Mons Gruithuisen Gamma

Mons Gruithuisen Gamma (γ) is a lunar dome[1] that lies to the north of the crater Gruithuisen at the western edge of the Mare Imbrium. It is located at selenographic coordinates 36.6° N, 40.5° W.

This massif is shaped as a rounded dome in the surface, occupying a diameter of 20 km and climbing gently to a height of 900 meters.[2] At the crest is a small crater. This formation appears foreshortened when viewed from the Earth, and it has been described by Antonin Rukl as resembling an "upturned bathtub".[3]

To the east lies the similar Mons Gruithuisen Delta (δ). Together they are often informally called the Gruithuisen domes.

Mons Gruithuisen Gamma
Mons Gruithuisen 4145 h1
Mons Gruithuisen Gamma (left) and Delta (right)
Lunar Orbiter 4 image
Highest point
Elevation900 m
ListingLunar mountains
Coordinates36°36′N 40°30′W / 36.6°N 40.5°W
Locationthe Moon
Mountain typeLunar dome
Gruithuisen domes AS15-93-12717
Oblique view from Apollo 15

See also


  1. ^ Cain, Fraser (July 31, 2006). "What's Up this Week: July 31 – August 6, 2006". Universe Today.
  2. ^ Mons Gruithuisen Gamma, Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature, International Astronomical Union (IAU) Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN)
  3. ^ Rukl, Antonin (2004). Atlas of the Moon. Sky Publishing. p. 201. ISBN 1931559074.

External links


Gruithuisen may refer to:

Franz von Gruithuisen (1774–1852), Bavarian physician and astronomer

Gruithuisen (crater) on the Moon

Mons Gruithuisen Gamma, a lunar dome

Gruithuisen (crater)

Gruithuisen is a lunar impact crater that lies on the section of lunar mare that joins Oceanus Procellarum in the west to Mare Imbrium in the east. Southeast of Gruithuisen is the small crater Delisle. To the south is Dorsum Bucher, a wrinkle ridge running in a north–south direction for about 90 kilometers.

The rim of Gruithuisen is relatively smooth and circular, projecting only slightly above the surrounding mare. The interior is relatively featureless with a small floor, with mounds of material deposited along the edges of the sloping inner walls.

To the north of the crater, along the edge of the highland peninsula between the two maria is a domed mountainous rise that is designated Mons Gruithuisen Gamma (γ). Just to the east of this feature is another mountainous rise named Mons Gruithuisen Delta (δ). Northwest of Gruithuisen crater is concentrated cluster of several craterlets, which was most likely formed from a single body that broke up just prior to impact.

List of lunar features

Several features cover the surface of the Moon. These are listed below.

List of mountains on the Moon

This is a list of named mountains on the Moon.

Note that the heights listed below are not consistent across sources. In the 1960s, the US Army Mapping Service used elevation relative to 1,737,988 meters from the center of the Moon. In the 1970s, the US Defense Mapping Agency used 1,730,000 meters. The Clementine topographic data published in the 1990s uses 1,737,400 meters.

Also note that this table is not comprehensive, and does not list the highest places on the Moon. Clementine data show a range of about 18,100 meters from lowest to highest point on the Moon. The highest point, located on the far side of the Moon, is approximately 6500 meters higher than Mons Huygens (usually listed as the tallest mountain).

List of mountains on the Moon by height

The following is a list of mountains on the Moon, arranged by relative height in kilometres.

Lunar Orbiter 5

Lunar Orbiter 5, the last of the Lunar Orbiter series, was designed to take additional Apollo and Surveyor landing site photography and to take broad survey images of unphotographed parts of the Moon's far side. It was also equipped to collect selenodetic, radiation intensity, and micrometeoroid impact data and was used to evaluate the Manned Space Flight Network tracking stations and Apollo Orbit Determination Program. The spacecraft was placed in a cislunar trajectory and on August 5, 1967 was injected into an elliptical near polar lunar orbit 194.5 by 6,023 kilometres (120.9 mi × 3,742.5 mi) with an inclination of 85 degrees and a period of 8 hours 30 minutes. On August 7 the perilune was lowered to 100 kilometers (62 mi), and on August 9 the orbit was lowered to a 99-by-1,499-kilometer (62 mi × 931 mi), 3 hour 11 minute period.

The spacecraft acquired photographic data from August 6 to 18, 1967, and readout occurred until August 27, 1967. A total of 633 high resolution and 211 medium resolution frames at resolution down to 2 meters (6 ft 7 in) were acquired, bringing the cumulative photographic coverage by the five Lunar Orbiter craft to 99% of the Moon's surface. Accurate data were acquired from all other experiments throughout the mission. The spacecraft was tracked until it struck the lunar surface on command at 2.79 degrees S latitude, 83 degrees W longitude (selenographic coordinates) on January 31, 1968.

Features on the near side of the moon that were photographic targets included Petavius, Hyginus, Messier, Tycho, Copernicus, Gassendi, Vitello, Mons Gruithuisen Gamma, Prinz, Aristarchus, Vallis Schroteri, Marius Hills, Montes Apenninus, Rimae Plato, Sinus Aestuum, Hipparchus, Rimae Sulpicius Gallus, Rimae Calippus, Censorinus, Dionysius, and the future landing site of Apollo 11.

Lunar dome

A lunar dome is a type of shield volcano that is found on the surface of the Earth's Moon. They are typically formed by highly viscous, possibly silica-rich lava, erupting from localized vents followed by relatively slow cooling. Lunar domes are wide, rounded, circular features with a gentle slope rising in elevation a few hundred meters to the midpoint. They are typically 8–12 km in diameter, but can be up to 20 km across. Some of the domes contain a small craterlet at the peak.

Some of the domes have been shown to consist of the same materials as the lunar maria. Thus they could be created by some mechanism that differs from the mare-forming flows. It is thought that these domes are formed from a smaller magma chamber that is closer to the surface than is the case for a mare. This results in a lower pressure, and so the lava flows more slowly. The magma wells up through a crack in the surface, but the flow eventually concentrates through one primary vent. This concentration can then result in a vent crater at the peak of the dome.

The cluster of lunar domes at the Marius Hills was considered as a possible landing site of Apollo 15. There are concentrations of lunar domes near the craters Hortensius, and T. Mayer, across the top of Mons Rümker, and in Mare Fecunditatis. Solitary lunar domes are also found, including Kies Pi (π), Milichius Pi (π), Mons Gruithuisen Gamma (γ) and Delta (δ), and domes near the craters Gambart C, Beer, and Capuanus. Omega Cauchy (ω) and Tau Cauchy (τ) form a pair of domes near the crater Cauchy. Likewise near Arago are the domes Arago Alpha (α) and Arago Beta (β). There are two domes south of Mons Esam.

The IAU does not currently have rules that establish the naming of lunar domes, but the practice in the professional literature and in lunar sciences is to name the dome with the name of the nearest crater followed by a number that denotes the order of discovery.

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