In a Catholic context, Modernism is neither a system, school, or doctrine, but refers to a number of individual attempts to reconcile Roman Catholicism with modern culture; specifically an understanding of scripture in light of scientific advances in archeology, philology, the historical-critical method and other new developments of the late 19th and early 20th centuries-and implicitly all that this might entail.
Writing in the Catholic Encyclopedia, Arthur Vermeersch describes modernism thus: "In general we may say that modernism aims at that radical transformation of human thought in relation to God, man, the world, and life, here and hereafter, which was prepared by Humanism and eighteenth-century philosophy, and solemnly promulgated at the French Revolution." The term came to prominence in Pope Pius X's 1907 encyclical Pascendi dominici gregis, which synthesizes and condemns modernism as embracing every heresy.  The movement was influenced by Protestant theologians and clergy, starting with the Tübingen School in the mid-19th century. Pius charged that it was prominent in French and British intellectual circles and, to a lesser extent, in Italy. The term is generally used by critics of rather than adherents to positions associated with it.
Liberal Catholicism was a current of thought within the Catholic Church that was influential in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th, especially in France. It is largely identified with French political theorists such as Felicité Robert de Lamennais, Henri Lacordaire, and Charles Forbes René de Montalembert influenced, in part, by a similar contemporaneous movement in Belgium. Engelbert Sterckx, Archdiocese of Mechelen, a skilled negotiator with a natural inclination to conciliatory pragmatism, had managed to take advantage of the new freedoms to completely reorganized the Archdiocese, establishing schools, colleges, monasteries, charities and minor seminaries in Hoogstraten and Waver. Lamennais and his associates saw no conflict between Catholicism and liberal reform. They advocated for an enlarged suffrage, separation of church and state, and universal freedom of conscience, instruction, assembly, and the press.
In August 1832, Pope Gregory XVI issued the encyclical Mirari vos (On Liberalism and Religious Indifferentism). He attacked religious indifferentism, which was defined as the opinion that one religion is as good as another, which he saw as the basis for the argument for liberty of conscience. He also denounced secret societies that sought overturn the legitimate governments of the Italian states, and the freedom to publish or distribute any writings indiscriminately.
Lamennais, under attack from French conservatives, issued in 1834 the book, Paroles d'un croyant (Words of a Believer), in which he denounced all authority, civil as well as ecclesiastical. Paroles marked Lamennais' turn to a Christian socialism that inspired a whole generation. His radical ideas reflected an overlap of Catholic and socialist discourses that can be traced back to the 1820s.The experience of the popes during the recent revolutions, being expelled from Rome, widespread unrest in the Papal States and temporal power to anti-Catholic forces, and the erosion of even spiritual allegiance, predisposed the reaction of the Papacy. Gregory XVI's reaction was entirely predictable. He issued a second encyclical, Singulari Nos in June 1834, condemning the book and the ideas expressed therein.
In August 1863, Montalembert, gave a series of speeches in Mechelen, Belgium in which he held forth on his views concerning the future of modern society and the Church. His first speech aimed to show the necessity of Christianizing the democracy by accepting modern liberties. His second speech dealt with liberty of conscience, and the conclusion he drew was that the Church could be in perfect harmony with religious liberty and with the modern state. Being largely political in nature, Liberal Catholicism was distinct from, but contemporary with the theological movement of modernism.
Catholic studies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries avoided the use of critical methodology because of its rationalist tendencies. Frequent political revolutions, bitter opposition of “liberalism” to the church, and the expulsion of religious orders from France and Germany, made the church understandably suspicious of the new intellectual currents of the period.
In 1863, Ernest Renan published Vie de Jésus (Life of Jesus). Renan had trained for the priesthood, before choosing instead a secular career as a philologist and historian. In Vie de Jésus he described Jesus as "Un homme incomparable", a man, no doubt extraordinary, but only a man. The book was very popular, but cost him his chair of Hebrew at the College de France. Among Renan’s most controversial ideas was that "a miracle does not count as a historical event; people believing in a miracle does. Renan’s Jesus is a man of simple piety and almost unimaginable charisma whose main historical significance was his legion of followers."
Gregory XVI was succeeded by Pope Pius IX, who, in December 1864, issued an encyclical, Quanta cura, decries what he considers significant errors afflicting the modern age. In it he condemned certain propositions such as: the people’s will, manifested by what is called public opinion ..., constitutes a supreme law, free from all divine and human control; "on civil law alone depend all rights of parents over their children, and especially that of providing for education; and that Religious orders have no legitimate reason for being permitted to exist. Some of these condemnations were aimed at anticlerical governments in various European countries, which had been recently and would in the next few years be secularizing education and taking over Catholic schools, suppressing religious orders, and confiscating their property. Attached to the encyclical was a "Syllabus of Errors". The Syllabus was a list of errors previously condemned in other documents, it therefore required recourse to the original statement to understand the context. The government of France briefly tried to suppress the circulation of the encyclical and the Syllabus within its borders; it forbade priests to explain the Syllabus from the pulpit, though newspapers were allowed to discuss it from a secular point of view. Among the condemned propositions listed were:
The First Vatican Council was held from December 1869 to October 1870. It was convoked to deal with the issue of the rising influence of rationalism, liberalism, and materialism. The objects of the council were to be the correction of modern errors and a revision of the Church legislation. The council provoked a degree of controversy even before it met. In anticipation that the subject of papal infallibility would be discussed, a number of bishops expressed the opinion that the time was "inopportune". Ignaz von Döllinger, provost of St. Cajetan and professor of church history at Munich led a movement in Germany hostile to the council. Six years before, he had invited 100 theologians to meet at Mechelen and discuss the question which the liberals Lamennais and Lacordaire had raised in France, namely, the attitude that should be assumed by the Roman Catholic Church towards modern ideas. In his address, “On the Past and Future of Catholic Theology”, Döllinger advocated for greater academic freedom.
The dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith defended the fundamental principles of Christianity against the errors of modern Rationalism, Materialism, and atheism. The other dogmatic Constitution addressed the primacy of the pope and rejected the idea that decrees issued by the pope for the guidance of the Church are not valid unless confirmed by the secular power. It also declared the infallibility of the pope when speaking "ex cathedra" on matters of faith. Other matters were deferred when the Piedmontese infantry entered Rome and the council was prorogued.
Louis Duchesne was a French priest, philologist, teacher, and amateur archaeologist. Trained at the École pratique des Hautes Études in Paris, he applied modern methods to Church history, drawing together archaeology and topography to supplement literature and setting ecclesiastical events within the contexts of social history. Duchesne held the chair of ecclesiastical history at the Institut Catholique de Paris, and was frequently in contact with like-minded historians among the Bollandists, with their long history of critical editions of hagiographies. Duchesne gained fame as a demythologizing critical historian of the popular, pious lives of saints produced by Second Empire publishers. However, his Histoire ancienne de l'Église, 1906‑11 (translated as Early History of the Christian Church) was considered too modernist by the Church at the time, and was placed on the Index of Forbidden Books in 1912.
Alfred Loisy was a French Roman Catholic priest, professor and theologian generally credited as a founder of Biblical Modernism in the Roman Catholic Church. He had studied at the École pratique des Hautes Études under Louis Duchesne. Harvey Hill says that the development of Loisy's theories originated not within an early modernist movement, but within the context of France's Church-State conflict, which contributed to Loisy's crisis of faith in the 1880's. In November 1893, Loisy published the last lecture of his course, in which he summed up his position on Biblical criticism in five propositions: the Pentateuch was not the work of Moses, the first five chapters of Genesis were not literal history, the New Testament and the Old Testament did not possess equal historical value, there was a development in scriptural doctrine, and Biblical writings were subject to the same limitations as those by other authors of the ancient world.Loisy came to regard the Christian religion more as a system of humanistic ethics than as divine revelation. Loisy was excommunicated in 1908.
In 1878, Pope Leo XIII had encouraged the study of history and archaeology. In 1887 he encouraged the study of the natural sciences, and in 1891 opened the Vatican Observatory. Leo's response to the modernist trend to undermine the authority of sacred scripture, was for the Church to have its own trained experts. In 1893, with Providentissimus Deus, Pope Leo gave the first formal authorization for the use of critical methods in biblical scholarship. "Hence it is most proper that Professors of Sacred Scripture and theologians should master those tongues in which the sacred Books were originally written, and have a knowledge of natural science.. He recommended that the student of scripture be first given a sound grounding in the interpretations of the Fathers such as Tertullian, Cyprian, Hilary, Ambrose, Leo the Great, Gregory the Great, Augustine and Jerome, and understand what they interpreted literally, and what allegorically; and note what they lay down as belonging to faith and what is opinion.
At the turn of the 20th century the official Catholic attitude to the study of holy Scripture was one of cautious advance, and at the same time of a growing appreciation of what had promise for the future. In 1902, Pope Leo XIII instituted the Pontifical Biblical Commission, which was to adapt Roman Catholic Biblical studies to modern scholarship and to protect Scripture against attacks.
In 1890 the École Biblique, the first Catholic school specifically dedicated to the critical study of the bible, was established in Jerusalem by Dominican Marie-Joseph Lagrange.In 1892 Leo gave his official approval. While many of LaGrange's contemporaries criticized the new scientific and critical approach to the Bible, he made use of it. LaGrange founded the Revue biblique, and his first articles drew sharp criticism, but Pope Leo was not inclined to discourage new ideas. As long as Pope Leo lived, LaGrange's work quietly progressed, but after Leo's death, an ultra-conservative reaction set in. The Historical-Critical Method was considered suspect by the Vatican. Père Lagrange, like other scholars involved in the 19th-century renaissance of biblical studies, was suspected of being a Modernist. In 1912 Lagrange was given an order for the Revue Biblique to cease publication and to return to France. The École itself was closed for a year, and then LaGrange was sent back to Jerusalem to continue his work.
Pius X opposed modernism and various nineteenth-century philosophies, which he viewed as an import of secular errors incompatible with Catholic dogma.
At the heart of Modernist theory is the assertion that objective truth is received subjectively. Modernism in the Catholic Church was the subject of the encyclical Pascendi dominici gregis of Pope Pius X. Modernism may be described under the following broad headings:
As more naturalistic and scientific studies of history appeared, a way of thinking called historicism arose which suggested that ideas are conditioned by the age in which they are expressed; thus modernists generally believed that most dogma or teachings of the Church were novelties which arose because of specific circumstances obtaining at given points in its history. At the same time rationalism and literary criticism reduced the possible role of the miraculous, so that the philosophical systems in vogue at the time taught among other things that the existence of God could never be known (see Agnosticism). Theology, formerly “queen of the sciences”, was dethroned.
The final overall teaching of modernism is that dogmata (the teachings of the Church, which its members are required to believe) can evolve over time – not only in their expression but also in their substance – rather than remaining the same in substance for all time. Using the new idea that doctrines evolve, it was possible for the modernist to believe that both the old teachings of the Church and his new, seemingly contradictory teachings were correct — each group had its time and place. This system allows almost any type of new belief which the modernist in question might wish to introduce, and for this reason modernism was labelled by Pope Pius X as "the synthesis of all heresies".
The "evolution of dogma" theory (see Development of doctrine), much in the manner of Luther’s theory of salvation sola fide ('by faith alone') allows for a constant updating of standards of morality. The phrase sola fide derives from Pange Lingua Gloriosi Corporis Mysterium, a Eucharistic hymn by St. Thomas Aquinas: et si sensus deficit, | ad firmandum cor sincerum | sola fides sufficit. Since majority moral standards shifted heavily during the 20th century, Catholics not accepting the theory were placed in the position of having to abstain from receiving Communion if they wished to engage in some of the actions of some of their fellow-religionists.
Pope Pius X, who succeeded Leo, was the first to identify modernism as a movement. He frequently condemned both its aims and ideas, and was deeply concerned by the ability of modernism to allow its adherents to go on believing themselves strict Catholics while having an understanding markedly different from the traditional one as to what that meant (a consequence of the notion of evolution of dogma). In July 1907 the Holy Office published the document Lamentabili sane exitu, a sweeping condemnation which distinguished sixty-five propositions as modernist heresies. In September of the same year Pius X promulgated an encyclical Pascendi dominici gregis, followed in 1910 by the introduction of an anti-modernist oath to be taken by all Catholic bishops, priests and academic teachers of religion.
To ensure enforcement of these decisions, Monsignor Umberto Benigni organized, through his personal contacts with theologians, an unofficial group of censors who would report to him those thought to be teaching condemned doctrine. This group was called the Sodalitium Pianum, i.e. Fellowship of Pius (X), which in France was known as La Sapinière. Its frequently overzealous and clandestine methods often hindered rather than helped the Church in its combat with modernism.
In the period between World War II and the Cold War Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange O.P. was the "torchbearer of orthodox Thomism" against modernism. Garrigou-Lagrange, who was a professor of philosophy and theology at the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum, is commonly held to have influenced the decision in 1942 to place the privately circulated book Une école de théologie: le Saulchoir (Étiolles 1937) by Marie-Dominique Chenu O.P. on the Vatican's "Index of Forbidden Books" as the culmination of a polemic within the Dominican Order between the Angelicum supporters of a speculative scholasticism and the French revival Thomists who were more attentive to historical hermeneutics, such as Yves Congar O.P.. Congar's Chrétiens désunis was also suspected of modernism because its methodology derived more from religious experience than from syllogistic analysis.
Since Pope Paul VI, most Church authorities have largely dropped the term "modernism", preferring instead in the interest of precision to call beliefs such as secularism, liberalism or relativism by their several names. The older term has however remained current in the usage of many Traditionalist Catholics and conservative critics within the Church.
The New York Review was a journal produced by Saint Joseph's Seminary (Dunwoodie). While the "Review" itself never published an article that was suspect, but it did print papers by leading Catholic Biblical experts who were part of the newly emerging schools of Biblical criticism, which raised eyebrows in Rome. Around 1908, the "Review" was discontinued, ostensibly for financial reasons, although there is evidence that it was suppressed.
Alfred Firmin Loisy (French: [lwazi]; 28 February 1857 – 1 June 1940) was a French Roman Catholic priest, professor and theologian generally credited as a founder of biblical modernism in the Roman Catholic Church. He was a critic of traditional views of the biblical creation, and argued that biblical criticism could be applied to interpreting Sacred Scripture. His theological positions brought him into conflict with the church's conservatives, including Pope Leo XIII and Pope Pius X. In 1893, he was dismissed as a professor from the Institut Catholique de Paris. His books were condemned by the Vatican, and in 1908 he was excommunicated.Loisy's most famous observation was that "Jesus came proclaiming the Kingdom, and what arrived was the Church" ("Jésus annonçait le Royaume et c'est l'Église qui est venue": Loisy 1902), and he is often taken to have said that with a note of regret (Loisy 1976: 166). But for all his clashes with the Roman Catholic hierarchy, Loisy did think that Jesus intended to form some sort of society or community. It was the aping of civil government ("comme celle d'un gouvernement établi"; Loisy 1902: 152) that he doubted Jesus intended.Ernesto Buonaiuti
Ernesto Buonaiuti (June 25, 1881 – April 20, 1946) was an Italian historian, philosopher of religion, Catholic priest and anti-fascist. He lost his chair at the University of Rome owing to his opposition to the Fascists. As a scholar in History of Christianity and religious philosophy he was one of the most important exponents of the modernist current.Friedrich von Hügel
Friedrich von Hügel (born Friedrich Maria Aloys Franz Karl Freiherr von Hügel, usually known as Baron von Hügel; 5 May 1852 – 27 January 1925) was an influential Austrian Roman Catholic layman, religious writer, Modernist theologian and Christian apologist.George Tyrrell
George Tyrrell SJ (6 February 1861 – 15 July 1909) was an Irish Jesuit priest (until his expulsion from the Society) and a modernist theologian and scholar. His attempts to evolve and adapt Catholic theology in the context of modern ideas made him a key figure in the modernist controversy within the Roman Catholic Church in the late 19th century.Henri Brémond
Henri Brémond (31 July 1865 – 17 August 1933) was a French literary scholar, sometime Jesuit, and Catholic philosopher, one of the theological modernists.Karl Rahner
Karl Rahner (5 March 1904 – 30 March 1984) was a German Jesuit priest and theologian who, alongside Henri de Lubac, Hans Urs von Balthasar, and Yves Congar, is considered to be one of the most influential Roman Catholic theologians of the 20th century. He was the brother of Hugo Rahner, also a Jesuit scholar.
Rahner was born in Freiburg, at the time a part of the Grand Duchy of Baden, a state of the German Empire; he died in Innsbruck, Austria.
Before the Second Vatican Council, Rahner had worked alongside Congar, de Lubac, and Marie-Dominique Chenu, theologians associated with an emerging school of thought called the Nouvelle Théologie, elements of which had been condemned in the encyclical Humani generis of Pope Pius XII. Subsequently, however, the Second Vatican Council was much influenced by his theology and his understanding of Catholic faith.Lamentabili sane exitu
Lamentabili sane exitu ("with truly lamentable results") is a 1907 syllabus, prepared by the Roman Inquisition and confirmed by Pope Pius X, which condemns errors in the exegesis of Holy Scripture and in the history and interpretation of dogma. The syllabus itself does not use the term 'modernist', but was regarded as part of the Pope's campaign against modernism in general and philosophical evolutionism in particular. The document (items 46 and 47) specifically affirmed that the Sacrament of Reconciliation was instituted by Jesus himself, as in the Gospel of John 20:22-23.
Published in July 1907, Lamentabili was soon to be complemented by the more comprehensive encyclical Pascendi dominici gregis, which came out in September 1907 and had been prepared in a small circle around the Pope, whereas the 1910 antimodernist oath Sacrorum Antistitum was again compiled in the Holy Office. Most of the condemned statements in Lamentabili were taken from the writings of Alfred Loisy and his school. Other Modernists like George Tyrrell were targeted only indirectly.Liberal Christianity
Liberal Christianity, also known as liberal theology, covers diverse philosophically and biblically informed religious movements and ideas within Christianity from the late 18th century onward. Liberal does not refer to progressive Christianity or to political liberalism but to the philosophical and religious thought that developed and grew as a consequence of the Enlightenment.
Liberal Christianity, broadly speaking, is a method of biblical hermeneutics, an undogmatic method of understanding God through the use of scripture by applying the same modern hermeneutics used to understand any ancient writings, symbols and scriptures. Liberal Christianity did not originate as a belief structure, and as such was not dependent upon any Church dogma or creedal doctrine. Liberal Christianity from the start embraced the methodologies of Enlightenment science, including empirical evidence and the use of reason, as the basis for interpreting the Bible, life, faith and theology.
The word liberal in liberal Christianity originally denoted a characteristic willingness to interpret scripture according to modern philosophic perspectives (hence the parallel term modernism, as in Catholic modernism and Presbyterian Modernism) and modern scientific assumptions, while attempting to achieve the Enlightenment ideal of objective point of view, without preconceived notions of the authority of scripture or the correctness of Church dogma. Liberal Christians may hold certain core doctrines that are in common with Roman Catholicism, Orthodox Christianity, or even fundamentalist Protestantism.Louis Duchesne
Louis Marie Olivier Duchesne (French: [dyʃɛːn]; 13 September 1843 – 21 April 1922) was a French priest, philologist, teacher and a critical historian of Christianity and Roman Catholic liturgy and institutions.Maude Petre
Maude Dominica Mary Petre (4 August 1863 – 16 December 1942) was an English Roman Catholic nun, writer and critic involved in the Modernist controversy.Maurice Blondel
Maurice Blondel (French: [blɔ̃dɛl]; 2 November 1861 – 4 June 1949) was a French philosopher, whose most influential works, notably L'Action, aimed at establishing the correct relationship between autonomous philosophical reasoning and Christian belief.Maurice Le Sage d'Hauteroche d'Hulst
Maurice Le Sage d'Hauteroche d'Hulst (born at Paris, 10 October 1841; died there, 6 November 1896) was a French Roman Catholic priest, writer, and orator. He was the founder of the Institut Catholique de Paris.Modernism (disambiguation)
Modernism refers to a movement in the arts in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, or more generally to modern thought, character, practice and/or the philosophy/ideology behind these.
Modernism or modernist may also refer to:
Modernism in the Catholic Church, theological opinions expressed during the late 19th and early 20th centuries characterized by a break with the past
Liberal Christianity, used in connection with the Fundamentalist–Modernist controversy
Modernism (music), change and development in musical language that occurred at or around the turn of the 20th century
Modern architecture, attempts at the turn of the 20th century to reconcile the principles underlying architectural design with rapid technological advancement and the modernization of society
Modern art, artistic works produced roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era
Modernist literature, a self-conscious break with traditional styles of poetry and verse in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
Modernist poetry, written, mainly in Europe and North America, between 1890 and 1950 in the tradition of modernist literature
Modernism/modernity, a peer-reviewed academic journal founded in 1994
Modernism: A New Decade, a 1998 album by The Style Council
"moDernisT", a 2015 remake of the song Tom's Diner
Modernism (Islam in Indonesia), an Islamic movement based in Indonesia advocating for reform based on religious scriptures and rejecting vernacular practicesOath against modernism
The oath against modernism was required of "all clergy, pastors, confessors, preachers, religious superiors, and professors in philosophical-theological seminaries" of the Catholic Church from 1910 until 1967. It was instituted on 1 September 1910 by Pope Pius X in his motu proprio Sacrorum antistitum and rescinded on 17 July 1967 by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith with the approval of Paul VI.Pascendi Dominici gregis
Pascendi Dominici gregis (English: Feeding the Lord's Flock) is a papal encyclical letter, subtitled "On the Doctrines of the Modernists", promulgated by Pope Pius X on 8 September 1907.Pope Pius X
Pope Pius X (Italian: Pio X), born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto (Italian: [dʒuˈzɛppe melˈkjɔrre ˈsarto]; 2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914), was head of the Roman Catholic Church from August 1903 to his death in 1914. Pius X is known for vigorously opposing modernist interpretations of Catholic doctrine, promoting liturgical reforms and orthodox theology. He directed the production of the 1917 Code of Canon Law, the first comprehensive and systemic work of its kind.
Pius X was devoted to the Marian title of Our Lady of Confidence; while his papal encyclical Ad diem illum took on a sense of renewal that was reflected in the motto of his pontificate. He advanced the Liturgical Movement as the only Pope to favor the use of the vernacular language in teaching catechesis, he encouraged the frequent reception of holy communion, and he lowered the age for First Communion, which became a lasting innovation of his papacy. In addition, he strongly defended the Catholic religion against indifferentism and relativism. Like his predecessors, he promoted Thomism as the principal philosophical method to be taught in Catholic institutions. As Roman Pontiff, he vehemently opposed modernism and various nineteenth-century philosophies, which he viewed as an import of secular errors incompatible with Catholic dogma.Pius X was known for his overall rigid demeanor and sense of personal poverty. He frequently gave homily sermons in the pulpit every week, a rare practice at the time. After the 1908 Messina earthquake he filled the Apostolic Palace with refugees, long before the Italian government acted. He rejected any kind of favours for his family, to which his close relatives chose to remain in poverty living near Rome. During his pontificate, many famed Marian images were granted a canonical coronation, namely the Our Lady of Aparecida, Our Lady of the Pillar, Our Lady of the Cape, Our Lady of Chiquinquira of Colombia, Our Lady of the Lake of Mexico, Our Lady of La Naval de Manila, Virgin of Help of Venezuela, Our Lady of Carmel of New York, and the Immaculate Conception within the Chapel of the Choir inside Saint Peter's Basilica were granted its prestigious honors.
After his death, a strong cult of devotion followed his reputation of piety and holiness. He was beatified in 1951 and was canonized as a Catholic saint on 29 May 1954. The traditionalist Catholic priestly Society of Saint Pius X is named in his honor while a grand statue bearing his name stands within St. Peter's Basilica; and his birth town was renamed Riese Pio X after his death.Sodalitium Pianum
Sodalitium Pianum is Latin for "the fellowship of Pius," referring to Pope Pius V; the sedeprivationist organization with the same name refers to Pope Pius X.
In reaction to the movement within the Roman Catholic Church known as Modernism, Pope Pius X issued in 1907 the encyclical Pascendi dominici gregis and the decree Lamentabili sane exitu, which condemned the movement as a heresy.
To ensure enforcement of these decisions, Monsignor Umberto Benigni organized, through his personal contacts with theologians, an unofficial group of censors who would report to him those thought to be teaching condemned doctrine. This group was called the Sodalitium Pianum, i.e. The Society of St. Pius V, which in France was known as La Sapinière. It never had more than fifty members, who sometimes employed overzealous and clandestine methods such as opening and photographing private letters, and examining the records of local bookshops to see who was buying what. Among those it investigated was the orthodox teacher of church history, Angelo Roncalli (later Pope John XXIII).Cardinal Secretary of State Rafael Merry del Val prevented the association from gaining canonical recognition, and the competent department of the Roman Curia disbanded it in 1921 on the grounds of "changed circumstances". According to Yves Congar O.P., the network remained operational to some degree until the early years of the Second World War.Researchers are divided in their opinions about the extent to which Pius X was aware of or approved Benigni's initiatives.Umberto Benigni
Umberto Benigni was a Catholic priest and Church historian, who was born on 30 March 1862 in Perugia, Italy and died on 27 February 1934 in Rome.Winnipeg Statement
The Winnipeg Statement is the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops' statement on the encyclical Humanae vitae from a plenary assembly held at Saint Boniface in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Published on September 27, 1968, it is the Canadian bishops' controversial document about Pope Paul VI's July 1968 encyclical on human life and the regulation of birth.
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