A Monal or Munal is a bird of genus Lophophorus of the pheasant family, Phasianidae. There are three species and several subspecies:

Image Name Common name Distribution
Himalayan Monal on Snow Lophophorus impejanus Himalayan monal, munal or danfe Pakistan Through the Himalayas, Nepal, southern Tibet, and Bhutan.
Lophophorus sclateri Lophophorus sclateri Sclater's monal northeast India, southeast Tibet and northern Burma
Lvwhzh Lophophorus lhuysii Chinese monal central China
Himalayan Monal on Snow
Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Galliformes
Family: Phasianidae
Subfamily: Phasianinae
Genus: Lophophorus
Temminck, 1813
Badri (2001 film)

Badri is a 2001 Indian Tamil-language sports action film directed by P. A. Arun Prasad. The film is the remake of 1999 Telugu film Thammudu starring Pawan Kalyan. The film stars Vijay in the leading role as a spoilt college brat who turns into a kickboxer to prove himself. Bhumika Chawla and Monal are the leading ladies, while Vivek, Riyaz Khan, and Bhupinder Singh play supporting roles. The film's soundtrack was composed by Ramana Gogula while the background score was composed by Devi Sri Prasad. Filming began in August 2000 and was completed by March 2001. The film had its theatrical release on 12 April 2001. The film completed 100 days theatrical run.

IndiaToday listed the film under top ten cult films performed by Vijay.

Chinese monal

The Chinese monal (Lophophorus lhuysii) is a pheasant. This monal is restricted to mountains of central China. The plumage is highly iridescent. The male has a large drooping purple crest, a metallic green head, blue bare skin around the eyes, a reddish gold mantle, bluish green feathers and black underparts. The female is dark brown with white on its throat.

This is the largest of the three monals and, by mass, is one of the largest pheasants (after the turkeys and the green and Indian peafowls). Males measure 76–80 cm (30–31 in) in length while females measure 72–75 cm (28–30 in). The mean weight is reportedly 3.18 kg (7.0 lb).The scientific name, lhuysii, commemorates the French statesman Édouard Drouyn de Lhuys.Due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation, limited range and illegal hunting, the Chinese monal is evaluated as vulnerable on IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is listed on Appendix I of CITES.

Dracula 2012

Dracula 2012 (released in Tamil as Naangam Pirai and in Telugu as Punnami Ratri) is a 2013 Indian 3-D horror film directed by Vinayan, starring Sudheer Sukumaran, Prabhu, Monal Gajjar, Nassar, Shraddha Das and Thilakan. The film was shot in the Malayalam, Telugu, and Tamil languages simultaneously, with additional scenes and songs featuring Tamil and Telugu actors. The film was dubbed in English for a Western release and later dubbed in Hindi as "Aur Ek Dracula". Portions of the film were shot in Bran Castle in Romania. The cost of the film was ₹ 120 million and was originally released on 8 February 2013.

Himalayan monal

The Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus), also known as the Impeyan monal and Impeyan pheasant, is a bird in the pheasant family, Phasianidae. It is the national bird of Nepal, where it is known as the danphe, and state bird of Uttarakhand, India, where it is known as the monal. It was also the state bird of Himachal Pradesh until 2007.

The scientific name commemorates Lady Mary Impey, the wife of the British chief justice of Bengal Sir Elijah Impey.

Monal, Queensland

Monal is a locality in the North Burnett Region, Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Monal had a population of 35 people.

Monal Gajjar

Monal Gajjar is an Indian film actress and model.

Monal Naval

Radhamonal Naval (26 January 1981 – 30 April 2002) was an Indian film actress who appeared in Tamil language films. She was the younger sister of actress Simran and appeared in notable productions including Badri (2001) alongside Vijay. She committed suicide in 2002.

Paarvai Ondre Podhume

Paarvai Ondre Podhume is a 2001 Indian Tamil romance film directed by Murali Krishna. The film stars Karan, Monal and Kunal in the lead roles. The film's soundtrack was composed by Bharani and was a huge success, particularly the songs "Ye Asainthadum", "Thirumba thirumba", "Thirudiya Idhayathai", "Thuli Thuliyaai" and "Nee Parthutu Ponalum. The film released on 16 March 2001 and became a box office success.


Partridges are medium-sized non-migratory birds, with a wide native distribution throughout the Old World, including Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa. They are sometimes grouped in the Perdicinae subfamily of the Phasianidae (pheasants, quail, etc.). However, molecular research suggests that partridges are not a distinct taxon within the family Phasianidae, but that some species are closer to the pheasants, while others are closer to the junglefowl.


Perdicinae is a subfamily of birds in the pheasant family, Phasianidae, regrouping the partridges, Old World quails, and francolins. Although this subfamily was considered monophyletic and separated from the pheasants, tragopans, junglefowls, and peafowls (Phasianinae) till the early 1990s, molecular phylogenies have shown that these two subfamilies actually constitute only one lineage. For example, some partridges (Perdix genus) are more closely affiliated to pheasants, whereas Old World quails and partridges from the Alectoris genus are closer to junglefowls.Perdicinae is a non-migratory Old World group. These are medium-sized birds, and are native to Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. They are ground-nesting seed-eaters. The subfamily includes the partridges, the snowcocks, the francolins, the spurfowl and the Old World quail.

Pesadha Kannum Pesume

Pesadha Kannum Pesume is a 2002 Indian Tamil film directed by Murali Krishna. This film is a tribute to Monal, who died on 30 April 2002, just before the film's release.


The Phasianidae are a family of heavy, ground-living birds, which includes pheasants, partridges, junglefowl, chickens, turkeys, Old World quail, and peafowl. The family includes many of the most popular gamebirds. The family is a large one, and is occasionally broken up into two subfamilies, the Phasianinae and the Perdicinae. Sometimes, additional families and birds are treated as part of this family. For example, the American Ornithologists' Union includes the Tetraonidae (grouse), Numididae (guineafowl), and Meleagrididae (turkeys) as subfamilies in Phasianidae.


The Phasianinae (Horsfield, 1821) are a subfamily of the pheasant family (Phasianidae) of landfowl, the order Galliformes. The subfamily includes pheasants, tragopans, junglefowl, peafowl, and other similar birds. Although this subfamily was considered monophyletic and separated from the partridges, francolins, and Old World quails (Perdicinae) till the early 1990s, molecular phylogenies have shown that this two subfamilies actually constitute only one lineage. For example, some partridges (genus Perdix) are more closely affiliated to pheasants, whereas Old World quails and partridges from the genus Alectoris are closer to junglefowls.Phasianinae are characterised by strong sexual dimorphism, males being highly ornate with bright colours and adornments such as wattles and long tails. Males are usually larger than females and have longer tails. Males play no part in rearing the young. They typically eat seeds and some insects.


Samuthiram (Ocean) is a 2001 Tamil family drama film written and directed by K. S. Ravikumar, starring Sarath Kumar, Murali, Manoj Bharathiraja, Kaveri, Abhirami, Sindhu Menon and Monal. The film's score and soundtrack are composed by Sabesh-Murali. The film was released on 31 August 2001. The film was remade in Telugu as Siva Rama Raju with Jagapathi Babu, in Bengali as Kartavya and in Kannada as Paramashiva with V. Ravichandran. Even though it got mixed reviews it became a "hit" at the box office.

Sclater's monal

Sclater's monal, Lophophorus sclateri, also known as the crestless monal, is a large, approximately 68 centimetres (27 in) long, pheasant of the east Himalayan region. As other monals, the male is a colorful bird. It has a highly iridescent purplish-green upperparts plumage, short and curly metallic green crown feathers, copper neck, purplish-black throat, white back, blue orbital skin, yellowish-orange bill and brown iris. In the nominate subspecies, the tail is white with a broad chestnut band, while the tail is entirely white in L. s. arunachalensis from western Arunachal Pradesh in India. The crestless female is mostly a dark brown bird with a white throat and tail-tip, dull bluish orbital skin and a pale yellow bill.

Sclater's monal is distributed to mountain forests of northeast India, southeast Tibet and northern Burma, at altitudes of 2,500 to 4,200 metres (8,200 to 13,800 ft). The diet of the Sclater's monal is like that of other members of the genus Lophophorus, probably consists mainly of tubers, roots, bulbs, arthropods, rodents, seeds and flowers. The female usually lays between three and five eggs. It is not known if the Sclater's monal male participates in nest defense, but it is likely.

The name commemorates the British zoologist Philip Lutley Sclater.Due to ongoing habitat loss, small population size, limited range and overhunting in some areas for food and its feathers, Sclater's monal is evaluated as Vulnerable on IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is listed on Appendix I of CITES.

Szechenyi's monal-partridge

The Szechenyi's monal-partridge or buff-throated partridge (Tetraophasis szechenyii) is a species of bird in the family Phasianidae.

It is found in central China and far northeastern India.

Its natural habitat is boreal forests.

The common name and Latin binomial commemorate the Hungarian explorer of Central Asia Graf Bela Széchenyi.


Tetraophasis is a genus of Galliform in the family Phasianidae, which includes pheasants, Perdixs, grouse, turkeyss, tragopan, and koklass. It contains the following species:

Verreaux's monal-partridge (Tetraophasis obscurus)

Szechenyi's monal-partridge (Tetraophasis szechenyii)The name Tetraophasis is a combination of the genus name Tetrao (the name Carl Linnaeus gave grouse in 1758), and the modern Latin word phasis, meaning "pheasant". Monal-partridge are close relatives of monals and more distantly related to tragopan. They are boreal adapted species of high altitudes. Like monals they dig in alpine biomes for tubers, rhizomes and invertebrates as well as rodent pups and voles. Monal-partridges are important prey species for raptors, owls and yellow-throated martens. Like monals, monal-partridges are strictly monogamous. The female incubates the eggs until the last 48 hours when the male may take over night time nest brooding. This is a habit documented in blood pheasants, tragopans and monals.

Both sexes rear the chicks, which are not fully mature until their second year. Unlike monals the sexes do not separate during winter.

Monal-partridges are strong fliers. They evidently compete with koklass as the two are rarely to be heard or seen in the same valleys.

Verreaux's monal-partridge

The Verreaux's monal-partridge or chestnut-throated partridge (Tetraophasis obscurus) is a species of bird in the Phasianidae family. It is found only in central China. Its natural habitat is boreal forests.

The common name commemorate the French naturalist Jules Verreaux.


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