Monarchy of Denmark

The Monarchy of Denmark, colloquially known as the Danish Monarchy, is a constitutional institution and a historic office of the Kingdom of Denmark. The Kingdom includes not only Denmark, but the autonomous regions of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Kingdom of Denmark were already consolidated in the 8th century, whose rulers are consistently referred to in Frankish sources (and in some late Frisian sources) as Kings (Reges). Under the rule of King Gudfred in 804 the Kingdom may have included all the major provinces of medieval Denmark[1] The current unified kingdom of Denmark was founded by the Viking kings Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth in the 10th century, making the monarchy of Denmark the third oldest in Europe. Originally an elective monarchy, it became hereditary only in the 17th century during the reign of Frederick III. A decisive transition to a constitutional monarchy occurred in 1849 with the writing of the first Constitution. The current Royal House is a branch of the princely family of Glücksburg, originally from Schleswig-Holstein in modern-day Germany, the same royal house as the Norwegian and former Greek royal families.

The Danish Monarchy is constitutional and as such, the role of the monarch is defined and limited by the Constitution of Denmark. According to the constitution, the ultimate executive authority over the government of Denmark is still by and through the monarch's royal reserve powers; in practice these powers are only used according to laws enacted in Parliament or within the constraints of convention. The monarch is, in practice, limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister. The monarch and his or her immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial, diplomatic and representational duties.

Queen Margrethe II ascended the throne on the death of her father, King Frederick IX, on 14 January 1972. On her accession, Queen Margrethe II became the first female monarch of Denmark since Margrethe I, ruler of the Scandinavian countries in 1375‒1412, during the Kalmar Union. Danish regnal names have traditionally (since 1513) alternated between "Frederick" (Frederik) and "Christian"; Margrethe has taken the place of a Christian, and accordingly her heir apparent is Crown Prince Frederik.

Queen of Denmark
Dronning af Danmark
Royal coat of arms of Denmark
Incumbent
Drottning Margrethe av Danmark crop
Margrethe II
since 14 January 1972
Details
StyleHer Majesty
Heir apparentFrederik, Crown Prince of Denmark
First monarchGorm the Old
Formationc. 935
ResidenceAmalienborg Palace
WebsiteOfficial website
Official Facebook

History

Early kingdom

Jellingsten stor 1
One of the two Jelling stones, attesting to Harald Bluetooth's unification and Christianization of Denmark.

The Danish monarchy is over 1000 years old, founded in 935, making it the third oldest continuous monarchy in Europe (the oldest is Scotland founded in 834 followed by Norway in 872) and fourth in the world still existing today, the oldest being the Imperial House of Japan. The line of kings of the modern kingdom of Denmark can be traced back to Harthacnut father of Gorm the Old (Gorm den Gamle), who reigned in the early 10th century.[2] The kingdom itself though is probably a couple of hundred years older than that.

The Danes were united (or more likely reunited) and officially Christianized in 965 CE by Harald Bluetooth, the story of which is recorded on the Jelling stones. The exact extent of Harald's kingdom is unknown, although it is reasonable to believe that it stretched from the defensive line of Dannevirke, including the Viking city of Hedeby, across Jutland, the Danish isles and into southern present day Sweden; Scania and perhaps Halland. Furthermore, the Jelling stones attests that Harald had also "won" Norway. The son of Harald, Sweyn Forkbeard, mounted a series of wars of conquest against England, which was completed by Sweyn's son Cnut the Great by the middle of the eleventh century. The reign of Cnut represented the peak of the Danish Viking age; his North Sea Empire included England (1016), Denmark (1018), Norway (1028) and held strong influence over the north-eastern coast of Germany.

The last monarch descended from Valdemar IV, Christopher III of Denmark, died in 1448. Count Christian of Oldenburg, descendant of Valdemar IV's aunt Richeza, was chosen as his successor and became the next monarch of Denmark, ruling under the name Christian I.

Absolutism

Christiansborg - mindetavlen i Kongeporten
Memorial inside Christiansborg Palace. Depicted is Frederick III and the event commemorated is the failed Swedish attack on Copenhagen in 1659.

Originally the Danish monarchy was elective, but in practice the eldest son of the reigning monarch was elected. Later a Coronation Charter was signed by the king to restrict the powers of the Danish monarch.

In 1657, during the Second Northern War, King Frederick III launched a war of revenge against Sweden which turned into a complete disaster. The war became a disaster for two reasons: Primarily, because Denmark's new powerful ally, the Netherlands, remained neutral as Denmark was the aggressor and Sweden the defender. Secondly, the Belts froze over in a rare occurrence during the winter of 1657-1658, allowing King Charles X Gustav of Sweden to lead his armies across the ice to invade Zealand. In the following Treaty of Roskilde, Denmark–Norway capitulated and gave up all of Eastern Denmark (i.e. Skåne, Halland, Blekinge and Bornholm), in addition to the counties of Bohuslän and Trøndelag in Norway.

But the Second Northern War was not yet over. Three months after the peace treaty was signed, Charles X Gustav held a council of war where he decided to simply wipe Denmark from the map and unite all of Scandinavia under his rule. Once again the Swedish army arrived outside Copenhagen. However, this time the Danes did not panic or surrender. Instead, they decided to fight and prepared to defend Copenhagen. Frederick III had stayed in his capital and now encouraged the citizens of Copenhagen to resist the Swedes, by saying he would "die in his nest", rather than to evacuate to safety in Norway. Furthermore, this unprovoked declaration of war by Sweden finally triggered the alliance that Denmark–Norway had with the Netherlands, and a powerful Dutch fleet was sent to Copenhagen with vital supplies and reinforcements, which saved the city from being captured during the Swedish attack.

Charles X Gustav suddenly died of an illness in early 1660, while planning an invasion of Norway. Following his death, Sweden made peace in the Treaty of Copenhagen. The Swedes returned Trøndelag to Norway and Bornholm to Denmark, but kept the other territories gained two years earlier. The Netherlands and other European powers accepted the settlement, not wanting both coasts of the Sound controlled by Denmark. This treaty established the boundaries between Norway, Denmark, and Sweden that still exist today. Absolutism was introduced in 1660–1661 and the elective monarchy was de jure transformed into an hereditary monarchy. Male primogeniture succession was laid down in law in the Royal Decree of 1665.

Constitutional period

Christian X
During the German occupation of World War II, King Christian X became a powerful symbol of national identity. This image dates from the King's birthday, 26 September 1940.

When he succeeded to the throne in January 1848, King Frederick VII was almost at once met by the demands for a constitution and an end to absolutism. The Schleswig-Holsteiners wanted an independent state while the Danes wished to maintain South Jutland as a Danish area. Frederick VII soon yielded to the Danish demands, and in March he accepted the end of absolutism, which resulted in the June Constitution of 1849. During the First War of Schleswig against the German powers in 1848–51, Frederick appeared as ”the national leader” and was regarded almost as a war hero, despite having never taken any active part in the struggles. On 5 June 1849 the constitution, known as the June Constitution, was altered to create the framework of a constitutional monarchy for Denmark.[3] As King Frederick VII was without legitimate issue, Prince Christian of Glücksborg was chosen in 1853 as heir presumptive to the Danish throne, with the approval of the great powers of Europe, in light of the expected extinction of the senior line of the House of Oldenburg. A justification for this choice was his marriage to Louise of Hesse-Kassel, who as a niece of Christian VIII, was a more close relative to the incumbent king than her husband.

Upon the death of King Frederick VII of Denmark in 1863, Christian IX acceded to the throne as the first Danish monarch of the House of Glücksburg. Christian IX eventually became known as Father-in-law of Europe due to his family ties with most other ruling dynasties of Europe: His daughter Princess Alexandra married Edward VII of the United Kingdom, another daughter Princess Dagmar married Alexander III of Russia and Princess Thyra married Crown Prince Ernst August of Hanover. His son Vilhelm went on to become George I of Greece. Further, his grandson Carl became Haakon VII of Norway. To this day the Danish Royal Family are related to most other reigning European dynasties.[3]

The Easter Crisis of 1920 was a constitutional crisis which began with the dismissal of the elected government by King Christian X, a reserve power which was granted to him by the Danish constitution. The immediate cause was a conflict between the king and the cabinet over the reunification with Denmark of Schleswig, a former Danish fiefdom which had been lost to Prussia during the Second War of Schleswig. According to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the disposition of Schleswig was to be determined by two Schleswig Plebiscites: one in Northern Schleswig (today Denmark's South Jutland County), the other in Central Schleswig (today part of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein). Many Danish nationalists felt that Central Schleswig should be returned to Denmark regardless of the plebiscite's results, generally motivated by a desire to see Germany permanently weakened in the future. Christian X agreed with these sentiments, and ordered Prime Minister Carl Theodor Zahle to include Central Schleswig in the re-unification process. As Denmark had been operating as a parliamentary democracy since the Cabinet of Deuntzer in 1901, Zahle felt he was under no obligation to comply. He refused the order and resigned several days later after a heated exchange with the king.

Subsequently, Christian X dismissed the rest of the government and replaced it with a de facto conservative care-taker cabinet under Otto Liebe. The dismissal caused demonstrations and an almost revolutionary atmosphere in Denmark, and for several days the future of the monarchy seemed very much in doubt. In light of this, negotiations were opened between the king and members of the Social Democrats. Faced with the potential overthrow of the Danish monarchy, Christian X backed down and dismissed his own government. This was the most recent time that a sitting Danish monarch made an executive decision without the support of a cabinet accountable to the legislature; following the crisis, Christian X accepted his drastically reduced role as symbolic head of state.[4]

The Act of Succession of 27 March 1953 was promulgated after a 1953 referendum introduced the possibility of female succession and, in effect, made the current Queen regnant, Margrethe II, the heir presumptive and eventual successor to her father, Frederick IX upon his death in 1972, rather than her uncle Prince Knud.

Following a referendum in 2009, the Act of Succession was amended so that primogeniture no longer puts males over females. In other words, the first-born child would become heir to the throne regardless of gender.[5]

Constitutional and official role

THRONE ROOM, CHRISTIANSBORG PALACE, COPENHAGEN
The Throne Room at Christiansborg Palace is where foreign ambassadors present their credentials to the Queen.

According to the Danish Constitution, the Danish Monarch, as the de facto head of state, is the holder of executive and, jointly with the Folketing, legislative power.[6] The Monarch has the ability to deny giving a bill royal assent as well as to choose and dismiss the Prime Minister or any Minister of Government with or without cause; however, no Monarch has exercised the latter powers since King Christian X dismissed the government on 28 March 1920, sparking the 1920 Easter Crisis.

However, when reading the Danish Constitution of 1953, it is important to bear in mind that the usage of the word king, in the context of exercising acts of state, is understood by Danish jurists to be read as the Government (consisting of the Prime Minister and other ministers). This is a logical consequence of articles 12, 13 and 14, all of which in essence stipulate that the powers vested in the monarch can only be exercised through ministers, who are responsible for all acts, thus removing any political or legal liability from the Monarch.[7]

Today the Queen delegates much royal authority to Ministers in government, allowing the Queen to engage in the ceremonial role outlined by the Danish constitution. The Prime Minister and Cabinet attend the regular meetings of the Council of State, at which the Monarch presides and gives royal assent to laws. The Prime Minister and the Minister of Foreign Affairs report regularly to the Queen to advise her of the latest political developments. The Queen hosts official visits by foreign Heads of State, pays state visits abroad, receives letters of credence from foreign ambassadors and signs those of Danish ambassadors. The convention for appointment of a new prime minister after a general election is that after consultation with representatives of the political parties, the Queen invites the party leader who has the support of the largest number of seats in the Folketing to form a government. Once it has been formed, the Queen formally appoints it.[8]

Greenland and the Faroe Islands

Greenland and the Faroe Islands are two Danish dependencies which enjoy Home-rule and their head of state is also the monarch of Denmark, in accordance with the Danish Constitution.[9]

After a referendum in Greenland in 2009, the Danish Parliament implemented a new Danish Law called Act on Greenlandic Self-rule, which, unlike any other case with the Indigenous Peoples around the world, acknowledges Greenlanders as a people in accordance to the International Law, and hereby giving the Greenlanders ability to obtain sovereignty.[10]

Succession

Prince Frederik of Danmark
Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark

Denmark has had absolute primogeniture since 2009. The Danish Act of Succession[11] adopted on 27 March 1953 restricts the throne to those descended from King Christian X and his wife, Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, through approved marriages.

Dynasts lose their right to the throne if they marry without the permission of the monarch given in the Council of State. Individuals born to unmarried dynasts or to former dynasts that married without royal permission, and their descendants, are excluded from the throne. Further, when approving a marriage, the monarch can impose conditions that must be met in order for any resulting offspring to have succession rights. Part II, Section 9 of the Danish Constitution of 5 June 1953 provides that the parliament will elect a king and determine a new line of succession should a situation arise where there are no eligible descendants of King Christian X and Queen Alexandrine.

The monarch of Denmark must be a member of the Danish National Church, or Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark (Danish Constitution, II,6). The National Church is by law the State Church, though the monarch is not its head.

Princes and princesses in the line of succession use the style prince/princess to Denmark, where all those not in line use the style prince/princess of Denmark.

Background

The first law governing the succession to the Danish throne as a hereditary monarchy was the Kongeloven (Latin: Lex Regia), enacted 14 November 1665, and published in 1709.[12][13] It declared that the crown of Denmark shall descend by heredity to the legitimate descendants of King Frederick III, and that the order of succession shall follow semi-Salic primogeniture,[12] according to which the crown is inherited by an heir, with preference among the Monarch's children to males over females; among siblings to the elder over the younger; and among Frederick III's remoter descendants by substitution, senior branches over junior branches. Female descendants were eligible to inherit the throne in the event there were no eligible surviving male dynasts born in the male line. As for the duchies, Holstein and Lauenburg where the King ruled as duke, these lands adhered to Salic law (meaning that only males could inherit the ducal throne), and by mutual agreement were permanently conjoined. The duchies of Schleswig (a Danish fief), Holstein and Lauenburg (German fiefs) were joined in personal union with the Crown of Denmark.

This difference caused problems when Frederick VII of Denmark proved childless, making a change in dynasty imminent, and causing the lines of succession for the duchies on one hand and for Denmark on the other to diverge. That meant that the new King of Denmark would not also be the new Duke of Schleswig or Duke of Holstein. To ensure the continued adhesion of the Elbe duchies to the Danish Crown, the line of succession to the duchies was modified in the London Protocol of 1852, which designated Prince Christian IX of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, as the new heir apparent, although he was, strictly, the heir neither to the Crown of Denmark nor to the Duchies of Schleswig, Holstein or Lauenburg by primogeniture. Originally, the Danish prime minister Christian Albrecht Bluhme wanted to keep the separate hereditary principles, but in the end the government decided on a uniform agnatic primogeniture, which was accepted by the Parliament.

This order of succession remained in effect for a hundred years, then the Salic law was changed to male-preference primogeniture in 1953, meaning that females could inherit, but only if they had no brothers. In 2009, the mode of inheritance of the throne was once more changed, this time into an absolute primogeniture.

Privileges and restrictions

Following the transformation of Denmark's monarchy from elective (at least theoretically, although it had generally descended to the eldest son of the House of Oldenburg since 1448) to hereditary in 1660, the so-called Kongelov (Latin: Lex Regia) established the right to rule "by the grace of God" for King Frederick III and his posterity.[12] Out of the articles in this law, all except for Article 21 and Article 25 have since been repealed.

Article 21 states "No Prince of the Blood, who resides here in the Realm and in Our territory, shall marry, or leave the Country, or take service under foreign Masters, unless he receives Permission from the King".[12] Under this provision, princes of Denmark who permanently reside in other realms by express permission of the Danish Crown (i.e. members of the dynasties of Greece, Norway and the United Kingdom) do not thereby forfeit their royalty in Denmark, nor are they bound to obtain prior permission to travel abroad or to marry from its sovereign, although since 1950 those not descended in male-line from King Christian IX are no longer in the line of succession to the Danish throne.[12] However, those who do reside in Denmark or its territories continue to require the monarch's prior permission to travel abroad and to marry.[12]

Article 25 of the Kongelov stipulates, with respect to members of the Royal dynasty: "They should answer to no Magistrate Judges, but their first and last Judge shall be the King, or to whomsoever He decrees."[12] Although all other articles of the Kongelov have been repealed by amendments to the Constitution in 1849, 1853 and 1953, these two articles have thus far been left intact.

Residences

The royal palaces of Denmark became property of the state with the introduction of the constitutional monarchy in 1849. Since then, a varying number of these has been put at the disposal of the monarchy. The agreement on which is renewed at the accession of every new monarch.

Current residences

Amalienborg Palace

Amalienborg from top of church cropped
Amalienborg Palace, the monarch's principal residence.

The monarch has the use of the four palaces at Amalienborg in Copenhagen as a residence and work palace. Currently, the Queen herself resides in Christian IX's Palace and the Crown Prince in Frederik VIII's Palace. Christian VIII's Palace has apartments for other members of the royal family, whereas Christian VII's Palace is used for official events and to accommodate guests.

Amalienborg was originally built in the 1750s by architect Nicolai Eigtved for four noble families; however, when Christiansborg Palace burned in 1794, the royal family bought the palaces and moved in.

The state rooms of Christian VIII's Palace and Christian VII's Palace may be visited by the public on guided tours.

Christiansborg Palace

Christiansborg fra Nikolaj Kirken
Christiansborg Palace, site of many official functions of the monarch.

In addition, parts of Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen is also at the disposal of the monarch. It is the site of official functions such as banquets, state dinners, diplomatic accreditations, public audiences, meetings of the Council of State, receptions, royal christenings, lyings-in-state and other ceremonies. Also, the Royal Stables which provide the ceremonial transport by horse-drawn carriage for the royal family, is located here.

The present building, the third with this name, is the last in a series of successive castles and palaces constructed on the same site since the erection of the first castle in 1167. The palace today bears witness to three eras of architecture, as the result of two serious fires in 1794 and in 1884. The main part of the current palace, finished in 1928, is in the historicist Neo-Baroque style. The chapel dates to 1826 and is in a Neoclassical style. The showgrounds were built 1738-46, in a Baroque style.

The royal parts of the palace are open to the public when not in use.

Fredensborg Palace

Fredensborg Slot 126
Fredensborg Palace, Spring and Autumn residence of the monarch.

Another residence is Fredensborg Palace north of Copenhagen which is used principally in Spring and Autumn. It is often the site of state visits and ceremonial events in the royal family.

The palace may be visited by the public on guided tours when not in use.

Graasten Palace

In Jutland, Graasten Palace is at the disposal of the monarch. It was used as the summer residence of King Frederick IX and Queen Ingrid. Since the death of Queen Ingrid in 2000, the Queen has stayed at Graasten for a yearly vacation in summer.

Hermitage Hunting Lodge

The hunting lodge the Eremitage Palace in the Dyrehaven deer park north of Copenhagen is used during royal hunts in Dyrehaven.

Sorgenfri Palace

Finally, Sorgenfri Palace is at the disposal of the monarch. It was the residence of Hereditary Prince Knud and Hereditary Princess Caroline Mathilde and is not in official use at all at this time.

Marselisborg Palace

Apart from these state-owned palaces, Marselisborg Palace in Aarhus is privately owned by the Queen. It functions as the summer residence of the Queen, as well as during the Easter and Christmas holidays.

Royal Family

In the Kingdom of Denmark all members of the ruling dynasty that hold the title Prince or Princess of Denmark are said to be members of the Danish Royal Family. As with other European monarchies, distinguishing who is a member of the national Royal Family is difficult due to lack of strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member. The Queen and her siblings belong to the House of Glücksburg, a branch of the House of Oldenburg. The Queen's children and male-line descendants belong agnatically to the family de Laborde de Monpezat.[14]

Main members

Monarchy Of Denmark April 2010 royal family
The Royal Family of Denmark during Queen Margrethe II's 70th birthday, 16 April 2010.

The Danish Royal Family includes:

Extended members

The extended Danish Royal Family which includes people who do not hold the title of Prince or Princess of Denmark but have close connections to the Queen could be said to include:

Greek Royal Family

Most members of the Greek Royal Family are members of the Danish Royal Family and bear the title of Prince or Princess of Greece and Denmark, as descendants of Christian IX of Denmark. Due to the morganatic status of her marriage, Marina, Consort of Prince Michael, and their children, Princesses Alexandra and Olga, are exceptions.

Style

Danish Crown Regalia2
The Danish Crown Regalia, all of which are on public display at Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen: 1. Crown of Christian IV (1595); 2. Crown of Christian V (1665–70); 3. The Queen consort crown (1731); 4. Sceptre; 5. Sword of state; and, 6. Globus cruciger.

The monarchs of Denmark have a long history of royal and noble titles. Historically Danish monarchs also used the titles 'King of the Wends' and 'King of the Goths'. Upon her accession to the throne in 1972 Queen Margrethe II abandoned all titles except the title 'Queen of Denmark'. The kings and queens of Denmark are addressed as 'Your Majesty', whereas princes and princesses are referred to as His or Her Royal Highness (Hans or Hendes Kongelige Højhed), or His or Her Highness (Hans or Hendes Højhed).

See also

References

  1. ^ Berend, Nora (22 November 2007). "Christianization and the Rise of Christian Monarchy: Scandinavia, Central Europe and Rus' c.900–1200". Cambridge University Press – via Google Books.
  2. ^ "Den-Danske-Kongestamme". kongehuset.dk. Kongehuset. 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  3. ^ a b "The History of the Danish Monarchy". Danish monarchy. Archived from the original on 25 December 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2008.
  4. ^ "Monumenter i købstaden 1864 - 1920". dendigitalebyport.byhistorie.dk.
  5. ^ "Referendum: Succession amendment confirmed".
  6. ^ Constitutional Act of Denmark
  7. ^ "My Constitution Act with Explanations 2013". Folketing. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  8. ^ "Tasks and Duties". Danish monarchy. Archived from the original on 25 December 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2008.
  9. ^ Facts about Greenland "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 March 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "Selvstyreloven - Lov om Grønlands Selvstyre - retsinformation.dk". www.retsinformation.dk. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  11. ^ "ICL — Denmark — Succession to the Throne Act". Archived from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 24 June 2008.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "Slots- og Ejendomsstyrelsen - Gråsten Palace and Palace Gardens - Gråsten Palace". 10 June 2008. Archived from the original on 10 June 2008.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  13. ^ "Kongeloven". Statsministeriet. Statsministeriet. 4 September 1709. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  14. ^ "The Royal House". Danish monarchy. Archived from the original on 14 February 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2008.
  15. ^ "A Prince and a Princess are born". Archived from the original on 11 January 2011.
  16. ^ "Kronprinsesse Mary har født". Archived from the original on 17 March 2011.

External links

Constitution of Denmark

The Constitutional Act of the Kingdom of Denmark (Danish: Danmarks Riges Grundlov), or simply the Constitution (Danish: Grundloven), is the constitution of the Kingdom of Denmark, applying equally in Denmark proper, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. In its present form, the Constitutional Act is from 1953, but the principal features of the Act go back to 1849, making it one of the oldest constitutions.As defined in the Constitution, Denmark is a constitutional monarchy, governed under a parliamentary system. The constitution lays down the framework for governance and establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of the Folketing (the Danish parliament) and the government, as well as other institutions. Later sections set out fundamental rights and the duties of citizens, such as freedom of speech, freedom of religion and compulsory military service.

Its adoption in 1849 ended an absolute monarchy and introduced democracy. Denmark celebrates the adoption of the Constitution on 5 June—the date in which the first Constitution was ratified—every year as Constitution Day.

The Danish Parliament (Folketinget) cannot make any laws which may be repugnant or contrary to the Constitutional Act. While Denmark has no constitutional court, laws can be declared unconstitutional and rendered void by the Supreme Court of Denmark.

Changes to the Act must be confirmed by a majority in two consecutive parliamentary terms and then approval of the electorate through a national referendum.

Coronation of the Danish monarch

The coronation of the Danish monarch was a religious ceremony in which the accession of the Danish monarch was marked by a coronation ceremony. It was held in various forms from 1170 to 1840, mostly in Lund Cathedral in Lund, St. Mary's Cathedral in Copenhagen and in the chapel of Frederiksborg Palace in Hillerød.

Enthronements of the Danish monarch may be historically divided into three distinct types of rituals: the medieval coronation, which existed during the period of elective monarchy; the anointing ritual, which replaced coronation with the introduction of absolute monarchy in 1660; and finally the simple proclamation, which has been used since the introduction of the constitutional monarchy in 1849.

Coronations in Norway

Coronations in Norway were held from 1164 to 1906, mostly in the Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim. Although a crowning ceremony was formerly mandated by the nation's constitution, this requirement was eliminated in 1908. However, Norwegian kings have since chosen voluntarily to take part in a ritual of "benediction" to mark their accession to the throne, during which the crown is present, but not physically bestowed upon the sovereign. The new ceremony retains some of the religious elements of earlier rites, while eliminating other features now considered to be "undemocratic".

Danish Crown

Danish Crown may refer to several things.

Danish krone, the currency used in Denmark

The monarchy of Denmark

Danish Crown Regalia, symbols of the Danish monarchy

Danish Crown (company), a large meat processing company

Faroe Islands

The Faroe Islands (; Faroese: Føroyar, pronounced [ˈfœɹjaɹ]; Danish: Færøerne, pronounced [ˈfæɐ̯øːˀɐnə]), or the Faeroe Islands, is a North Atlantic archipelago located 200 miles (320 km) north-northwest of the United Kingdom and about halfway between Norway and Iceland—are an autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark. Total area is about 1,400 square kilometres (540 sq mi) with a population of 50,322 in October 2017.The terrain is rugged; the climate is subpolar oceanic climate (Cfc)—windy, wet, cloudy, and cool. Temperatures average above freezing throughout the year because of the Gulf Stream.

Between 1035 and 1814, the Faroes were part of the Hereditary Kingdom of Norway. In 1814, the Treaty of Kiel granted Denmark control over the islands, along with two other Norwegian island possessions: Greenland and Iceland. The Faroe Islands have been a self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark since 1948.The Faroese have control of most of their domestic affairs. Those that are the responsibility of Denmark include military defence, policing and the justice department, currency, and foreign affairs. However, as they are not part of the same customs area as Denmark, the Faroe Islands have an independent trade policy and can establish trade agreements with other states. The islands also have representation in the Nordic Council as members of the Danish delegation. The Faroe Islands also have their own national teams competing in certain sports.

Fortinbras

Fortinbras is either of two minor fictional characters from William Shakespeare's tragedy Hamlet. The more notable is a Norwegian crown prince with a few brief scenes in the play, who delivers the final lines that represent a hopeful future for the monarchy of Denmark and its subjects. Fortinbras is also the name of the former king of Norway and father of the crown prince Fortinbras. King Fortinbras was slain in the play's antecedent action in battle with King Hamlet. The battle between the two is described by Horatio in Act One, Scene One (I,i) of the play.

His name is not Norwegian in origin, but is a French-English hybrid (fort in bras) meaning "strong in arm."

History of Denmark

The history of Denmark as a unified kingdom began in the 8th century, but historic documents describe the geographic area and the people living there— the Danes —as early as 500 AD. These early documents include the writings of Jordanes and Procopius. With the Christianization of the Danes c. 960 AD, it is clear that there existed a kingship. Queen Margrethe II can trace her lineage back to the Viking kings Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth from this time, thus making the Monarchy of Denmark the oldest in Europe. The area now known as Denmark has a rich prehistory, having been populated by several prehistoric cultures and people for about 12,000 years, since the end of the last ice age.

Denmark's history has particularly been influenced by its geographical location between the North and Baltic seas, a strategically and economically important placement between Sweden and Germany, at the center of mutual struggles for control of the Baltic Sea (dominium maris baltici). Denmark was long in disputes with Sweden over control of Skånelandene and with Germany over control of Schleswig (a Danish fief) and Holstein (a German fief).

Eventually, Denmark lost these conflicts and ended up ceding first Skåneland to Sweden and later Schleswig-Holstein to the German Empire. After the eventual cession of Norway in 1814, Denmark retained control of the old Norwegian colonies of the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Iceland. During the 20th century, Iceland gained independence, Greenland and the Faroese became integral parts of the Kingdom of Denmark and North Schleswig reunited with Denmark in 1920 after a referendum. During World War II, Denmark was occupied by Nazi Germany, but was eventually liberated by British forces of the Allies in 1945, after which it joined the United Nations. In the aftermath of World War II, and with the emergence of the subsequent Cold War, Denmark was quick to join the military alliance of NATO as a founding member in 1949.

History of Schleswig-Holstein

The history of Schleswig-Holstein consists of the corpus of facts since the pre-history times until the modern establishing of the Schleswig-Holstein state.

Index of Denmark-related articles

This is an index of Denmark-related articles and topics related to the Kingdom of Denmark.

Kommercekollegiet

Kommercekollegiet (The Board of Trade or The Trade Authority), also Kommercekollegium, was a central executive agency for commercial, marine and industrial affairs under the absolute monarchy of Denmark. It functioned with variations in scope and under different designations on and off during the period of 1668 to 1816. After the dissolution of an initial agency at the end of the 1680s, its re-establishment in 1704 was specifically to advise the Danish monarch on trade and industrial matters.

List of kingdoms and royal dynasties

Monarchism is a movement that supports the monarchy as a form of government.

Margrethe II of Denmark

Margrethe II (Danish: Margrethe 2., pronounced [mɑˈɡʁæːˀdə]; Faroese: Margreta 2.; Greenlandic: Margrethe II; full name: Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur Ingrid; born 16 April 1940) is the Queen of Denmark, as well as the supreme authority of the Church of Denmark and Commander-in-Chief of the Danish Defence. Born into the House of Glücksburg, a royal house with origins in Northern Germany, she was the eldest child of Frederick IX of Denmark and Ingrid of Sweden. She succeeded her father upon his death on 14 January 1972, having become heir presumptive to her father in 1953, when a constitutional amendment allowed women to inherit the throne. On her accession, Margrethe became the first female monarch of Denmark since Margrethe I, ruler of the Scandinavian kingdoms in 1375–1412 during the Kalmar Union. In 1967, she married Henri de Laborde de Monpezat, with whom she has two sons: Crown Prince Frederik and Prince Joachim. She has been on the Danish throne for 47 years, becoming the second-longest-reigning Danish monarch after her ancestor Christian IV.

Military band

A military band is a group of personnel that performs musical duties for military functions, usually for the armed forces. A typical military band consists mostly of wind and percussion instruments. The conductor of a band commonly bears the title of Bandmaster or Director of Music. Ottoman military bands are thought to be the oldest variety of military marching bands in the world, dating from the 13th century.The military band is capable of playing ceremonial and marching music, including the national anthems and patriotic songs of not only their own nation but others as well, both while stationary and as a marching band. Military bands also play a part in military funeral ceremonies.

There are two types of historical traditions in military bands. The first is military field music. This type of music includes bugles (or other natural instruments such as natural trumpets or natural horns), bagpipes, or fifes and almost always drums. This type of music was used to control troops on the battlefield as well as for entertainment. Following the development of instruments such as the keyed trumpet or the saxhorn family of brass instruments, a second tradition of the brass and woodwind military band was formed.

Some police forces have their own police bands that provide similar function to a military band.

Olaf (II) Haraldsen

Olaf Haraldsen (died c. 1143) was a Danish anti-king who ruled Scania for a few years from 1139. He never won control over the rest of Denmark, and he is not included in the list of Danish monarchs used by the Danish monarchy or Den Store Danske Encyklopædi. He is sometimes called "Olaf II" even though there was a later Olaf II of Denmark.He was the son of Harald Kesja and thus nephew of King Eric II of Denmark. He seems to have been the only who escaped Eric II's murder of Harald and his sons in 1135. After trying in vain to regain his heritage, Olaf proclaimed himself king in Scania in 1139, fighting his cousin King Eric III of Denmark. The civil war mostly consisted of alternating raids, during which Olaf killed Bishop Rike of Roskilde, an act that saw him excommunicated by the Pope. He was at last defeated by Eric III and was killed in a battle in Middle Scania around 1143.Harald Skrænk, the leader of a peasant rebellion in Scania about 1182, is said to have been Olaf's illegitimate son, but their connection is unsure.

Religion in Norway

Religion in Norway is mostly Lutheran Christianity, with 71.5% of the population belonging to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway in 2016. The Catholic Church is the next largest Christian church at 2.9%. The unaffiliated make up 16.8% of the population. Islam is followed by 2.9% of the population.

A bill passed in 2016 and effective as of 1 January 2017 created the Church of Norway as an independent legal entity. Until the 2012 constitutional amendment the Evangelical-Lutheran religion was the public religion of the State. The Church of Norway will still obtain financial support from the state of Norway, along with other religious communities.Early Norwegians, like all of the people of Scandinavia, were adherents of Norse paganism; the Sámi having a shamanistic religion. Norway was gradually Christianized by Christian missionaries between 1000 and 1150. Before the Protestant Reformation in 1536/1537, Norwegians were part of the Catholic Church.

According to the Eurobarometer Poll of 2010:-

22% of Norwegian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God".

44% responded that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force".

29% responded that "they don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force".

5% gave no response.According to 2016 data from annual social-cultural study Norwegian Monitor (Norsk Monitor), 39 percent of Norwegians responded with "No" to the question to the question “Do you believe in God?”, while 37 percent said "Yes" and 27 percent said that they did not know. The survey also showed that women are more likely to believe in God than men and that faith in God is stronger among the old than the young.

Throne Chair of Denmark

The Throne Chair of Denmark (Danish and Norwegian: Danmarks tronstol; also: salvingsstol, kroningsstol) is the physical representation of the Throne of the Kingdom of Denmark (since 1671) and of the Throne of the Kingdom of Norway (between 1671 and 1814).

According to legend, the Throne Chair is made of the horn of unicorns. In reality, it is made from Norwegian narwhal tusks. It is guarded by three life-size silver lions, based on Biblical references, and was a symbol of the absolute monarchy of the Twin Kingdoms.

The Throne Chair is located in the Castle of Rosenborg in Copenhagen.

Throne Chairs of Norway

The Throne Chairs of Norway (Norwegian Bokmål: singular Norges tronstol, plural -stoler; Norwegian Nynorsk: singular Noregs tronstol, plural -stolar) are the physical representations of the Throne of the Kingdom of Norway. One stands in the building of the Parliament in Oslo, the political capital of Norway, where it is used in a political context. The other stands in Trondheim, the religious capital of Norway, where it was used in a religious context. A lesser known is the Throne Chair in the Council Chamber in the Royal Palace. In addition to the Throne Chairs, there are two coronation chairs (Bokmål and Nynorsk: kroningstol), which are also located in Trondheim. Between 1671 and 1814, the Throne Chair of Denmark was de facto also Norway's.

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