Mongolian Revolution of 1990

The Mongolian Revolution of 1990 (1990 Democratic Revolution, Mongolian: Ардчилсан хувьсгал, Ardchilsan Khuvĭsgal) was a democratic peaceful revolution that started with demonstrations and hunger strikes to overthrow the Mongolian People's Republic and eventually moved towards the democratic present day Mongolia and the writing of the new constitution. It was spearheaded by mostly younger people demonstrating on Sükhbaatar Square in the capital Ulaanbaatar. It ended with the authoritarian government resigning without bloodshed. Some of the main organizers were Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, Sanjaasürengiin Zorig, Erdeniin Bat-Üül, Bat-Erdeniin Batbayar, and Dogmidiin Sosorbaram.

This was the beginning of the end of the 70-year period of socialism in Mongolia. Although a multi-party system was established, the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) actually remained in power until 1996. Nevertheless, reforms were implemented and the transition to a market economy begun. The revolution was inspired by the reforms in the Soviet Union, and by the similar revolutions in Eastern Europe in late 1989.

Mongolian Revolution of 1990
Part of the Revolutions of 1989
Hunger strikers in Mongolia
Date2 January–9 March 1990
Resulted inEnd of communism in Mongolia
Multiparty elections held in June 1990
Beginning of democracy in Mongolia
End of Soviet control over Mongolia
Dissolution of the Mongolian People's Republic with the adoption of a new constitution on 12 February 1992
Parties to the civil conflict
Lead figures


There were pro-independence movements in 1911 against the colonization policy of the late Qing dynasty. Finally, the Mongolian People's Party took power in Mongolia in 1921 with the help of the Soviet Union, after White Russian and Chinese forces had been expelled. In 1924, the party renamed itself the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party.[1] Over the following decades, Mongolia was always very closely aligned with the Soviet Union. After the resignation of Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal in 1984, and inspired by Mikhail Gorbachev's reforms in the Soviet Union, the new leadership under Jambyn Batmönkh implemented economic reforms, but failed to appeal to those who, in late 1989, wanted broader changes.[2]

Course of events

Young people in Mongolia wanted a change in the society, the way the government was conducting its business. They began to meet and discuss secretly. For example, during his studies in the USSR, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj learned about Glasnost, the concepts such as freedom of speech and economic liberties. After returning to Mongolia, he met other like-minded people and tried to present those ideas to a wider audience,[3] despite attempts of repression from the Politburo-authority of the government.[4] On 28 November 1989, at the end of a speech at the Young Artists' Second National Congress, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj said that Mongolia needed democracy and appealed for youth to collaborate to create democracy in Mongolia. He told the audience "We consider that Perestroika is a timely and brave step. Youth's contribution to this revolutionary matter is not by supportive talks but by certain work. Our contribution is our objectives to be fulfilled. Our objectives are: ... following democracy and transparency and contributing to glasnost, ... and supporting fair progressive power ... These are the objectives of an initiatives' group-an organization that shall work. After the congress I hope we will gather and discuss with you about it in this (newly forming group). The organization shall be based on public, voluntary and democratic principles."[5]

The chairman of the congress stopped Elbegdorj's speech and warned him not to say such things. It was 1989 and Mongolia had been a communist country for 68 years.[6] At that time, it was alleged that every other person was an unofficial communist party spy who would report people who expressed opinions other than socialism and communism.[7] During the break of the congress, two young individuals Dari. Sukhbaatar and Chimediin Enkhee met Elbegdorj and the three agreed to found a democratic movement and to secretly spread the news to other young people.[8] Later the three met and united with ten other individuals and they are known as the Thirteen Leaders of Mongolia's Democratic Revolution.[9][10] On his return from the congress, his boss at the newspaper Ulaan Od warned Elbegdorj that he would be fired if he participated further in any activities out of work or engaged in any conduct inconsistent with communist and socialist ideology.[5] Despite the warning, Elbegdorj and his friends met secretly with other young people in the circle auditorium of the National University of Mongolia and discussed democracy, free market economic policy, and other prohibited subjects of the time, and began to draft a plan to organize a democratic movement.[11] They met many times and brought new friends and new supporters to join them secretly. One night they placed ads of their open demonstration in streets.[5]

On the morning of 10 December 1989, the first open pro-democracy public demonstration occurred in front of the Youth Cultural Center in Ulaanbaatar.[12] There, Elbegdorj announced the creation of the Mongolian Democratic Union.[13] There the Democratic Union-first pro-democracy movement in Mongolia was born.

The protesters called for Mongolia to adopt perestroika and glasnost. Dissident leaders demanded free elections and economic reform, but within the context of a "human democratic socialism".[2] The protesters injected a nationalist element into the protests by using traditional Mongolian script—which most Mongolians could not read—as a symbolic repudiation of the political system which had imposed the Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet. In late December, demonstrations increased when news came of Garry Kasparov's interview to Playboy, suggesting that the Soviet Union could improve its economic health by selling Mongolia to China.[2] On 2 January 1990, Mongolian Democratic Union began distributing leaflets calling for a democratic revolution.[14] When the government did not comply with this and later, more aggressive demands, demonstrations occurred.

On 14 January 1990, the protesters, having grown from three hundred to some 1,000, met on square in front of Lenin Museum which was named as Freedom Square since then in Ulaanbaatar. A demonstration on Sükhbaatar Square on 21 January (in weather of -30 C) followed. Protesters carried banners alluding to Chinggis Khaan (also referred to Genghis Khan), rehabilitating a figure which Soviet schooling neglected to praise.[15] They celebrated Daramyn Tömör-Ochir, a politician who was purged from the MPRP in 1962 as part of the MPRP's efforts to suppress the commemoration of the 800th anniversary of Genghis Khan's birth. And the rebels carried a modified Flag of Mongolia which lacked a star symbolizing socialism; this flag would become the new flag after the revolution.[2]

In subsequent months activists continued to organize demonstrations, rallies, protests and hunger strikes, as well as teachers' and workers' strikes.[16] Activists had growing support from Mongolians, both in the capital and the countryside and the union's activities led to other calls for democracy all over the country.[17][18][19] After came weekend demonstrations in January and February and the forming of Mongolia's first opposition parties. The demonstrations expanded to many thousands of people in the capital city, in Erdenet and Darkhan, and to the provincial centers, notably Mörön in Khövsgöl.[20]

After numerous demonstrations of many thousands of people in the capital city as well as provincial centers, on 4 March 1990, the MDU and three other reform organizations held a joint outdoor mass meeting, inviting the government to attend. The government sent no representative to what became a demonstration of over 100,000 people demanding democratic change.[14] On March 7, 1990, on Sükhbaatar Square, Democratic Union launched a hunger strike of ten urging that the communists to resign. Hunger strikers number increased and thousands supported them. Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party(MPRP) (present Mongolian People's Party)'s Politburo – the authority of the government eventually gave way to the pressure and entered into negotiations with the leaders of the democratic movement Mongolian Democratic Union.[21] Jambyn Batmönkh, chairman of Politburo of MPRP's Central Committee decided to dissolve the Politburo and to resign on 9 March 1990.[22][23] Behind the scenes, however, the MPRP had seriously considered cracking down on the protesters, writing a decree that was left to be signed by the party leader Jambyn Batmönkh. Batmönkh opposed it, maintaining a strict policy of never using force (Mongolian: Хэрхэвч Хүч хэрэглэж болохгүй). People those were present there later recalled that Batmönkh said "I will never sign this. We few Mongols have not yet come to the point that we will make each other's noses bleed," smacked the table, and left the room."[24]

Elbegdorj announced the news of Politburo resignation to the hunger strikers and to people who'd gathered on Sükhbaatar Square at 10PM on that day after the negotiations between leaders of MPRP and Mongolian Democratic Union.[5] The hunger strike stopped. The MPRP Politburo resignation paved the way for the first multi-party elections in Mongolia.[16] The new government announced Mongolia's first free parliamentary elections, which were to be held in July.

The role of women in the protest was low-key, such as providing food and drink to the demonstrators; all the visible protest leaders were men, mirroring the traditional subordinate role of women in Mongolia.[2]


Zorig memorial
A monument to pro-democracy leader Sanjaasürengiin Zorig, assassinated in 1998

Following the 1990 Democratic Revolution in Mongolia, Mongolia's first free, multi-party elections for a bicameral parliament were held on 29 July 1990.[14][25] In 1990 Mongolian parliamentary elections, parties ran for 430 seats in the People's Great Khural. Opposition parties were not able to nominate enough candidates. The opposition nominated 346 candidates for the 430 seats in the Great Khural (upper house). The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won 357 seats in the Great Khural and 31 out of 53 seats in the Small Khural (which was later abolished) as well.[26] The MPRP enjoyed a strong position in the countryside.

Nonetheless, the new MPRP government under D. Byambasüren shared power with the democrats, and implemented constitutional and economic reforms. As these reforms coincided with the dissolution of the Soviet Union, which had until 1990 provided significant economic aid to Mongolia's state budget, the country did experience harsh economic problems: enterprises closed down, inflation rose, and basic food had to be rationed for a time. Foreign trade broke down, economic and technical aid from the former socialist countries ended, and domestic economy was struggling with privatization. Inflation rose, stores' shelves were depleted, ration cards for food were issued for a period of time. A thriving black market arose in Ulaanbaatar by 1988 to accommodate the needs of the populace.[14]

The People's Great Khural (upper house) first met on 3 September and elected a president (MPRP), vice president (Social Democrat), prime minister (MPRP), and 50 members to the Baga Hural (lower house). The vice president was also chairman of the Baga Khural. In November 1991, the People's Great Khural (Parliament) began discussion on a new constitution, which entered into force on 12 February 1992. In addition to establishing Mongolia as an independent, sovereign republic and guaranteeing a number of rights and freedoms, the new constitution restructured the legislative branch of government, creating a unicameral legislature, the State Great Khural (SGK).

The constitution was amended in 1992. The first election win for the democrats was the presidential election of 1993, when the opposition candidate Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat won.[27]

A Democratic Union Coalition co-led by Democratic Party chairman Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj for the first time succeeded in winning the majority in the 1996 parliamentary elections.[28] The Democratic Party has been part of three coalition governments with the former ruling MPRP in 2004-2008 and in 2008-2012 respectively; and with the Civil Will-Green Party and new MPRP from 2012 and on.

In the 2009 Mongolian Presidential election, the Democratic Party candidate, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj — one of the democratic revolution leaders — defeated the MPRP candidate, incumbent President Nambaryn Enkhbayar.[29] Following this victory, in the 2012 Parliamentary elections, the Democratic Party won again.[30] In the 2012 local elections of the capital city, provinces and districts, the Democratic Party won for the first time in the country's history.[31] In the 2013 Mongolian Presidential election, the Democratic Party candidate, incumbent President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, won.[32] Thus, the Democratic Party that stemmed from the Democratic Union — that is, the pro-democracy activists — has been in control of Mongolia's presidency, parliament and government between 2013 and 2016, when it was defeated at the Parliamentary Elections.[30][32]

See also


  1. ^ Simons, William B., ed. (1980). The Constitutions of the Communist World. BRILL. p. 256. ISBN 9028600701.
  2. ^ a b c d e Kaplonski, Christopher (2004). Truth, History, and Politics in Mongolia: The Memory of Heroes. Psychology Press. pp. 51, 56, 60, 64–65, 67, 80–82. ISBN 1134396732.
  3. ^ "Interview with Akim Gotov (in Mongolian)". The Oral History of Twentieth Century Mongolia, University of Cambridge. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  4. ^ "Transcript of interview with Khaidav Sangijav" (PDF). Civic Voices. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  5. ^ a b c d Tsakhia, Elbegdorj (1999). Mongolian Democratic Union, New Period Youth Organization, and Mongolia's Young Leaders Foundation (eds.). The Footstep of Truth is White book "Speech of Ulaan Od newspaper's correspondent Elbegdorj at Young Artists' Second National Congress". Ulaanbaatar: Hiimori. p. 15. ISBN 99929-74-01-X.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  6. ^ Tseveen and Ganbold, Odgerel and Battsetseg (January 2006). "The Mongolian legal system and laws: a brief overview". GlobaLex. New York. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  7. ^ "Elbegdorj, Tsakhiagiin". National Digital Heritage Academy (in Mongolian). Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  8. ^ S., Bayar (22 March 2013). "Ch.Enkhee: Special western agencies financially supported". Tsag Tur(Time and the country) (in Mongolian). Ulaanbaatar. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  9. ^ M., Gal. "What are the "First 13 of Democracy" doing?". Humuus (People) (in Mongolian). Ulaanbaatar. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  10. ^ Sanders, Alan J.K. (2010). Historical Dictionary of Mongolia. Third edition. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-8108-7452-7. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  11. ^ "Transcript of interview with Khaidav Sangijav" (PDF). Civic Voices. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  12. ^ G., Dari (5 December 2011). "Democracy Days to be inaugurated". (in Mongolian). Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  13. ^ "Tsakhia Elbegdorj". Community of Democracies Mongolia. Archived from the original on 10 June 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  14. ^ a b c d S. and S., Amarsanaa & Mainbayar (2009). Concise historical album of the Mongolian Democratic Union. pp. 3–5, 10, 33–35, 44, 47, 51–56, 58, 66.
  15. ^ Fineman, Mark (1990-01-24). "Mongolia Reform Group Marches to Rock Anthem". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-12-26. Mongolia-watchers in Beijing said that... the democracy movement is rooted more in nationalism than in dissent.... 'Watching it unfold, you get the feeling this is more a pro-nationalist and pro-Mongolian movement than it is anti-party or anti-government,' said a diplomat who left Ulan Bator on Monday.
  16. ^ a b Ahmed and Norton, Nizam U. and Philip (1999). Parliaments in Asia. London: Frank Cass & Co.Ltd. p. 143. ISBN 0-7146-4951-1. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  17. ^ Baabar (16 November 2009). "Democratic Revolution and Its Terrible Explanations". (in Mongolian). Archived from the original on 27 December 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  18. ^ "Democracy's Hero: Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj". Washington: The International Republican Institute. 21 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 April 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  19. ^ "Mongolia Celebrates 20th Anniversary of Democratic Revolution". The International Republican Institute. 11 December 2009. Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  20. ^ Rossabi, Morris. Modern Mongolia: From Khans to Commissars to Capitalists. 2005, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-24419-1. pp. 1-28
  21. ^ Wilhelm, Kathy (12 March 1990). "Mongolian Politburo resigns en masse". The Free Lance Star. Fredericksburg, VA. p. 4. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  22. ^ "Entire Mongolian Politburo resigns". Lawrence Journal-World. Lawrence, KS. 12 March 1990. pp. 8A. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  23. ^ Ch., Munkhbayar (13 March 2013). "What was the Mongolian democratic revolution?". (in Mongolian). Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  24. ^ B. and R., Enkhtuul and Oyun. "Batmönkh's widow A. Daariimaa:If my husband was working as a professor, he would have been alive today". Zuunii Medee (Century News). Retrieved 3 July 2013.
  25. ^ Holley, David (24 July 1990). "Briefing Paper : For the First Time, Mongolians Have Political Choices". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, CA. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  26. ^ Peter Staisch, Werner M. Prohl, Dschingis Khan lächelt, Bonn 1998, p.38ff
  27. ^ Ochirbat was originally a MPRP member, but when his party nominated an orthodox communist as their presidential candidate, he agreed to run as the candidate of the Democratic Party that stemmed from the Democratic Union.
  28. ^ Lawrence, Susan V. (14 June 2011). "Mongolia: Issues for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  29. ^ "Mongolia Profile". BBC. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  30. ^ a b "Mongolia's State Great Hural (the Parliament)". (in Mongolian). Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  31. ^ G., Dashrentsen (1 July 2013). "A party that is defeated in five elections in row is dissolved". (in Mongolian). Archived from the original on 19 July 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  32. ^ a b "Incumbent Mongolian president wins 2nd term on pro-Western, anti-graft platform". The Washington Post. Washington. 27 June 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
12th Motor Rifle Division

The 12th Motor Rifle Division was a motorized infantry division of the Soviet Army, formed twice. It was formed in 1957 from the 12th Rifle Division and disbanded in 1958. The division was reformed in 1960 and moved to Baganuur in Mongolia in 1979. It pulled out of Mongolia in 1990 and became a storage base in 1992. The storage base was disbanded in 1993.

ASEAN Declaration

The ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It was signed in Bangkok on 8 August 1967 by the five ASEAN founding members, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand as a display of solidarity against communist expansion in Vietnam and communist insurgency within their own borders. It states the basic principles of ASEAN: co-operation, amity, and non-interference. The date is now celebrated as ASEAN Day.

Arms race

An arms race occurs when two or more nations participate in interactive or competitive increases in "persons under arms" as well as "war material". Simply defined as a competition between two or more states to have superior armed forces; a competition concerning production of weapons, the growth of a military, and the aim of superior military technology.

The term is also used to describe any long-term escalating competitive situation where each competitor focuses on out-doing the others.

An evolutionary arms race is a system where two populations are evolving in order to continuously one-up members of the other population. This concept is related to the Red Queen's Hypothesis, where two organisms co-evolve to overcome each other but each fails to progress relative to the other interactant.

In technology, there are close analogues to the arms races between parasites and hosts, such as the arms race between computer virus writers and antivirus software writers, or spammers against Internet service providers and E-mail software writers.

More generically, the term is used to describe any competition where there is no absolute goal, only the relative goal of staying ahead of the other competitors in rank or knowledge. An arms race may also imply futility as the competitors spend a great deal of time and money, yet end up in the same situation as if they had never started the arms race.

Asian Relations Conference

The Asian Relations Conference took place in New Delhi in March-April 1947. It was hosted by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, who then headed a provisional government that was preparing for India's Independence, which came on 15 August 1947. The Asian Relations Conference brought together many leaders of the independence movements in Asia, and represented a first attempt to assert Asian unity. The objectives of the conference were "to bring together the leading men and women of Asia on a common platform to study the problems of common concern to the people of the continent, to focus attention on social, economic and cultural problems of the different countries of Asia, and to foster mutual contact and understanding."

In his writings and speeches, Nehru had laid great emphasis on the manner in which post-colonial India would rebuild its Asia connections. At this conference Nehru declared: "... Asia is again finding herself ... one of the notable consequences of the European domination of Asia has been the isolation of the countries of Asia from one another. ... Today this isolation is breaking down because of many reasons, political and otherwise ... This Conference is significant as an expression of that deeper urge of the mind and spirit of Asia which has persisted ... In this Conference and in this work there are no leaders and no followers. All countries of Asia have to meet together in a common task ..."

Democratic revolution

A democratic revolution is a political science term denoting a revolution in which a democracy is instituted, replacing a previous non-democratic government, or in which revolutionary change is brought about through democratic means, usually without violence.

Exercise Verity

Exercise Verity was the only major training exercise of the Western Union (WU). Undertaken in July 1949, it involved 60 warships from the British, French, Belgian and Dutch navies. A contemporary newsreel described this exercise as involving "the greatest assembly of warships since the Battle of Jutland."


In the Russian language the word Glasnost (; Russian: гла́сность, IPA: [ˈɡɫasnəsʲtʲ] (listen)) has several general and specific meanings. It has been used in Russian to mean "openness and transparency" since at least the end of the eighteenth century.In the Russian Empire of the late-19th century, the term was particularly associated with reforms of the judicial system, ensuring that the press and the public could attend court hearings and that the sentence was read out in public. In the mid-1980s, it was popularised by Mikhail Gorbachev as a political slogan for increased government transparency in the Soviet Union.

Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

The Guerrilla war in the Baltic states or the Forest Brothers resistance movement was the armed struggle against Soviet rule that spanned from 1940 to the mid-1950s. After the occupation of the Baltic territories by the Soviets in 1944, an insurgency started. According to some estimates, 10,000 partisans in Estonia, 10,000 partisans in Latvia and 30,000 partisans in Lithuania and many more supporters were involved. This war continued as an organised struggle until 1956 when the superiority of the Soviet military caused the native population to adopt other forms of resistance. While estimates related to the extent of partisan movement vary, but there seems to be a consensus among researchers that by international standards, the Baltic guerrilla movements were extensive. Proportionally, the partisan movement in the post-war Baltic states was of a similar size as the Viet Cong movement in South Vietnam.

Jamaican political conflict

The Jamaican political conflict is a long standing feud between right-wing and left-wing elements in the country, often exploding into violence. The Jamaican Labor Party and the People's National Party have fought for control of the island for years and the rivalry has encouraged urban warfare in Kingston. Each side believes the other to be controlled by foreign elements, the JLP is said to be backed by the American Central Intelligence Agency and the PNP is said to been backed by the Soviet Union and Fidel Castro.

Jambyn Batmönkh

Jambyn Batmönkh (Mongolian: Жамбын Батмөнх, [d͡ʒɑmˈbiːŋ ˈbɑtʰmɵnx]; 10 March 1926 – 14 May 1997) was a Mongolian communist political leader and economics professor. He was the leader of Mongolia during its transition into democracy in 1990.

Johnson Doctrine

The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson after the United States' intervention in the Dominican Republic in 1965, declared that domestic revolution in the Western Hemisphere would no longer be a local matter when "the object is the establishment of a Communist dictatorship". It is an extension of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Doctrines.

List of conflicts related to the Cold War

While the Cold War itself never escalated into direct confrontation, there were a number of conflicts related to the Cold War around the globe, spanning the entirety of the period usually prescribed to it (March 12, 1947 to December 26, 1991, a total of 44 years, 9 months, and 2 weeks).

Mongolian People's Party

The Mongolian People's Party (MPP; Mongolian: Монгол Ардын Нам, MAH; Mongol Ardīn Nam, MAN, Mongolian pronunciation: [mɔŋɢɔ̆ɮ ärdiŋ näm], 1920–1931; 1931–1941: Mongol Aradiin Nam) is the oldest political party in Mongolia.

The party's ideology consists of social democracy and was previously Marxist–Leninist when founded in 1920, when it played an important role in the Mongolian Revolution of 1921. Following independence, it governed one-party Communist Mongolia. In 1924, the party became the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (Mongolian: Монгол Ардын Хувьсгалт Нам, Mongol Ardīn Huwĭsgalt Nam Mongol Aradiin Kubiskalt Nam; МАХН, MAKhN, (Mongolian pronunciation: [mɔŋɢɔ̆ɮ ärdiŋ xuvəsɢɑ̆ɮt näm]), when it joined the Communist International.

Following the Mongolian Revolution of 1990, other political parties were allowed in Mongolia. The MPP remained the governing party until 1996 and returned to government in 2000–2004. From 2004 to 2008, it was part of a coalition government with the Motherland–Democracy Coalition of the Democratic and Motherland Parties. In 2008–2012, the party opted for another coalition with the Democratic Party, although the MPP had a majority in the Mongolian legislature. After the 2012 elections, the MPP became the opposition party in parliament. In 2010, the party returned to its original name, dropping the word "revolutionary" and inspiring a breakaway faction to retain the long-standing name. The MPP returned to power on June 29, 2016, electing 65 members of the 76-seat parliament.

Mongolian Revolution

Mongolian Revolution may refer to:

The Mongolian Revolution of 1911

The Mongolian Revolution of 1921

The Mongolian Revolution of 1990

NDF Rebellion

The NDF Rebellion was an uprising in the Yemen Arab Republic by the National Democratic Front, under Yahya Shami, between 1978 and 1982.


Negdel (Mongolian: Нэгдэл = union, association) is the common term for the agricultural cooperatives in the Mongolian People's Republic. The full name is Khödöö aj akhuin negdel (Mongolian: Хөдөө аж ахуйн нэгдэл = Agricultural association).

Ulbricht Doctrine

The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could occur only if both states fully recognised each other's sovereignty. That contrasted with the Hallstein Doctrine, a West German policy which insisted that West Germany was the only legitimate German state.

East Germany gained acceptance of its view from fellow Communist states, such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria, which all agreed not to normalise relations with West Germany until it recognised East German sovereignty.

West Germany eventually abandoned its Hallstein Doctrine, instead adopting the policies of Ostpolitik. In December 1972, a Basic Treaty between East and West Germany was signed that reaffirmed two German states as separate entities. The treaty also allowed the exchange of diplomatic missions and the entry of both German states to the United Nations as full members.

Western Bloc

The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to capitalist countries under the hegemony of the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact. The latter were referred to as the Eastern Bloc. The governments and press of the Western Bloc were more inclined to refer to themselves as the "Free World" or the "Western world", whereas the Eastern Bloc was often called the "Communist world or Second world".

Frozen conflicts
Foreign policy
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Later events

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