Molina's hog-nosed skunk

Molina’s hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga, is similar to the common skunk with scent glands used to spray an odorous liquid to offend potential predators. They have a resistance to pit viper venom, distinct thin white markings and a pink, hog-like, fleshy nose.

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Chingue (Conepatus chinga) Inao Vásquez 001
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Mephitidae
Genus: Conepatus
Species:
C. chinga
Binomial name
Conepatus chinga
(Molina, 1782)
Molina's Hog-nosed Skunk area
Molina's hog-nosed skunk range

Habitat

The Molina’s hog-nosed skunk’s native range is throughout mid to southern South America, Chile, Peru, northern Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and southern Brazil.[2] The mammal is therefore associated with temperate regions and open areas, mainly described as the Pampas biome[3] and preferring to live in open vegetation, shrub forest and rocky sloped areas.[2]

Population and Distribution

Typically they will live alone in an average home range size of about 1.66 individuals/km^2 with some overlapping and about six skunks per 3.5 km^2.[4] Although living in mostly solitary areas, the skunks will come together temporarily for mating purposes.[2]

Diet

Foraging mainly at night, the skunk is omnivorous eating birds, small mammals, eggs, insects, leaves, and fruit. The tooth morphology in the molina’s hog-nosed skunk, is different than most mammals in that their teeth are adapted to their omnivorous diet with grinding being the main function of the carnassial apparatus.[5]

Conservation Status

The skunk is listed as “least concerned” according to the IUCN Redlist. The main threats of the skunk are increased habitat destruction and fragmentation[6] from over exploitation of humans and grazing of agriculture. The skunk is also affected by the planning of new roads and road-kills. Due to improper planning, habitat destruction, and fragmentation, the skunk has started living around man-made structures and along fences and buildings.[6]

References

  1. ^ Emmons, L. & Helgen, K. (2008). "Conepatus chinga". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  2. ^ a b c [Afflerbaugh, K. 2002. "Conepatus chinga" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed September 10, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Conepatus_chinga/]
  3. ^ [Kasper, C. B, et al. “Differential patterns of home-range, net displacement and resting sites use of Conepatus chinga in southern Brazil. Mammalian Biology 77 (2012): 358-362. Academic Search Complete. Web. 14 October. 2013.]
  4. ^ [Castillo, D.F., et al. “Spatial organization of Molina’s hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga) in two landscapes of the Pampas grassland of Argentina.” Canadian Journal of Zoology 89 (2011): 229-238. Academic Search Complete. Web. 14 October. 2013]
  5. ^ [Felipe Bortolotto, et al. “Feeding Habits of Molina’s Hog-Nosed Skunk, Conepatus Chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae) In The Extreme South of Brazil.” Zoologia (Curitiba) 2 (2011): 193. Directory of Open Access Journals. Web. 10 Sept. 2013.]
  6. ^ a b [Castillo, D.F., et al. 2011. “Denning ecology of Molina’s hog-nosed skunk in a farmland area in the Pampas grassland of Argentina.” The Ecological Society of Japan 26: 845-850. Academic Search Complete. Web. 7 November. 2013.]
  • The Andes: A Trekking Guide

External links

Altos de Lircay National Reserve

Altos de Lircay National Reserve is a 121.63 km2 (46.96 sq mi) nature reserve located in Talca Province, Maule Region, Chile. It lies in a pre-Andean area close to Radal Siete Tazas National Park, as well as Descabezado Grande and Cerro Azul volcanoes.

The reserve is home to a significant variety of wildlife including rare and threatened animals such as the Tricahue parrot, Molina's hog-nosed skunk and plants such as the ciprés de la cordillera and roble Maulino. In the area can be found seven of the ten species of the genus Nothofagus occurring in Chile.

There are three major rivers in the reserve, the Lircay that is a tributary of the Claro River, the Claro that flows north to south through the reserve, and the Blanquillo that joins the latter river in the reserve.

American hog-nosed skunk

The American hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus leuconotus) is a species of hog-nosed skunk from Central and North America, and is one of the largest skunks in the world, growing to lengths of up to 2.7 feet (82 cm). Recent work has concluded the western hog-nosed skunk (formerly Conepatus mesoleucus) is the same species, and Conepatus leuconotus is the correct name of the merged populations.In Texas, it is commonly known as the rooter skunk for its habit of rooting and overturning rocks and debris in search of food.

Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary

Chacamarca Historic Sanctuary (Spanish: Santuario Histórico de Chacamarca), is a historical site in Junín Province, Junín, Peru. The sanctuary protects the site of the Battle of Junín and archaeological remains of the Pumpush culture.

Hog-nosed skunk

The hog-nosed skunks belong to the genus Conepatus and are members of the family Mephitidae (skunks). They are native to the Americas. They have white backs and tails and black underparts.

Hooded skunk

The hooded skunk (Mephitis macroura) is a species of mammal in the family Mephitidae. Mephītis in Latin means "foul odor", μακρός (makrós) in Greek translates to "long" and οὐρά (ourá) translates to "tail".

Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk

Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk, also known as the Patagonian hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus humboldtii) is a type of hog-nosed skunk indigenous to the open grassy areas in the Patagonian regions of Argentina and Chile. It belongs to the order Carnivora and the family Mephitidae.

Junín National Reserve

Junín National Reserve is a protected area located in the region of Junín, Peru. One of its main purposes is to protect the ecosystem and biodiversity of Lake Junín and the surrounding Central Andean wet puna.

Lagunas de Mejía National Sanctuary

Lagunas de Mejía National Sanctuary (Santuario Nacional Lagunas de Mejía) is a protected area on the coastal plain of Peru, in Islay Province, Arequipa, in the mouth of the Tambo River. It is a sanctuary for migratory and resident birds, and was designated a Ramsar site in 1992.

Lutrogale

Lutrogale is a genus of otters, with only one extant species—the smooth-coated otter.

Mephitidae

Mephitidae is a family of mammals comprising the skunks and stink badgers. They are noted for the great development of their anal scent glands, which they use to deter predators.

There are twelve extant species of mephitids in four genera: Conepatus (hog-nosed skunks, four species); Mephitis (the hooded and striped skunks, two species); Mydaus (stink badgers, two species); and Spilogale (spotted skunks, four species). The two stink badgers in the genus Mydaus inhabit Indonesia and the Philippines; the other members of the family inhabit the Americas, ranging from Canada to central South America. All other mephitids are extinct, known through fossils, including those from Eurasia.Skunks were formerly classified as a subfamily of the Mustelidae (the weasel family); however, recent genetic evidence has caused skunks to be treated as a separate family. Similarly, the stink badgers had been classified with badgers, but genetic evidence shows they share a more recent common ancestor with skunks, so they are now included in the skunk family. In alphabetical order, the living species of Mephitidae are:

Family Mephitidae

Genus: Conepatus

Conepatus chinga – Molina's hog-nosed skunk

Conepatus humboldtii – Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk

Conepatus leuconotus – American hog-nosed skunk

Conepatus semistriatus – striped hog-nosed skunk

Genus: Mephitis

Mephitis macroura – hooded skunk

Mephitis mephitis – striped skunk

Genus: Mydaus

Mydaus javanensis – Indonesian or Sunda stink badger (Teledu)

Mydaus marchei – Palawan stink badger

Genus: Spilogale

Spilogale angustifrons – southern spotted skunk

Spilogale gracilis – western spotted skunk

Spilogale putorius – eastern spotted skunk

Spilogale pygmaea – pygmy spotted skunk

Mephitis (genus)

The genus Mephitis is one of several genera of skunks, which has two species and a North American distribution.

Palawan stink badger

The Palawan stink badger (Mydaus marchei), or pantot, is a carnivoran of the western Philippines named for its resemblance to badgers, its powerful smell, and the largest island to which it is native, Palawan. Like all stink badgers, the Palawan stink badger was once thought to share a more recent common ancestor with badgers than with skunks. Recent genetic evidence, however, has led to their re-classification as one of the Mephitidae, the skunk family of mammals. It is the size of a large skunk or small badger, and uses its badger-like body to dig by night for invertebrates in open areas near patches of brush. While it lacks the whitish dorsal patches typical of its closest relatives, predators and hunters generally avoid the powerful noxious chemicals it can spray from the specialized anal glands characteristic of mephitids.

Pygmy spotted skunk

The pygmy spotted skunk (Spilogale pygmaea) is a species of mammal in the family Mephitidae. It is endemic to Mexico.

Spotted skunk

The genus Spilogale includes all skunks commonly known as spotted skunks and is composed of four extant species: S. gracilis, S. putorius, S. pygmaea, S. angustifrons.

Stink badger

Stink badgers (Mydaus) are a genus of the skunk family of carnivorans, the Mephitidae. They resemble the better know members of family Mustelidae also termed 'badgers' (which are themselves a polyphyletic group). There are only two extant species - the Palawan stink badger (M. marchei), and the Sunda stink badger or Teledu (M. javanensis). They live only on western islands of the Malay Archipelago: Sumatra, Java, Borneo and (in the case of the Palawan stink badger) on the Philippine island of Palawan; as well as many other, smaller islands in the region.

Stink badgers are named for their resemblance to other badgers and for the foul-smelling secretions that they expel from anal glands in self-defense (which is stronger in the Sunda species).Stink badgers were traditionally thought to be related to Eurasian badgers in the subfamily Melinae of the weasel family of carnivorans (the Mustelidae), but recent DNA analysis indicates they share a more recent common ancestor with skunks, so experts have now placed them in the skunk family (the Mephitidae, which is the sister group of a clade composed of Mustelidae and Procyonidae, with the red panda also assigned to one of the sister clades). The two existing species are different enough from each other for the Palawan stink badger to be sometimes classified in its own genus, Suillotaxus.

Striped hog-nosed skunk

The striped hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus semistriatus, is a skunk species from Central and South America (from southern Mexico to northern Peru, and in the extreme east of Brazil). It lives in a wide range of habitats including dry forest scrub and occasionally, in rainforest.These white-backed skunks inhabit mainly the foothills and partly timbered or brushy sections of their general range. They usually avoid hot desert areas and heavy stands of timber. The largest populations occur in rocky, sparsely timbered areas.

It is a nocturnal solitary animal, feeding mainly on invertebrates, small vertebrates and fruits.

Sunda stink badger

The Sunda stink badger (Mydaus javanensis), also called the Javan stink badger, teledu, Malay stink badger, Malay badger, Indonesian stink badger and Sunda skunk, is a mammal native to Indonesia and Malaysia. Despite the common name, stink badgers are not closely related to true badgers, and are, instead, Old World relatives of the skunks.

Western spotted skunk

The western spotted skunk (Spilogale gracilis) is a spotted skunk of western North America

Extant species of family Mephitidae
Conepatus
Mydaus
Mephitis
Spilogale
Extant Carnivora species

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