Molecular Biology and Evolution is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. It publishes work in the intersection of molecular biology and evolutionary biology. The founding editors-in-chief were Walter Fitch and Masatoshi Nei; the present editor-in-chief is Sudhir Kumar.
|Molecular Biology and Evolution|
|Edited by||Sudhir Kumar|
|Mol. Biol. Evol.|
Filasterea is a proposed basal Filozoan clade that includes Ministeria and Capsaspora. It is a sister clade to the Choanozoa in which the Choanoflagellatea and Animals appeared. Originally proposed by Shalchian-Tabrizi et al. in 2008, based on a phylogenomic analysis with dozens of genes. Filasterea was found to be the sister-group to the clade composed of Metazoa and Choanoflagellata within the Opisthokonta, a finding that has been further corroborated with additional, more taxon-rich, phylogenetic analyses.Genome Biology and Evolution
Genome Biology and Evolution is a monthly peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. It covers research on the interface between evolutionary biology and genomics. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal's 2017 impact factor is 3.940.Gnetophyta
Gnetophyta is a division of plants, grouped within the gymnosperms (which also includes conifers, cycads, and ginkgos), that consists of some 70 species across the three relict genera: Gnetum (family Gnetaceae), Welwitschia (family Welwitschiaceae), and Ephedra (family Ephedraceae). Fossilized pollen attributed to a close relative of Ephedra has been dated as far back as the Early Cretaceous. Though diverse and dominant in the Paleogene and the Neogene, only three families, each containing a single genus, are still alive today. The primary difference between gnetophytes and other gymnosperms is the presence of vessel elements, a system of conduits that transport water within the plant, similar to those found in flowering plants. Because of this, gnetophytes were once thought to be the closest gymnosperm relatives to flowering plants, but more recent molecular studies have brought this hypothesis into question.
Though it is clear they are all closely related, the exact evolutionary inter-relationships between gnetophytes are unclear. Some classifications hold that all three genera should be placed in a single order (Gnetales), while other classifications say they should be distributed among three separate orders, each containing a single family and genus. Most morphological and molecular studies confirm that the genera Gnetum and Welwitschia diverged from each other more recently than they did from Ephedra.Haplogroup R (mtDNA)
Haplogroup R is a widely distributed human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. Haplogroup R
is associated with the peopling of Eurasia after about 70,000 years ago, and is distributed in modern populations throughout the world outside of sub-Saharan Africa.Haplogroup R is a descendant of the macro-haplogroup N. Among the R clade's descendant haplogroups are B, U (and thus K), F, R0 (and thus HV, H, and V), and JT (the ancestral haplogroup of J and T).Haplogroup T (mtDNA)
Haplogroup T is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. It is believed to have originated around 25,100 years ago in the Near East.Hystricomorpha
The term Hystricomorpha (from Greek ὕστριξ, hystrix = "porcupine" and Greek μορφή, morphē = "form") has had many definitions throughout its history. In the broadest sense, it refers to any rodent (except dipodoids) with a hystricomorphous zygomasseteric system. This includes the Hystricognathi, Ctenodactylidae, Anomaluridae, and Pedetidae. Molecular and morphological results suggest the inclusion of the Anomaluridae and Pedetidae in Hystricomorpha may be suspect. Based on Carleton & Musser 2005, these two families are treated here as representing a distinct suborder Anomaluromorpha.Isochore (genetics)
In genetics, an isochore is a large region of DNA (greater than 300 kb) with a high degree uniformity in guanine (G) and cytosine (C): G-C and C-G (collectively GC content).
Bernardi and colleagues first uncovered the compositional non-uniformity within vertebrate genomes using thermal melting and density gradient centrifugation. The DNA fragments extracted by the gradient centrifugation were later termed "isochores", which was subsequently defined as "very long (much greater than 200 KB) DNA segments" that "are fairly homogeneous in base composition and belong to a small number of major classes distinguished by differences in guanine-cytosine (GC) content". Subsequently, the isochores "grew" and were claimed to be ">300 kb in size." The theory proposed that isochore’s composition varied markedly between "warm-blooded" (homeotherm) vertebrates and "cold-blooded" (poikilotherm) vertebrates and later became known as the isochore theory.Jon Seger
Jon Allen Seger is an American evolutionary ecologist, and Distinguished Professor of Biology at the University of Utah. He helped develop the theory of bet-hedging in biology. His work has appeared in leading scientific journals such as Nature, Science, Nature Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, as well as popular magazines such as Scientific American.Lophophorata
The Lophophorata are a Lophotrochozoan clade consisting of the Brachiozoa and the Bryozoa. They have a lophophore.Lophotrochozoa
Lophotrochozoa (, "crest/wheel animals") is a clade of protostome animals within the Spiralia. The taxon was established as a monophyletic group based on molecular evidence.Masatoshi Nei
Masatoshi Nei (根井正利, Nei Masatoshi) is a population geneticist currently affiliated with the Department of Biology at Temple University as a Carnell Professor. He was, until recently, Evan Pugh Professor of Biology at Pennsylvania State University and Director of the Institute of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics and had been there from 1990 to 2015.
He was born in 1931 in Miyazaki Prefecture, on Kyūshū Island, Japan. He was associate professor and professor of biology at Brown University from 1969 to 1972 and professor of population genetics at the Center for Demographic and Population Genetics, University of Texas at Houston, from 1972 to 1990. He is a theoretical population geneticist and evolutionary biologist. Acting alone or working with his students, he has continuously developed statistical theories of molecular evolution taking into account discoveries in molecular biology. He has also developed concepts in evolutionary theory and advanced the theory of mutation-driven evolution.Nucleariida
Nucleariida is a group of amoebae with filose pseudopods, known mostly from soils and freshwater. They are distinguished from the superficially similar vampyrellids mainly by having mitochondria with discoid cristae.Opisthokont
The opisthokonts (Greek: ὀπίσθιος (opísthios) = "rear, posterior" + κοντός (kontós) = "pole" i.e. "flagellum") are a broad group of eukaryotes, including both the animal and fungus kingdoms. The opisthokonts, previously called the "Fungi/Metazoa group", are generally recognized as a clade. Opisthokonts together with Apusomonadida and Breviata comprise the larger clade Obazoa.Osnat Penn
Osnat Penn (Hebrew: אסנת פן) is an Israeli computational biologist. Penn is the third Israeli scientist in three years to win the UNESCO-L’Oréal fellowship, which she received in 2013 for her work on the genetic origins of autism. Penn is currently at the University of Washington in Seattle.Penn has been responsible for several different computer programs developed at Tel Aviv University in order to aid in biological research. GUIDANCE is a web server used for estimating alignment confidence scores. RASER, the RAte Shift EstimatoR, is used to test site-specific evolutionary rate shifts. The Pepitope Server is used to map epitopes using affinity-selected peptides. Her work with autism genetic sequencing which won her the UNESCO-L’Oréal award, worked to identify where there were genetic variations that linked to individuals displaying autism. Her work will also lead to prenatal screening and early diagnosis of autism.Penn has been published in Cell, Genome Research, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Nucleic Acids Research, Systematic Biology, BMC Evolutionary Biology, PLoS Computational Biology, Bioinformatics, and Proteins.Recent human evolution
Recent human evolution refers to evolutionary adaptation and selection and genetic drift within anatomically modern human populations, since their separation and dispersal in the Middle Paleolithic.
Following the peopling of Africa some 130,000 years ago, and the recent Out-of-Africa expansion some 70,000 to 50,000 years ago, some sub-populations of H. sapiens have been essentially isolated for tens of thousands of years prior to the early modern Age of Discovery.
Combined with archaic admixture, this has resulted in significant genetic variation, which in some instances has been shown to be the result of directional selection taking place over the past 15,000 years, i.e. significantly later than possible archaic admixture events.
Selection pressures were especially severe for populations affected by the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Eurasia, and for sedentary farming populations since the Neolithic.
Adaptations have also been found in modern populations living in extreme climatic conditions such as the Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau,
as well as immunological adaptations such as resistance against brain disease in populations practicing mortuary cannibalism.Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution
The Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution (SMBE) is a scientific and academic organization created in 1982 to support academic research in the field of molecular evolution. The society hosts an annual meeting, typically in June or July. It also supports satellite meetings throughout the year. The Society's first president was evolutionary biologist Walter M. Fitch.Strictispiridae
Strictispiridae is a taxonomic family of small predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Conoidea, the cone snails and their allies. This family has no subfamilies.
Since 2018, this family has been included in the family Pseudomelatomidae.Trochozoa
The Trochozoa are a proposed Lophotrochozoa clade that is sister of Polyzoa. The trochozoans clade include animals in five phyla: the Nemertea, the Annelida, the Mollusca and the two Brachiozoan phyla, Brachiopoda and Phoronida.
.Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of Oceania
Listed here are notable ethnic groups and native populations from the Oceania (Pacific Islands and Australia) by human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups based on relevant studies.