first sovereign. The kingdom gained international recognition on 13 July 1922 at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris. The official name of the state was changed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929.

Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers on 6 April 1941. In 1943, a Democratic Federal Yugoslavia was proclaimed by the Partisan resistance. In 1944 King Peter II, then living in exile, recognised it as the legitimate government. The monarchy was subsequently abolished in November 1945. Yugoslavia was renamed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia in 1946, when a communist government was established. It acquired the territories of Istria, Rijeka, and Zadar from Italy. Partisan leader Josip Broz Tito ruled the country as president until his death in 1980. In 1963, the country was renamed again, as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY).

The six constituent republics that made up the SFRY were the SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, SR Croatia, SR Macedonia, SR Montenegro, SR Serbia, and SR Slovenia. Serbia contained two Socialist Autonomous Provinces, Vojvodina and Kosovo, which after 1974 were largely equal to the other members of the federation. After an economic and political crisis in the 1980s and the rise of nationalism, Yugoslavia broke up along its republics' borders, at first into five countries, leading to the Yugoslav Wars. From 1993 to 2017, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia tried political and military leaders from the former Yugoslavia for war crimes, genocide and other crimes.

After the breakup, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro formed a reduced federation, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), which aspired to the status of sole legal successor to the SFRY, but those claims were opposed by the other former republics. Eventually, Serbia and Montenegro accepted the opinion of the Badinter Arbitration Committee about shared succession. In 2003 the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was renamed to State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. The union peacefully broke up when Serbia and Montenegro became independent states in 2006, while Kosovo proclaimed its independence from Serbia in 2008.

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