Monotypic taxon

In biology, a monotypic taxon is a taxonomic group (taxon) that contains only one immediately subordinate taxon.[1]

A monotypic species is one that does not include subspecies or smaller, infraspecific taxa. In the case of genera, the term "unispecific" or "monospecific" is sometimes preferred.

In botanical nomenclature, a monotypic genus is a genus in the special case where a genus and a single species are simultaneously described.[2]

In contrast an oligotypic taxon contains more than one but only a very few subordinate taxa.

Amborella trichopoda
In the order Amborellales, there is only one family, Amborellaceae and there is only one genus, Amborella , and in this genus there is only one species, namely Amborella trichopoda.
Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus wild
Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, the hyacinth macaw, is a monotypic species; no subspecies have been distinguished within it. However, the genus Anodorhynchus does include three species.
Cephalotus follicularis Hennern 3 (cropped)
The family Cephalotaceae has only one genus, Cephalotus, which contains only one species, Cephalotus follicularis, the Australian pitcher plant.

Examples

Just as the term monotypic is used to describe a taxon including only one subdivision, one can also refer to the contained taxon as monotypic within the higher-level taxon, e.g. a genus monotypic within a family. Some examples of monotypic groups are:

  • In the order Amborellales, there is only one family, Amborellaceae and there is only one genus, Amborella, and in this genus there is only one species, namely Amborella trichopoda
  • The family Cephalotaceae includes only one genus, Cephalotus, and only one species, Cephalotus follicularis – the Albany pitcher plant.
  • Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, the hyacinth macaw, is a monotypic species; no subspecies have been distinguished within the species.
  • Panurus biarmicus, the bearded reedling, has a few subspecies across its range, but belongs to the genus Panurus, which current knowledge considers monotypic (the only genus) within the family Panuridae.
  • Ozichthys albimaculosus, the cream-spotted cardinalfish, found in tropical Australia and southern New Guinea, is the type species of the monotypic genus Ozichthys.[3]
  • The flowering plant Breonadia salicina is the only species in the monotypic genus Breonadia.
  • The madrone butterfly is the only species in the monotypic genus Eucheira. However, there are two sub-species of this butterfly, E. socialis socialis and E. socialis westwoodi.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ Mayr E, Ashlock PD. (1991). Principles of Systematic Zoology (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-041144-1
  2. ^ McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Reine, W.F.P.h.V.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J. (2012). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG. ISBN 978-3-87429-425-6. articles 38.5 and 38.6
  3. ^ Fraser, T. H. (2014). "A new genus of cardinalfish from tropical Australia and southern New Guinea (Percomorpha: Apogonidae)". Zootaxa 3852 (2): 283–293.
  4. ^ P.G., Kevan,; R.A., Bye, (1991). "natural history, sociobiology, and ethnobiology of Eucheira socialis Westwood (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), a unique and little-known butterfly from Mexico". Entomologist. ISSN 0013-8878.
Anthemurgus

Anthemurgus passiflorae (the passionflower bee) is a small (7.5-8.5 mm long), black, bee that occurs from central Texas to North Carolina and north to Illinois. Females of this solitary bee use collected nectar and pollen to feed larvae located in nests constructed in the ground (through mass provisioning). This uncommon bee is unique for two reasons: first, the only known pollen host is a single species—the yellow passionflower (Passiflora lutea) (such specialization is called oligolecty); second, because of its size and foraging habits, the passionflower bee is thought to contribute very little toward the pollination of its host plant. The genus Anthemurgus contains only the passionflower bee and thus is a monotypic taxon.

Arthrorhaphidaceae

The Arthrorhaphidaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the division Ascomycota. This is a monotypic taxon, containing the single genus Arthrorhaphis, first described by Theodor Magnus Fries in 1860. The family was named by J. Poelt and J. Hafellner in 1976. Species in this family have a widespread distribution in temperate and montane habitats. They grow symbiotically with green algae, or parasitically on other lichens.

Ascoideaceae

The Ascoideaceae are a family of yeasts in the order Saccharomycetales. A monotypic taxon, it contains the single genus Ascoidea. Species in the family have a widespread distribution, and typically grow in beetle galleries in dead wood.

Aspiviridae

Aspiviridae, formerly Ophioviridae is a family of viruses characterized by an elongated and highly filamentous and flexible nucleocapsid with helical symmetry. It is a monotypic taxon containing only one genus, Ophiovirus. Aspiviridae is also the only family in the order Serpentovirales, which in turn is the only order in the class Milneviricetes.

The name Aspiviridae derives from the Latin aspis (snake or viper), refrring to the shape, along with the suffix for a virus family -viridae. Likewise Serpentovirales is from "serpent" with -virales, the suffix for a virus order. Milneviricetes is in honor of Robert G. Milne, the last author on the first paper describing ophioviruses.The protein capsid is non-enveloped and has a constant diameter of 1500–2500 nm and a width of 3 nm, or 9 nm. The capsids form kinked circles, which can collapse to form linear duplex structures, much like a spring.The entire genome is 1100–1200 nucleotides long.

Candelariales

The Candelariales are an order of fungi in the class Lecanoromycetes. It is a monotypic taxon, and contains the single family Candelariaceae.

Canyon wren

The canyon wren (Catherpes mexicanus) is a small North American songbird of the wren family Troglodytidae. It is resident throughout its range and is generally found in arid, rocky cliffs, outcrops, and canyons. It is a small bird that is hard to see on its rocky habitat; however, it can be heard throughout the canyons by its distinctive, loud song. It is currently in a monotypic taxon and is the only species in the genus Catherpes.

Cybiosarda elegans

The leaping bonito (Cybiosarda elegans) is a species of saltwater finfish from the Scombridae (Mackerel) family. Scombridae includes such tribes as the mackerels, tunas, and bonitos – the latter of which, the Sardini tribe, this fish is a member. It is the only member of the genus Cybiosarda, which is therefore called a monotypic taxon. Since the bonitos and tunas are close relatives, this fish has variously been referred to by such other common names as Australian tuna, striped bonito, and Watson's bonito.It is found in coastal and oceanic waters of northern Australia and southern New Guinea. It can reach 45 cm (18 in) in length and 2 kg (4.4 lb) in weight.

Leucocephalus

Leucocephalus is a genus of biarmosuchian belonging to the family Burnetiidae dating to the Wuchiapingian (Late Permian). It was found in the Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone (Tropidostoma) of the Main Karoo Basin of South Africa. It is a monotypic taxon which contains one only species, Leucocephalus wewersi.

Loramycetaceae

The Loramycetaceae are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota, class Leotiomycetes. This is a monotypic taxon, containing the single genus Loramyces; the genus contains two aquatic species, L. juncicola, named by American mycologist William H. Weston in 1929, and L. macrosporus, first described by C.T. Ingold and B. Chapman in 1952.

Microtheliopsidaceae

The Microtheliopsidaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. A monotypic taxon, it contains the single genus Microtheliopsis.

Monobasic

Monobasic may refer to:

A monobasic (or monoprotic) acid, able to donate one proton per molecule

A monobasic salt, with one hydrogen atom, with respect to the parent acid, replaced by cations

Monobasic, or Monotypic taxon, a taxonomic group (taxon) that contains only one immediately subordinate taxon

Monobasic, an album by Jess Cornelius

Moriolaceae

The Moriolaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. A monotypic taxon, it contains the single genus Moriola.

Mycoporaceae

The Mycoporaceae are a family of fungi with an uncertain taxonomic placement in the class Dothideomycetes. A monotypic taxon, it contains the single genus Mycoporum.

Orcynopsis unicolor

Orcynopsis unicolor (plain bonito) is a ray-finned, bony fish in the bonito tribe of the mackerel family (Scombridae). It occurs in the eastern Atlantic from southern Norway, where it is a vagrant, to Senegal, although it is not found in the seas around the Macaronesian Islands. It is also found in the Mediterranean Sea and extends to the Black Sea.Also called the palomette or tasarte, this fish is classified into the genus Orcynopsis, which is a monotypic taxon, having only this single species in its membership.

Saprolegniales

Saprolegniales is an order of freshwater mould. It is a monotypic taxon that only includes the family Saprolegniaceae.

Spotted elachura

The spotted elachura or spotted wren-babbler (Elachura formosa) is a species of passerine bird found in the forests of the eastern Himalayas and Southeast Asia. In the past it was included in the babbler genus Spelaeornis as S. formosus, but molecular phylogenetic studies in 2014 provided evidence that it was distinct from the babblers and part of a basal lineage (one that diverged early) with no other close living relatives within the passerine bird clade Passerida. This led to the creation of a new family, Elachuridae, to accommodate just one species (a monotypic taxon).

Tamarind

Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) is a leguminous tree in the family Fabaceae indigenous to tropical Africa. The genus Tamarindus is a monotypic taxon (having only a single species).

The tamarind tree produces pod-like fruit that contains an edible pulp used in cuisines around the world. Other uses of the pulp include traditional medicine and metal polish. The wood can be used for woodworking and tamarind seed oil can be extracted from the seeds. Its tender young leaves are used in Indian cuisine, especially in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Because of tamarind's many uses, it is cultivated around the world in tropical and subtropical zones.

Torovirus

Torovirus is a genus of viruses in the order Nidovirales, in the family Tobaniviridae, in the subfamily Torovirinae. They primarily infect vertebrates., especially cattle, pig, and horse. There are currently three species in this genus including the type species Equine torovirus. Diseases associated with this genus include: gastroenteritis, which commonly presents in mammals, but rarely in humans. Torovirus is the sole genus in the monotypic subfamily Torovirinae. Torovirus is also a monotypic taxon, containing only one subgenus, Renitovirus.

Umbilicariales

The Umbilicariales are an order of fungi in the class Lecanoromycetes. It is a monotypic taxon, and contains the single family Umbilicariaceae.

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