Mons Rümker is an isolated volcanic formation that is located in the northwest part of the Moon's near side, at selenographic coordinates 40.8° N, 58.1° W and is the planned landing site of the Chang'e 5 mission. The feature forms a large, elevated mound in the northern part of the Oceanus Procellarum. The mound has a diameter of 70 kilometres, and climbs to a maximum elevation of about 1,100 metres above the surrounding plain. It was named after Karl L. C. Rümker.
Mons Rümker has a concentration of 30 lunar domes—rounded bulges across the top, some of which contain a small craterlet at the peak. These are wide, circular features with a gentle slope rising in elevation a few hundred meters to the midpoint. Lunar domes are similar to shield volcanoes, and are the result of lava erupting from localized vents followed by relatively slow cooling.
Mons Rümker is surrounded by a scarp that separates it from the adjacent mare. The plateau rises to an altitude of 900 m in the west, 1,100 m in the south and 650 m in the east. The surface of Mons Rümker is relatively uniform, with a strong spectroscopic signature of lunar mare material. The estimated volume of lava extruded to create this feature is 1,800 km3.
View of Mons Rümker from Apollo 15
|Translation||Karl L. C. Rümker (Latin)|
|Mountain type||Lunar dome|
Carl Ludwig Christian Rümker (28 May 1788 – 21 December 1862) was a German astronomer. His name in German is spelled, Karl Ludwig Christian Rümker; he was also known as Charles Rümker, Charles Rumker, Charles Luis Rumker, Christian Carl Ludwig Rümker and Dr. Charles Stargard Rumker.Chang'e 5
Chang'e 5 (Chinese: 嫦娥五号; pinyin: Cháng'é wǔhào) is a robotic Chinese lunar exploration mission consisting of a lander and a sample-return vehicle. It is currently under development and it is scheduled for a launch in December 2019, after being postponed due to the failure of the Long March 5 launch vehicle in 2017. Chang'e 5 will be China's first sample return mission, aiming to return at least 2 kilograms of lunar soil and rock samples back to the Earth. Like its predecessors, the spacecraft is named after the Chinese moon goddess, Chang'e. This will be the first lunar sample-return mission since Luna 24 in 1976.Geology of the Moon
The geology of the Moon (sometimes called selenology, although the latter term can refer more generally to "lunar science") is quite different from that of Earth. The Moon lacks a significant atmosphere, which eliminates erosion due to weather; it does not have any form of plate tectonics, it has a lower gravity, and because of its small size, it cooled more rapidly. The complex geomorphology of the lunar surface has been formed by a combination of processes, especially impact cratering and volcanism. The Moon is a differentiated body, with a crust, mantle, and core.
Geological studies of the Moon are based on a combination of Earth-based telescope observations, measurements from orbiting spacecraft, lunar samples, and geophysical data. Six locations were sampled directly during the crewed Apollo program landings from 1969 to 1972, which returned 380.96 kilograms (839.9 lb) of lunar rock and lunar soil to Earth. In addition, three robotic Soviet Luna spacecraft returned another 326 grams (11.5 oz) from 1970 to 1976. The Moon is the only extraterrestrial body for which we have samples with a known geologic context. A handful of lunar meteorites have been recognized on Earth, though their source craters on the Moon are unknown. A substantial portion of the lunar surface has not been explored, and a number of geological questions remain unanswered.List of extraterrestrial volcanoes
This is a list of active, dormant, and extinct volcanoes located beyond planet Earth. They may be designated mons (mountain), patera (an irregular crater) or tholus (small mountain or hill) in accordance with the International Astronomical Union's rules for planetary nomenclature. Many of them are nameless.List of lava domes
Lava domes are common features on volcanoes around the world. Lava domes are known to exist on plate margins as well as in intra-arc hotspots, and on heights above 6000 m and in the sea floor. Individual lava domes and volcanoes featuring lava domes are listed below.List of lunar features
Several features cover the surface of the Moon. These are listed below.List of mountains on the Moon
This is a list of named mountains on the Moon.
Note that the heights listed below are not consistent across sources. In the 1960s, the US Army Mapping Service used elevation relative to 1,737,988 meters from the center of the Moon. In the 1970s, the US Defense Mapping Agency used 1,730,000 meters. The Clementine topographic data published in the 1990s uses 1,737,400 meters.
Also note that this table is not comprehensive, and does not list the highest places on the Moon. Clementine data show a range of about 18,100 meters from lowest to highest point on the Moon. The highest point, located on the far side of the Moon, is approximately 6500 meters higher than Mons Huygens (usually listed as the tallest mountain).List of mountains on the Moon by height
The following is a list of mountains on the Moon, arranged by relative height in kilometres.List of tallest mountains in the Solar System
This is a list of the tallest mountains in the Solar System. The tallest peak or peaks on worlds where significant mountains have been measured are given; in some cases, the tallest peaks of different classes on a world are also listed. At 21.9 km, the enormous shield volcano Olympus Mons on Mars is the tallest mountain on any planet in the Solar System. For 40 years, following its discovery in 1971, it was the tallest mountain known in the Solar System. However, in 2011, the central peak of the crater Rheasilvia on the asteroid and protoplanet Vesta was found to be of comparable height.Lunar dome
A lunar dome is a type of shield volcano that is found on the surface of the Earth's Moon. They are typically formed by highly viscous, possibly silica-rich lava, erupting from localized vents followed by relatively slow cooling. Lunar domes are wide, rounded, circular features with a gentle slope rising in elevation a few hundred meters to the midpoint. They are typically 8–12 km in diameter, but can be up to 20 km across. Some of the domes contain a small craterlet at the peak.
Some of the domes have been shown to consist of the same materials as the lunar maria. Thus they could be created by some mechanism that differs from the mare-forming flows. It is thought that these domes are formed from a smaller magma chamber that is closer to the surface than is the case for a mare. This results in a lower pressure, and so the lava flows more slowly. The magma wells up through a crack in the surface, but the flow eventually concentrates through one primary vent. This concentration can then result in a vent crater at the peak of the dome.
The cluster of lunar domes at the Marius Hills was considered as a possible landing site of Apollo 15. There are concentrations of lunar domes near the craters Hortensius, and T. Mayer, across the top of Mons Rümker, and in Mare Fecunditatis. Solitary lunar domes are also found, including Kies Pi (π), Milichius Pi (π), Mons Gruithuisen Gamma (γ) and Delta (δ), and domes near the craters Gambart C, Beer, and Capuanus. Omega Cauchy (ω) and Tau Cauchy (τ) form a pair of domes near the crater Cauchy. Likewise near Arago are the domes Arago Alpha (α) and Arago Beta (β). There are two domes south of Mons Esam.
The IAU does not currently have rules that establish the naming of lunar domes, but the practice in the professional literature and in lunar sciences is to name the dome with the name of the nearest crater followed by a number that denotes the order of discovery.Nielsen (crater)
Nielsen is a lunar impact crater on the Oceanus Procellarum. It is located north-east of Montes Agricola on the western hemisphere of the Moon. To the east-southeast is the crater Wollaston.
Nielsen is a bowl-shaped formation that lies astride a small ridge that runs north-northwestwards towards the Mons Rümker. The latter is an unusual raised formation of lunar domes.
The crater is named jointly after the Danish astronomer Axel Nielsen (1902-1970) and the Danish–American physicist Harald Herborg Nielsen (1903-1973).Rümker
Rümker may refer to:
Carl Ludwig Christian Rümker (1788–1862), German astronomer
Georg Friedrich Wilhelm Rümker (1832–1900), German astronomer Born at Hamburg, son of Carl Ludwig Christian Rümker
Mons Rümker, isolated volcanic formation that is located in the northwest part of the Moon's near sideSinus Roris
Sinus Roris (Latin for "Bay of Dew") is an extension of the northern edge of Oceanus Procellarum on the Moon. The IAU-defined selenographic coordinates of this bay are 54.0° N, 56.6° W, and the diameter is 202 km.
The borders of this feature are somewhat indistinct. The bay proper is framed along the western edge by the craters Markov and Oenopides, and to the north by Babbage and South. At the eastern edge it joins the Mare Frigoris.
Many selenographers have taken liberties with the dimensions of Sinus Roris. Lunar maps often indicate a much larger region for this bay than the official dimensions. These can range out as far as the craters Gerard and Repsold to the west, Harpalus to the east, and as far south as 44° N latitude, approaching Mons Rümker.
The area where the official coordinates place this bay has a generally higher albedo than the mare to the south, most likely due to deposits of ejecta from impacts to the north.
Early concepts of a moon landing promoted by Wernher von Braun envisaged the establishment of a permanent lunar base in the Sinus Roris region. These concepts lead, in much modified form, to Project Apollo.
Arthur C. Clarke's novel A Fall of Moondust is set in a fictional "Sea of Thirst" located within Sinus Roris.