Monk seal

Monk seals are earless seals of the tribe Monachini. They are the only earless seals found in tropical climates. The two genera of monk seals, Monachus and Neomonachus, comprise three species: the Mediterranean monk seal, Monachus monachus; the Hawaiian monk seal, Neomonachus schauinslandi; and the Caribbean monk seal, Neomonachus tropicalis, which became extinct in the 20th century. The two surviving species are now rare and in imminent danger of extinction. All three monk seal species were classified in genus Monachus until 2014, when the Caribbean and Hawaiian species were placed into a new genus, Neomonachus.

Monk seals have a slender body and are agile. They have a broad, flat snout with nostrils on the top. Monk seals are polygynous, and group together in harems. They feed mainly on bony fish and cephalopods, but they are opportunistic. The skin is covered in small hairs, which are generally black in males and brown or dark gray in females. Monk seals are found in the Hawaiian archipelago, certain areas in the Mediterranean Sea (such as Cabo Blanco and Gyaros island), and formerly in the tropical areas of the west Atlantic Ocean.

All species experienced overhunting by sealers. The Hawaiian monk seal experienced population drops in the 19th century and during World War II, and the Caribbean monk seal was exploited since the 1500s until the 1850s, when populations were too low to hunt commercially. The Mediterranean monk seal has experienced commercial hunting since the Middle Ages and eradication by fishermen. Monk seals have developed a fear of humans, and may even abandon beaches due to human presence. Currently, around 1,700 monk seals remain.

Monk seals
Hawaiian monk seal at French Frigate Shoals 07
Hawaiian monk seal
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Clade: Pinnipedia
Family: Phocidae
Subfamily: Monachinae
Tribe: Monachini
Scheffer, 1958

Monachus monachus
Neomonachus schauinslandi
Neomonachus tropicalis

Hawaiian Monk Seal area
Hawaiian monk seal range
Monachus monachus distribution
Mediterranean monk seal range

Taxonomy and evolution


ringed seal

Baikal seal

Caspian seal

spotted seal

harbor seal

grey seal

ribbon seal

harp seal

hooded seal

bearded seal

Weddell seal

leopard seal

crabeater seal

Ross seal

southern elephant seal

northern elephant seal

Mediterranean monk seal

Hawaiian monk seal

†Caribbean monk seal

Phylogenetic relations between monk seals and other earless seals [1]

Monk seals are earless seals (true seals) of the tribe Monachini.[2] The tribe was first conceived by Victor Blanchard Scheffer in his 1958 book Seals, Sea Lions, and Walruses: A Review of the Pinnipedia.[3] The two genera of monk seals, Monachus and Neomonachus, comprise three species: the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus), the Hawaiian monk seal (Neomonachus schauinslandi), and the Caribbean monk seal (N. tropicalis), which became extinct in the 20th century. All three monk seal species were classified in genus Monachus until 2014, when comparison of the species' mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences led biologists to place the Caribbean and Hawaiian species in a new genus, Neomonachus.[4][5]

Fossils of the Mediterranean and Caribbean species are known from the Pleistocene.[1] The time of divergence between the Hawaiian and Caribbean species, 3.7 million years ago (Mya), corresponds to the closing of the Central American Seaway by the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. The divergence between Mediterranean seals and the New World clade was dated to 6.3 Mya ago.[6]


Monachus schauinslandi Hollingsworth
Hawaiian monk seal hauled out on volcanic rock

The Hawaiian monk seal, as the name suggests, lives solely in the Hawaiian archipelago. Monk seals migrated to Hawaii between 4–11 Mya through an open-water passage between North and South America called the Central American Seaway. The Isthmus of Panama closed the seaway 3 Mya. The species may have evolved in the Pacific or Atlantic, but in either case, came to Hawaii long before the first Polynesians.[7] When monk seals are not hunting or eating, they generally bask on the beaches; Hawaiian monk seals tend to bask on sandy beaches and volcanic rock of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands.[8]

The habitat of the Mediterranean monk seal has changed over the years. Prior to the 20th century, they had been known to congregate, give birth, and seek refuge on open beaches. Since sealing had ended, they have left their former habitat and now only use sea caves for such behavior. More often than not, these caves are rather inaccessible to humans due to underwater entries, and because the caves are often along remote or rugged coastlines. Scientists have confirmed this is a recent adaptation, most likely due to the rapid increase in human population, tourism, and industry, which have caused increased disturbance by humans and the destruction of the species' natural habitat. Because of these seals' shy nature and sensitivity to human disturbance, they have slowly adapted to try to avoid contact with humans completely within the last century, and perhaps, even earlier. The coastal caves are, however, dangerous for newborns, and are causes of major mortality among pups when sea storms hit the caves.[9]

Caribbean monk seals were found in warm temperate, subtropical, and tropical waters of the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the west Atlantic Ocean. They probably preferred to haul out at sites (low sandy beaches above high tide) on isolated and secluded atolls and islands, but occasionally visited the mainland coasts and deeper waters offshore. This species may have fed in shallow lagoons and reefs.[10]


Monachus schauinslandi
Hawaiian monk seal swimming (note the red eyes are due to the red-eye effect)

Monk seals are part of the family Phocidae (earless seals), the members of which are characterized by their lack of external ears, the inability to rotate the hind flippers under the body,[11] and shed their hair and the outer layer of their skin in an annual molt.[12] Monk seals as a whole vary minutely in size, with all adults measuring on average 8 feet (2.4 m) and 500 pounds (230 kg). They exhibit sexual dimorphism, in that the males are slightly larger than females, with the exception of the Hawaiian monk seal, where females are larger. Its white belly, gray coat, and slender physique distinguish it from the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), another earless seal.[10][13][14] Much like elephant seals, they shed their hair and the outer layer of their skin in an annual molt.[12]

The Mediterranean monk seal has a short, broad, and flat snout, with very pronounced, long nostrils that face upwards. The flippers are relatively short, with small, slender claws. The monk seal’s physique is ideally suited for hunting its prey: fish, octopus, lobster, and squid in deep-water coral beds.[15] The fur coats of males is generally black, and brown or dark gray in females. Pups are about 3.3 feet (1 m) long and weigh around 33–40 pounds (15–18 kg), their skin being covered by 0.4-to-0.6-inch (1.0 to 1.5 cm) fur, usually dark brown or black. On their bellies, a white stripe occurs, which differs in color between the two sexes. This hair is replaced after 6-8 weeks by the usual short hair adults carry.[13]

Monachus skeleton
Mediterranean monk seal skeleton

The Hawaiian monk seal (whose Hawaiian name means "the dog that runs in rough waters")[16] has a short, broad, and flat snout, with long nostrils that face forward. It has a relatively small, flat head with large, black eyes, eight pairs of teeth, and a short snout with the nostrils on top of the snout and vibrissae on each side.[14] The nostrils are small, vertical slits, which close when the seal dives under water. Additionally, their slender, torpedo-shaped body and hind flippers allow them to be very agile swimmers.[17] Adult males are 300 to 400 pounds (140 to 180 kg) in weight and 7 feet (2.1 m) in length, while adult females tend to be, typically, slightly larger, at 400 to 600 pounds (180 to 270 kg) and 8 feet (2.4 m) in length. When monk seal pups are born, they weigh 30 to 40 pounds (14 to 18 kg) and are 40 inches (1.0 m) in length. As they nurse for about 6 weeks, they grow considerably, eventually weighing between 150 and 200 pounds (68 and 91 kg) by the time they are weaned, while the mother loses up to 300 pounds (140 kg).

Caribbean monk seals had a relatively large, long, robust body, and could grow to nearly 8 feet (2.4 m) in length and weighed 375 to 600 pounds (170 to 272 kg). Males were probably slightly larger than females, which is similar to Mediterranean monk seals. Like other monk seals, this species had a distinctive head and face. The head was rounded with an extended, broad muzzle. The face had relatively large, wide-spaced eyes, upward-opening nostrils, and fairly big whisker pads with long, light-colored, and smooth whiskers. When compared to the body, the animal's foreflippers were relatively short with little claws and the hindflippers were slender. Their coloration was brownish and/or grayish, with the underside lighter than the dorsal area. Adults were darker than the paler and more yellowish younger seals. Caribbean monk seals were also known to have algae growing on their pelages, giving them a slightly greenish appearance, which is similar to Hawaiian monk seals.[10]


Diet and predation

Hawaiian monk seals mainly prey on reef-dwelling bony fish, but they also prey on cephalopods and crustaceans. Juveniles and subadults prey more on smaller octopus species, such as Octopus leteus and O. hawaiiensis (nocturnal octopus species), and eels than do adult Hawaiian monk seals. Adult seals feed mostly on larger octopus species such as O. cyanea. Hawaiian monk seals have a broad and diverse diet due to foraging plasticity, which allows them to be opportunistic predators that feed on a wide variety of available prey.[15] Tiger sharks, great white sharks, and Galapagos sharks are both predators of the Hawaiian monk seal.[18]

Mediterranean monk seals are diurnal and feed on a variety of fish and mollusks, primarily octopus, squid, and eels, up to 6.5 pounds (2.9 kg) per day. They are known to forage mostly at depths of 150 to 230 feet (46 to 70 m), but some have been observed by NOAA submersibles at a depth of 500 feet (150 m). They prefer hunting in wide-open spaces, enabling them to use their speed more effectively. They are successful bottom-feeding hunters; some have even been observed lifting slabs of rock in search of prey. They have no natural predators.[13]

Reproduction and development

Sanc1297 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library
Two young Hawaiian monk seals

Very little is known of the Mediterranean monk seal's reproduction. They are thought to be polygynous, with males being very territorial where they mate with females. Although no breeding season exists, since births take place year round, a peak occurs in October and November. This is also the time when caves are prone to wash out due to high surf or storm surge, which causes high mortality rates among pups, especially at the key Cabo Blanco colony. Pups make first contact with the water 2 weeks after their birth and are weaned around 18 weeks of age; females caring for pups go off to feed for an average of 9 hours.[13] Most individuals are believed to reach maturity at 4 years of age. The gestation period lasts close to a year. However, monk seals of the Cabo Blanco colony may have a gestation period lasting slightly longer than a year.[19]:97 Mediterranean monk seals generally live to be 25 to 30 years old.[9]

Hawaiian monk seals are polygynous. The breeding season takes place throughout the year, excluding the fall, but peaks during April and May. Shark attacks cause a high pup mortality, from 19% to 39%. Pups are thought to be weaned around 6 weeks and reach sexual maturity at 3 years.[19]:104–105 Their typical lifespan is 25 to 30 years.[16]

Not much is known of the Caribbean monk seal's reproduction. They likely bore a single pup every two years. Their gestation period, lactation period, and sexual maturity age are unknown.[19]:102

Interactions with humans


Sleeping seal
A Hawaiian monk seal sleeping on a beach in Kauai


In the 19th century, many seals were killed by whalers and sealers for meat, oil, and skin.[20] U.S. military forces hunted them during World War II, while occupying Laysan Island and Midway Island.[20] Human disturbances have had immense effects on the populations of the Hawaiian monk seal. They tend to avoid beaches where they are disturbed; after continual disturbance, the seals may completely abandon the beach, thus reducing habitat size, subsequently limiting population growth. For instance, large beach crowds and beach structures limit the seal’s habitat. The WWII military bases in the northwestern islands were closed, but minimal human activities can be enough to disturb the species.[21] The current population is only around 1,400 individuals.[22]

The Hawaiian monk seal has the lowest level of genetic variability among the 18 pinniped species, allegedly due to a population bottleneck caused by intense hunting in the 19th century. This limited genetic variability reduces the species's ability to adapt to environmental pressures and limits natural selection, thus increasing their risk of extinction. Given the monk seal's small population, the effects of disease could be disastrous.[23][24]

Entanglement can result in mortality, because when the seals get trapped in marine debris such as fishing nets, they cannot maneuver or reach the surface to breathe.[23] Marine fisheries can potentially interact with monk seals by direct and indirect relationships. Directly, the seal can become snared by fishing equipment, entangled in discarded debris, and even feed on fish refuse.[21] International law prohibits the intentional discarding of debris from ships at sea. Monk seals have one of the highest documented rates of entanglement of any pinniped species.[21]


In 1909, Theodore Roosevelt created the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge (HINWR), which is under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.[21] Throughout the 1980s, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed various versions of an environmental impact statement that designated the Northwest Hawaiian Islands as a critical habitat for the Hawaiian monk seal. The designation prohibited lobster fishing in the northwest Hawaiian Islands and Laysan Island. In 2006, a Presidential proclamation established the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, which incorporated the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve, the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, the HINWR, and the Battle of Midway National Memorial, thus creating the largest marine protected area in the world and affording the Hawaiian monk seal further protection.[25]

NOAA cultivated a network of volunteers to protect the seals while they bask or bear and nurse their young. NOAA is funding considerable research on seal population dynamics and health in conjunction with the Marine Mammal Center. From NOAA, several programs and networks were formed. Community programs such as PIRO have helped to improve community standards for the Hawaiian monk seal. The program also creates networks with the native Hawaiians on the island to network more people in the fight for conservation of the seals. The Marine Mammal Response Network is partnered with NOAA and several other government agencies that deal with land and marine wildlife.[26]

To raise awareness of the species' plight, on June 11, 2008, a state law designated the Hawaiian monk seal as Hawaii's official state mammal.[27]


Mediterranean Monk Seal
One of the first sightings of a monk seal in the Strait of Gibraltar, 2012


Several causes provoked a dramatic population decrease over time: on one hand, commercial hunting (especially during the Roman Empire and Middle Ages) and during the 20th century, eradication by fishermen, who used to consider it a pest due to the damage the seal causes to fishing nets when it preys on fish caught in them; and on the other hand, coastal urbanization and pollution. Currently, its entire population is estimated to be less than 600 individuals scattered throughout a wide distribution range, which qualifies this species as endangered. Its current very sparse population is one more serious threat to the species, as it only has two key sites that can be deemed viable. One is the Aegean Sea (250–300 animals in Greece, with the largest concentration of animals on Gyaros,[28] and some 100 in Turkey); the other important subpopulation is the Western Saharan portion of Cabo Blanco (around 200 individuals which may support the small, but growing, nucleus in the Desertas Islands – roughly 20 individuals[13]). Some individuals may be using coastal areas along other parts of Western Sahara, such as in Cintra Bay.[29] These two key sites are virtually in the extreme opposites of the species' distribution range, which makes natural population interchange between them impossible. All the other remaining subpopulations are composed of less than 50 mature individuals, many of them being only loose groups of extremely reduced size – often less than five individuals.[13] Consequently, low genetic variability exists.[30]

Colonia de focas monje de Cabo Blanco (1945)
A colony of Mediterranean monk seals on Cabo Blanco, 1945

Cabo Blanco, in the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest surviving single population of the species, and the only remaining site that still seems to preserve a colony structure.[13] In the summer of 1997, a disease killed more than 200 animals (two-thirds of its population) within 2 months, extremely compromising the species' viable population. While opinions on the precise causes of this epidemic remain divided, the most likely cause is a morbilivirus or a toxic algae bloom.[13]


In the Aegean Sea, Greece has allocated a large area for the preservation of the Mediterranean monk seal and its habitat. The Greek Alonissos Marine Park, that extends around the Northern Sporades islands, is the main action ground of the Greek MOm organisation.[31] MOm is greatly involved in raising awareness in the general public, fundraising for the helping of the monk seal preservation cause, in Greece and wherever needed. Greece is currently investigating the possibility of declaring another monk seal breeding site as a national park, and also has integrated some sites in the NATURA 2000 protection scheme. The legislation in Greece is very strict towards seal hunting, and in general, the public is very much aware and supportive of the effort for the preservation of the Mediterranean monk seal.[32]

One of the largest groups among the foundations concentrating their efforts towards the preservation of the Mediterranean monk seal is the Mediterranean Seal Research Group (Akdeniz Foklarını Araştırma Grubu) operating under the Underwater Research Foundation (Sualtı Araştırmaları Derneği) in Turkey (also known as SAD-AFAG). The group has taken initiative in joint preservation efforts together with the Foça municipal officials, as well as phone, fax, and email hotlines for sightings.[33]


Caribbean monk seal in the New York Aquarium, 1910

The extinction of the Caribbean monk seal was mainly triggered by overhunting in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to obtain the oil held within their blubber,[34] fueled by the large demand for seal products.[35] As early as 1688, sugar plantation owners sent out hunting parties to kill hundreds of seals every night for blubber oil to lubricate machinery.[36] The Caribbean monk seals’ docile nature and lack of an instinctive fear of humans made it an easy target,[37] and hunting only ended (in the 1850s) because the population was too low for commercial use.[38] Overfishing of the reefs that sustained the Caribbean monk seal population also contributed to their extinction. Fish stock decline in the Caribbean starved the remaining populations.[39] Little was done to protect the Caribbean monk seal; by the time it was placed on the endangered species list in 1967, it was likely already extinct.[34]

Further reading

  • Ronald M. Nowak (1999), Walker's Mammals of the World (6th ed.), Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-5789-8, LCCN 98023686
  • Perrin, William F.; Bernd Wursig; J. G. M. Thewissen (2008). Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-373553-9.


  1. ^ a b Berta, A. & Churchill, M. (2012). "Pinniped Taxonomy: evidence for species and subspecies". Mammal Review. 42 (3): 207–234. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2011.00193.x.
  2. ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Genus Monachus". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 598. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  3. ^ Scheffer, Victor B. (1958). Seals, Sea Lions, and Walruses: A Review of the Pinnipedia. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-8047-0544-8.
  4. ^ Scheel, Dirk-Martin; Slater, Graham J.; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Potter, Charles W.; Rotstein, David S.; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Greenwood, Alex D.; Helgen, Kristofer M. (2014). "Biogeography and taxonomy of extinct and endangered monk seals illuminated by ancient DNA and skull morphology". ZooKeys (409): 1–33. doi:10.3897/zookeys.409.6244. PMC 4042687. PMID 24899841.
  5. ^ Jemison, M. (15 May 2014). "Too valuable to lose: Extinct relative reveals rarity of last two remaining monk seal species". Smithsonian Science website. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on 2014-05-15. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  6. ^ Scheel, D. M.; Slater, G.; Kolokotronis, S. O.; Potter, C.; Rotstein, D.; Tsangaras, K.; Greenwood, A.; Helgen, K. M. (14 May 2014). "Biogeography and taxonomy of extinct and endangered monk seals illuminated by ancient DNA and skull morphology". ZooKeys (409): 1–33. doi:10.3897/zookeys.409.6244. PMC 4042687. PMID 24899841.
  7. ^ "Historical Timeline of the Hawaiian Monk Seal" (PDF). Pacific Islands Regional Office (NOAA). Honolulu, HI, USA: National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Islands Regional Office. June 29, 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  8. ^ Baker, J; Johanos, Thea C. (2004). "Abundance of the Hawaiian Monk Seal in the Main Hawaiian Islands". Biological Conservation. 1. 116: 103–10. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(03)00181-2.
  9. ^ a b M. Johnson, William; A. Karamanlidis, Alexandros; Dendrinos, Panagiotis; Fernández de Larrinoa, Pablo; Gazo, Manel; Mariano González, Luis; Güçlüsoy, Harun; Pires, Rosa; Schnellmann, Matthias (2006). "Monk Seal Fact Files". The Monachus Guardian.
  10. ^ a b c "Caribbean Monk Seal (Monachus tropicalis)". NOAA – Office of Protected Resources. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  11. ^ Gilmartin, William; Forcada, J. (2002). "Monk Seals". Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, Eds: 756–759.
  12. ^ a b Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, p. 741.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Karamanlidis, A. & Dendrinos, P. (2015). "Monachus monachus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T13653A45227543. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T13653A45227543.en.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  14. ^ a b "Hawaiian Monk Seal (Neomonachus schauinslandi)". NOAA – Office of Protected Resources. Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  15. ^ a b Goodman-Lowe, GD (1998). "Diet of the Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi) from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands during 1991 to 1994" (PDF). Marine Biology. 3. 132 (3): 535–46. doi:10.1007/s002270050419.
  16. ^ a b "Hawaiian Monk Seal". Marine Mammal Center. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  17. ^ Kenyon, KW; Rice, DW (July 1959). "Life History Of the Hawaiian Monk Seal". Pacific Science. 13.
  18. ^ Bertilsson-Friedman, P (2006). "Distribution and Frequencies of Shark-inflicted Injuries to the Endangered Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus Schauinslandi)". Journal of Zoology. 268 (4): 361–68. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00066.x.
  19. ^ a b c Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (1978). "Pinnipeds species summaries". Mammals in the Seas: Report volume 2. ISBN 978-92-5-100512-5.
  20. ^ a b Ellis, Richard (2004). No Turning Back: The Life and Death of Animal Species. New York: Harper Perennial. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-06-055804-8.
  21. ^ a b c d Antonelis, GA; et al. (2006). "Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauins-landi): status and conservation issues". Atoll Res Bull. 543: 75–101.
  22. ^ "Hawaiian Monk seal Monachus schauinslandi". National Geographic. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  23. ^ a b Schultz J, J. K.; Baker J; Toonen R; Bowen B (2009). "Extremely Low Genetic Diversity in the Endangered Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi)". Journal of Heredity. 1. 100 (1): 25–33. doi:10.1093/jhered/esn077. PMID 18815116.
  24. ^ Kretzmann, M.; et al. (1997). "Low Genetic Variability in the Hawaiian Monk Seal". Conservation Biology. 11 (2): 482–490. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.96031.x.
  25. ^ "Second Revision of Recovery Plan for the Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi)" (PDF). NOAA PIFSC Hawaiian Monk Seal Research. Honolulu, HI, USA: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (NOAA). January 28, 2010 [2007]. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  26. ^ Protected Resources Division." NOAA. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2013.
  27. ^ Gladden, Tracy. "Hawaiian monk seal is the new state mammal". KHNL NBC 8 Honolulu Hawaii. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
  28. ^ Karamanlidis, A.A.; Dendrinos, P.; P.F. de Larrinoa, A.C. Gücü; Johnson, W.M.; Kiraç, C.O.; Pires, R. (2015). "The Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus: status, biology, threats, and conservation priorities". Mammal Review. 45 (4): 92. doi:10.1111/mam.12053.
  29. ^ Tiwari M., Aksissou M., Semmoumy S., Ouakka K. (2006). Morocco Footprint Handbook. Footprint Travel Guides. p. 265. ISBN 978-1-907263-31-6.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  30. ^ Pastor, T.; et al. (2004). "Low Genetic Variability in the Highly Endangered Mediterranean Monk Seal". Journal of Heredity. 95 (4): 291–300. doi:10.1093/jhered/esh055. PMID 15247308.
  31. ^ "MOm Website" (in Greek). Retrieved 11 June 2012.
  32. ^ "Important Moments for NMPANS" (in Greek). Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  33. ^ "International Monk Seal Alliance". Sualtı Araştırmaları Derneği: Akdeniz Foku Araştırma Grubu. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
  34. ^ a b Adam, Peter (July 2004). "Monachus tropicali". Mammalian Species. 747: 1–9. doi:10.1644/747.
  35. ^ Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, pp. 585–588.
  36. ^ Gray, J (1850). Catalogue of the Specimens of Mammalia in the Collection of the British Museum. London. p. v.
  37. ^ Ward, H (1887). "The West Indian Seal (Monachus Tropicalis)". Nature. 35 (904): 392. Bibcode:1887Natur..35..392W. doi:10.1038/035392a0.
  38. ^ Gray, J (1850). Catalogue of the Specimens of Mammalia in the Collection of the British Museum. London. p. v. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.20968
  39. ^ McClenachan, Loren; Cooper, Andrew B. (2008). "Extinction rate, historical population structure and ecological role of the Caribbean monk seal". Proc. R. Soc. B. 275 (1641): 1351–1358. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1757. PMC 2602701. PMID 18348965.

External links

1979 Mediterranean Games

The VIII Mediterranean Games – Split 1979, commonly known as the 1979 Mediterranean Games, were the 8th Mediterranean Games. The Games were held in Split, Yugoslavia, from 15 to 29 September 1979, where 2,408 athletes (2,009 men and 399 women) from 14 countries participated. There were a total of 192 medal events from 26 different sports.

The games' mascot was a Mediterranean monk seal named Adrijana.


Acrophoca longirostris, sometimes called the swan-necked seal, is an extinct genus of Late Miocene pinniped. It was thought to have been the ancestor of the modern leopard seal, however it is now thought to be a species of monk seal.

Aydıncık Nature Park

Aydıncık Nature Park is a nature park in Turkey. It is at 36°08′52″N 33°21′38″E and situated to the east of Aydıncık ilçe (district) of Mersin Province. Its distance to Aydıncık centrum is about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) and to Mersin is about 170 kilometres (110 mi). Gilindire Cave is to the east of the nature park. It was declared a picnic area in 1988 and a nature park in 2011.

The park is at the east side of Aydıncık bay, facing Aydıncık Islands and the town.

The total area of the park is 23.7 hectares (59 acres). The natural flora consists of Turkish pine (Pinus brutia), myrtle (myrtus communis), kermes oak (quercus coccifera) and laurel (laurus nobilis), and spini broom (calicotome villosa). Mediterranean gull (chthyaetus melanocephalus), Mediterranean monk seal (monachus monachus ) and various small reptiles make up the fauna around the park.

Bay of Grama

The Bay of Grama (Albanian pronunciation: [ˈɟiːɾi i ˈgraːməs] — Albanian: Gjiri i Gramës) is a bay of the Ionian Sea situated along the Albanian Ionian Sea Coast on the Mediterranean Sea in Southern Europe. It is one of many bays of the western Ceraunian Mountains along the Albanian Riviera south of the Karaburun Peninsula.The bay is home to precious archaeological, historical and cultural values, as it served as an important harbour and shelter for the ones sailing along the coast during classical antiquity. On the vertical cliffs and rocks, there are numerous carved inscriptions in Ancient Greek, Latin and Medieval Greek; the name of the bay is closely associated with engraved inscriptions. During the Second World War it was used at a base for the Special Operations Executive.Representing a rocky bay, the shore is dominated by coastal cliffs, sloping vertically into the sea, and rocky, pebbled beaches. It stretches within the Karaburun-Sazan Marine Park and was designated as a natural monument because of its outstanding landscape dotted with solutional and sea caves. The precious landscapes of the bay are of global importance, because they contribute to the country's ecological balance and provide habitat for numerous globally threatened and endangered species. The sea caves are an exceptional ecosystem and give important refuge to the mediterranean monk seal, the rarest seal species in the world.

Caribbean monk seal

The Caribbean monk seal, West Indian seal or sea wolf (as early explorers referred to it), Neomonachus tropicalis, was a species of seal native to the Caribbean and is now believed to be extinct. The Caribbean monk seals' main predators were sharks and humans. Overhunting of the seals for oil and overfishing of their food sources are the established reasons for the seals' extinction. The last confirmed sighting of the Caribbean Monk Seal was in 1952 at Serranilla Bank, between Jamaica and Nicaragua. In 2008, the species was officially declared extinct in the United States after an exhaustive search for the seals that lasted for about five years. This analysis was conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the National Marine Fisheries Service. Caribbean monk seals were closely related to the Hawaiian monk seals, which live around the Hawaiian Islands and are now endangered, and Mediterranean monk seals, another endangered species.

Coaling Island

Coaling Island is an area of reclaimed land in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It is located at the centre of the western end of Gibraltar Harbour as one of its industrial zones. It also serves to harbour Cormorant Camber which berths small boats. The Royal Gibraltar Yacht Club was located there after the Ministry of Defence Boat Squadron freed up the site.During World War II there was a fire at Coaling Island. A Spaniard, José Martín Muñoz, who was working in Gibraltar created an explosion and fire at a fuel tank on 30 June 1943. Because of this he was under scrutiny and in August he was arrested as he attempted to place a bomb inside Ragged Staff Magazine. Muñoz was later hanged by Albert Pierrepoint.

In 2012, a Mediterranean monk seal was spotted on the jetty of the private boat owners club at Coaling Island.

Dog Islands

Dog Islands are a small group of islets among the British Virgin Islands in the Caribbean.

The islands originally received their names from sailors who heard barking when they moored there, and assumed that they must be dogs. However, the barking noises were made by Caribbean monk seals. The sailors also regarded the Caribbean monk seal as a good source of fresh seal meat, and as a result, they are now extinct.

Earless seal

The earless seals, phocids or true seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal lineage, Pinnipedia. All true seals are members of the family Phocidae . They are sometimes called crawling seals to distinguish them from the fur seals and sea lions of the family Otariidae. Seals live in the oceans of both hemispheres and, with the exception of the more tropical monk seals, are mostly confined to polar, subpolar, and temperate climates. The Baikal seal is the only species of exclusively freshwater seal.

Gennargentu National Park

The Gennargentu National Park (also National Park of the Bay of Orosei and Gennargentu; Italian: Parco Nazionale del Golfo di Orosei e del Gennargentu) is a national park on the east coast of Sardinia.Wildlife in the park includes the Felis lybica sarda (also known as Sardinian wildcat), the mouflon, the marten, the weasel, the edible dormouse, the garden dormouse, the Sardinian fox, the griffon vulture, the golden eagle, the Bonelli's eagle, the peregrine falcon, the great spotted woodpecker, the butterfly Corsican swallowtail. Marine mammals include the Mediterranean monk seal, the fin whale, sperm whale, and various smaller whales and dolphins.The park lies in the provinces of Nuoro and Ogliastra.The highest mountain in Sardinia, Punta La Marmora, in the Gennargentu mountain range is within the boundaries of the National Park.


Gyaros (Greek: Γυάρος pronounced [ˈʝaɾos]), also locally known as Gioura (Greek: Γιούρα, unrelated to Gioura of Thessaly, also unpopulated), is an arid and unpopulated Greek island in the northern Cyclades near the islands of Andros and Tinos, with an area of 23 square kilometres (9 sq mi). It is a part of the municipality of Ano Syros, which lies primarily on the island of Syros. This and other small islands of the Aegean Sea served as places of exile for important persons in the early Roman empire. The extremity of its desolation was proverbial among Roman authors, such as Tacitus and Juvenal. It was a place of exile for leftist political dissidents in Greece from 1948 until 1974. At least 22,000 people were exiled or imprisoned on the island during that time. It is an island of great ecological importance as it hosts the largest population of monk seal in the Mediterranean.

Hawaiian hoary bat

The Hawaiian hoary bat or ʻōpeʻapeʻa (Aeorestes semotus) is an endangered species of the hoary bat (family Vespertilionidae) that is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The Hawaiian hoary bat is one of two species of mammal that are endemic to the islands, the other being the Hawaiian monk seal. It is a federally listed endangered taxon of the United States.

Hawaiian monk seal

The Hawaiian monk seal, Neomonachus schauinslandi (formerly Monachus schauinslandi), is an endangered species of earless seal in the family Phocidae that is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.The Hawaiian monk seal is one of two remaining monk seal species; the other is the Mediterranean monk seal. A third species, the Caribbean monk seal, is extinct.The Hawaiian monk seal is the only seal native to Hawaii, and, along with the Hawaiian hoary bat, is one of only two mammals endemic to the islands.These monk seals are a conservation reliant endangered species. The small population of about 1,400 individuals is threatened by human encroachment, very low levels of genetic variation, entanglement in fishing nets, marine debris, disease, and past commercial hunting for skins. There are many methods of conservation biology when it comes to endangered species; translocation, captive care, habitat cleanup, and educating the public about the Hawaiian monk seal are some of the methods that can be employed.

Mediterranean Monk Seal Memorandum of Understanding

The Memorandum of Understanding concerning Conservation Measures for the Eastern Atlantic Populations of the Mediterranean Monk Seal is a multilateral environmental memorandum of understanding (MoU) and entered into effect on 18 October 2007, under the auspices of the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), also known as the Bonn Convention. It focuses on the protection of the eastern Atlantic populations of the Mediterranean monk seal. The MoU covers four range states (Mauritania, Morocco, Portugal and Spain), all of which have signed.

Mediterranean monk seal

The Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) is a monk seal belonging to the family Phocidae. As of 2015, it is estimated that fewer than 700 individuals survive in three or four isolated subpopulations in the Mediterranean, (especially) in the Aegean Sea, the archipelago of Madeira and the Cabo Blanco area in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. It is believed to be the world's rarest pinniped species.


Neomonachus is a genus of earless seals, within the family Phocidae. It contains two species, the extant Hawaiian monk seal and the extinct Caribbean monk seal. Prior to 2014, all three species of monk seals were placed in the genus Monachus, but that was found to be paraphyletic.


Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals. They comprise the extant families Odobenidae (whose only living member is the walrus), Otariidae (the eared seals: sea lions and fur seals), and Phocidae (the earless seals, or true seals). There are 33 extant species of pinnipeds, and more than 50 extinct species have been described from fossils. While seals were historically thought to have descended from two ancestral lines, molecular evidence supports them as a monophyletic lineage (descended from one ancestral line). Pinnipeds belong to the order Carnivora and their closest living relatives are believed to be bears and the superfamily of musteloids (weasels, raccoons, skunks, and red pandas), having diverged about 50 million years ago.

Seals range in size from the 1 m (3 ft 3 in) and 45 kg (99 lb) Baikal seal to the 5 m (16 ft) and 3,200 kg (7,100 lb) southern elephant seal, which is also the largest member of the order Carnivora. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism. They have streamlined bodies and four limbs that are modified into flippers. Though not as fast in the water as dolphins, seals are more flexible and agile. Otariids use their front limbs primarily to propel themselves through the water, while phocids and walruses use their hind limbs. Otariids and walruses have hind limbs that can be pulled under the body and used as legs on land. By comparison, terrestrial locomotion by phocids is more cumbersome. Otariids have visible external ears, while phocids and walruses lack these. Pinnipeds have well-developed senses—their eyesight and hearing are adapted for both air and water, and they have an advanced tactile system in their whiskers or vibrissae. Some species are well adapted for diving to great depths. They have a layer of fat, or blubber, under the skin to keep warm in the cold water, and, other than the walrus, all species are covered in fur.

Although pinnipeds are widespread, most species prefer the colder waters of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. They spend most of their lives in the water, but come ashore to mate, give birth, molt or escape from predators, such as sharks and killer whales. They feed largely on fish and marine invertebrates; but a few, like the leopard seal, feed on large vertebrates, such as penguins and other seals. Walruses are specialized for feeding on bottom-dwelling mollusks. Male pinnipeds typically mate with more than one female (polygyny), although the degree of polygyny varies with the species. The males of land-breeding species tend to mate with a greater number of females than those of ice breeding species. Male pinniped strategies for reproductive success vary between defending females, defending territories that attract females and performing ritual displays or lek mating. Pups are typically born in the spring and summer months and females bear almost all the responsibility for raising them. Mothers of some species fast and nurse their young for a relatively short period of time while others take foraging trips at sea between nursing bouts. Walruses are known to nurse their young while at sea. Seals produce a number of vocalizations, notably the barks of California sea lions, the gong-like calls of walruses and the complex songs of Weddell seals.

The meat, blubber and fur coats of pinnipeds have traditionally been used by indigenous peoples of the Arctic. Seals have been depicted in various cultures worldwide. They are commonly kept in captivity and are even sometimes trained to perform tricks and tasks. Once relentlessly hunted by commercial industries for their products, seals and walruses are now protected by international law. The Japanese sea lion and the Caribbean monk seal have become extinct in the past century, while the Mediterranean monk seal and Hawaiian monk seal are ranked endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Besides hunting, pinnipeds also face threats from accidental trapping, marine pollution, and conflicts with local people.

Pullu I Nature Park

Pullu I Nature Park (Turkish: Pullu I Tabiat Parkı) is a coastal nature park in Anamur ilçe (district) of Mersin Province, Turkey. The index "I" is to distinguish the park from a neighboring park with the same name.

The park at 36°5′15″N 32°54′38″E is a coastal park between the Mediterranean Sea and the Mersin-Anamur highway , which runs parallel to Mediterranean Sea coast. Anamur and Mamure Castle are to the west, Bozyazı and Mersin are to the east and Bozdoğan village is to the north of the park. Its distance to Anamur is 7 km (4.3 mi) and to Mersin is 220 km (140 mi). It covers an area of 10.3 ha (25 acres). In 1980, the area at the Mediterranean Sea side was declared a recreation area. In 2011, it was registered as a nature park by the Ministry of Environment and Forest.The nature park offers outdoor recreational activities for 1,000–1,500 visitors on daily basis such as hiking, swimming and picnicing. Camping and renting of cottages or bungalows are also available. The park offers place for 180 campers and 30 caravans.The nature park has Mediterranean climate. Dominant vegetation in the park are the trees red pine (Pinus resinosa) and jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) as well as the shrubs topped lavender (Lavandula stoechas), marjoram (Origanum) and caper spurge (Euphorbia lathyris). Tne sandy beach of the nature park is an ovulation site for the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta). The Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus), living in the coastal sea of Anamur, may be also observed at site.

Ras Nouadhibou

Ras Nouadhibou (Arabic: رأس نواذيبو‎) is a 60-kilometre (37 mi) peninsula or headland divided between Mauritania and Western Sahara on the African coast of the Atlantic Ocean. It is internationally known as Cabo Blanco in Spanish or Cap Blanc in French (both meaning "White Headland").

In the 14th and 15th centuries, fishing activities carried out from the nearby Canary Islands, by Spanish fishermen, inspired Spain to develop an interest in the desert coast of what is today called Western Sahara.Cabo Blanco, in the Atlantic Ocean, is the only place in the world where Mediterranean monk seals form a true colony. In 1997, two-thirds of the colony died off, but there has been gradual recovery since.

Yelkenli Island

Yelkenli Island (Turkish: Yelkenli Ada, literally "sailboat Island) is a Mediterranean island in Turkey. It is administratively a part of Aydıncık ilçe (district) of Mersin Province at 36°08′19″N 33°21′55″E.The uninhabited island has an area of only 650 square metres (7,000 sq ft). The island is almost merged to the mainland (Anatolia) and close to the Aydıncık Cave a famous cave. Aydıncık Islands are about 1,400 metres (4,600 ft) to the west. Yelkenli Island is known as a breeding location of Mediterranean gull and Mediterrean monk seal.

Extant Carnivora species

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