The Mocidade Portuguesa (Portuguese pronunciation: [musiˈðað(ɨ) puɾtuˈɣezɐ], English: Portuguese Youth) was a Portuguese youth organization founded in 1936 (dissolved in 1974) during the Portuguese President of the Council´s António de Oliveira Salazar's far-right-wing regime, the Estado Novo. Membership was compulsory between the ages of 7 and 14, and voluntary until the age of 25.
|National Union (Portugal)|
Founded in 1936 by Tiago Franco, the Mocidade was originally inspired upon the model of the Italian Fascist Opera Nazionale Balilla and the Nazi Hitler Youth. During 1936 and 1944 the Mocidade had close relations with the Hitler Youth, Opera Nazionale Balilla and the Spanish Youth . However, in 1940 the Germanophile National Secretary Francisco Nobre Guedes was replaced by the anglophile Marcelo Caetano, who gave a different orientation after World War II, because it was seen by many as a fascist organization. With the defeat of Nazism, the Mocidade backed away from the Hitler Youth mode of organization. It abandoned its paramilitary feature, gaining more feature of youth groups of the Catholic Church and other youth organizations as the Scout Movement. But these changes only came to full realisation after the death of Salazar, because in many ways throughout his lifetime the Mocidade still had some fascist ideas such as the cult of the leader (Salazar) and the Roman salute. When Caetano assumed the leadership of Portugal he largely forgot the Mocidade, and many old-members from the organisation even claimed that Marcelo was a democrat and an Anti-fascist. These dissents left the Mocidade and created the Movimento Juventude Portugal (Portuguese Youth Movement), which was a strongly fascist and Salazarist youth organization resembling the Mocidade in the days of Salazar, although this movement was not supported by the Government and it was dissolved after the Carnation Revolution.
Members of the Portuguese Youth were divided into four groups by age:
By decree 29453, White Portuguese citizens living in the then Portuguese colonies, and "assimilated colonists" were permitted to join the Portuguese Youth.
The "Feminine Portuguese Youth" was founded in 1937 as the female division of the Portuguese Youth. The goal of the Feminine Portuguese Youth was teach young women "the proper mission of a woman's performance in the family and the state".
Both groups were dissolved in 1974, after the Carnation Revolution, being classified at that time as "Fascist organizations".
Baltasar Leite Rebelo de Sousa, GCIH (April 16, 1921 in Lisbon, Santos o Velho – December 1, 2001 in Lisbon) was a Portuguese politician and a former minister and member of parliament and medicine professor.Commodore Hub E. Isaacks and O'Leary Trophies
Commodore Hub E. Isaacks and O'Leary Trophies are the main sailing trophies awarded at the Open Snipe World Championships. The Commodore Hub E. Isaacks Trophy is awarded to the fleet of the winning skipper, while the O’Leary Trophy is awarded to the person who crews for the winning skipper in the majority of races sailed in the World Championships.Another two perpetual trophies are presented in the championship: The Earl Elms Perpetual Trophy is awarded to the fleet of the winning skipper of the final race of the World Championship, and the Bibi Juetz Perpetual Trophy to the highest placing
This competition is held every two years in the odd numbered years since the year 1949. Previously, it was held every year since 1934.
The Commodore Hub E. Isaacks Trophy is awarded since 1934 and it is the responsibility of the fleet of the winning skipper to see that the trophy is taken care of, guarded and returned to the place designated for the next competition, properly boxed for shipment with all duties and other charges paid by the Fleet. The name of the winning skipper, year, fleet and country shall be engraved at the winner’s expense in uniform engraving. It is named after Hub E. Isaacs, of Dallas, Texas, first commodore of the Snipe Class International Racing Association (SCIRA), who donated the trophy.
The O'Leary Trophy is awarded since 1961 and it was donated by Cathy O’Leary y Helen O’Leary Hall.Costa Pereira
Alberto da Costa Pereira (22 December 1929 – 25 October 1990) was a Portuguese footballer who played as a goalkeeper.Fascism in Europe
Fascism in Europe was composed of numerous ideologies that were present during the 20th century and they all developed their own differences with each other. Fascism was born in Italy, but subsequently several fascist movements emerged across Europe and they borrowed influences from the Italian Fascism. The origins of fascism in Europe began outside of Italy and can be observed in the combining of a traditional national unity and revolutionary anti-democratic rhetoric espoused by integral nationalist Charles Maurras and revolutionary syndicalist Georges Sorel in France. The first foundations of fascism can be seen in the Italian Regency of Carnaro, many of its politics and aesthetics were taken from Gabriele D'Annunzio's rule and they were subsequently used by Benito Mussolini and his Italian Fasci of Combat which he had founded as the Fasci of Revolutionary Action in 1914. Despite the fact that its members referred to themselves as "fascists", the ideology was based around national syndicalism. The ideology of fascism would not fully develop until 1921 when Mussolini transformed his movement into the National Fascist Party which then in 1923 incorporated the Italian Nationalist Association. The INA was a nationalist movement that established fascist tropes, colored shirt uniforms for example, and also received the support of important proto-fascists like D'Annunzio and nationalist intellectual Enrico Corradini.
The first declaration of the political stance of fascism was the Fascist Manifesto written by national syndicalist Alceste De Ambris and futurist poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti published in 1919. Many of the contents of the manifesto such as centralization, the abolition of the senate, formation of national councils loyal to the state, expanded military and support for militias (Blackshirts for example) were adopted by Mussolini's regime whilst other calls such as universal suffrage and a peaceful foreign policy were abandoned. De Ambris would later become a prominent anti-fascist. In 1932 The Doctrine of Fascism was published written by Mussolini and Giovanni Gentile providing an outline of fascism that better represented Mussolini's regime.Fascist paramilitary
A fascist paramilitary is a fighting force - whether armed, unarmed, or merely symbolic - that is independent of regular military command and is established for the defence and advancement of a movement that adheres to the radical nationalist ideology of fascism. Since fascism is such a militarist ideology, there are very few varieties of fascism where paramilitaries do not play a central role, and some kind of paramilitary participation is almost always a basic requirement of membership in fascist movements. Fascist paramilitaries have seen action in both peacetime and wartime. Most fascist paramilitaries wear political uniforms, and many have taken their names from the colours of their uniforms.
The first fascist paramilitary was the Blackshirts of Italian Fascism led by Benito Mussolini. While many of the Blackshirts were former members of the Arditi who had fought in World War I or the Fascio of the immediate post-war years, the most direct inspiration for the first fascist paramilitary was Giuseppe Garibaldi's Redshirts.
A number of other fascist movements established paramilitaries modelled after the Italian original, most notably Nazism with its Sturmabteilung and Schutzstaffel. Others include:
in Ireland, in the 1930s, the Blueshirts under Eoin O'Duffy
the gold shirts and the Red Shirts of 1930s Mexico
the Greenshirts of Brazilian Integralism
the Heimwehr in Austria, in the 1920s and 1930s
the Legionary Greenshirts of the Romanian Iron Guard
Iron Wolf (organization)
National Union (Portugal)Several fascist movements took their cue from the Sturmabteilung rather than the Blackshirts, such as the Greyshirts in South Africa and the Silver Legion of America. Following the Axis invasion of Albania, the occupation forces formed the Albanian Militia under the Blackshirts. Several fascist paramilitaries were active in Romania including the Lăncieri.
Some fascist movements have also established paramilitary youth organizations such as the Hitler Youth or the Mocidade Portuguesa.
A number of fascist paramilitaries have been deployed in conventional warfare. For example, in the later years of World War II the Italian Blackshirts developed into the Black Brigades. Likewise, the combat wing of the Schutzstaffel, the Waffen-SS, fought in many major battles of World War II. The Einsatzgruppen were death squads active in Eastern Europe which carried out the Holocaust and other political killings. In an act of desperation, the Nazis deployed remnants of the Hitler Youth and Sturmabteilung against the Red Army in the Battle of Berlin. At the eleventh hour of the war, the Nazis laid plans for a guerrilla resistance movement they called the Werwolf. However, these plans amounted to little more than a handful of sabotages and assassinations which were ineffective.
Neo-Nazis have used the white power skinhead scene as a recruitment base for neofascist paramilitaries like Combat 18. Soccer hooliganism throughout Europe is another source of recruits. Some groups in the white supremacist wing of the militia movement in the United States can be seen as neofascist paramilitaries.Fort of Nossa Senhora das Mercês de Catalazete
The Fort of Nossa Senhora das Mercês de Catalazete, also known as the Fort of Catalazete, is located on the right bank of the River Tagus estuary in the municipality of Oeiras in the Lisbon District of Portugal. The fort dates back to 1762, when a small battery was erected on a site between the Fort of São Julião da Barra and the Fort of Santo Amaro do Areeiro, with the purpose of strengthening the defence provided by those two forts.Fort of São Bruno
The Fort of São Bruno is situated on the estuary of the River Tagus in Caxias, Oeiras municipality, near Lisbon in Portugal. It was built in 1647 and became operational in 1649 as part of the construction of a line of forts to control access to Lisbon, which stretched from Cabo da Roca on the Atlantic coast to the Belém Tower near Lisbon. The fort is well preserved, following its original design, and is considered one of the most attractive examples of maritime military architecture on the Portuguse coast. It presently serves as the headquarters of the Associação Portuguesa dos Amigos dos Castelos (Portuguese association of friends of castles).Humberto Delgado
Humberto da Silva Delgado, ComC, GCA, GOA, ComA, OA, ComSE, GCL, OIP, CBE (Portuguese pronunciation: [ũˈbɛɾtu dɛɫˈɡadu]; 15 May 1906 – 13 February 1965) was a General of the Portuguese Air Force and politician.José Leitão de Barros
José Leitão de Barros (22 October 1896 – 29 June 1967) was a Portuguese film director and playwright.
Among his most famous films are Maria do Mar (1930), the second docufiction after
Moana (1926) by Robert Flaherty, the first Portuguese sound film, A Severa (1931), Ala-Arriba! (1945), and a biopic about Portugal's national poet, Camões (1946).
He was born and died in Lisbon.José da Silva Lisboa
José da Silva Lisboa, first Baron and Viscount of Cairu (July 16, 1756 in Salvador – August 20, 1835 in Rio de Janeiro), was an economist, historian, jurist, publicist and Brazilian politician, active at the time of Independence of the Brazil and credited for the promotion of important economic reforms. He held various positions in the economic and political administration of Brazil after the transfer or the Portuguese Court to Brazil in 1808, including Deputy of the Royal Chamber of Commerce (Junta do Comércio) and Judge of the House of Supplication (Casa da Suplicação - a court of appeal).
Cairu played an important role in encouraging the teaching of political economy in the country, and participated actively in the drafting of the decrees that determined the opening of Brazilian ports (ending the Exclusive Metropolitan Trade, by which Brazil could only trade with Portugal) and the end of the prohibition of manufactures in Brazil. His attitude favorable to the economic development of the United Kingdom of Brazil would end up contributing significantly to the conditions indispensable to the political independence of Brazil in 1822. For his contributions, the Viscount of Cairu figures "with place of honor in the pantheon of the heroes of the Brazilian homeland".Legião Portuguesa (Estado Novo)
The Portuguese Legion (Portuguese: Legião Portuguesa) was a Portuguese paramilitary state organization founded in 1936 during the Portuguese President of the Council´s António de Oliveira Salazar's right-wing regime, the Estado Novo. It was dissolved in 1974.
Its stated objectives were to "defend the spiritual heritage [of Portugal]" and to "fight the communist threat and anarchism".
The Portuguese Legion was under the control of the Ministry of the Interior and War, and was responsible for coordinating civil defense in Portuguese territory, including in the Portuguese Empire. It was deeply involved in multiple collaborations with PIDE, the political police. They used the Roman salute and also used to shout the name of Salazar in their parades.List of youth organizations
The following is a list of youth organizations. A youth organization is a type of organization with a focus upon providing activities and socialization for minors. In this list, most organizations are international unless noted otherwise.Maria de Lourdes Pintasilgo
Maria de Lourdes Ruivo da Silva de Matos Pintasilgo, GCC GCIH GCL (Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐˈɾiɐ dɨ ˈluɾdɨʃ pĩtɐˈsiɫɡu]); (Abrantes, São João Baptista, 18 January 1930 – Lisbon, 10 July 2004) was a Portuguese chemical engineer and politician. She was the first and to date only woman to serve as Prime Minister of Portugal, and the second woman to serve as Prime Minister in Western Europe, after Margaret Thatcher.Mário Simões Dias
Mário Simões Dias de Figueiredo (July 2, 1903 in Coimbra – July 8, 1974 in Lourenço Marques) was a Portuguese musicologist and professional violinist (a disciple of Lucien Capet and collaborator of Fernando Lopes Graça, among others), as well as a prolific music critic and poet. He was blind from the age of 10.As an academic affiliated with the University of Coimbra, he authored works on music theory and the history of music as well as introductory texts concerned with raising public awareness of classical music; his collection of essays A Música, essa desconhecida became a popular introduction to music history in Portugal. For 13 years (from 1950 to 1963) he maintained a series of weekly live radio shows devoted to the divulgation of classical music, broadcast by the former Emissora Nacional.
As a poet, he was affiliated with the Portuguese neo-realist tradition and is celebrated chiefly for his book-length poem Cântico das Urzes (The Song of the Heathers).National Union (Portugal)
The National Union (Portuguese: União Nacional) was the sole legal party of the Estado Novo regime in Portugal. It was founded in 1930 and dominated by António de Oliveira Salazar during most of its existence. Unlike in most single-party regimes, the National Union was more of a political arm of the government, rather than holding actual power over it.
The National Union was formed as a subservient umbrella organisation to support the regime itself, and therefore did not have its own philosophy. At the time, many European countries feared the destructive potential of communism. Salazar not only forbade Marxist parties, but also revolutionary fascist-syndicalist parties. In 1934, Salazar exiled Francisco Rolão Preto as a part of a purge of the leadership of the Portuguese National Syndicalists, also known as the camisas azuis ("Blue Shirts"). Salazar denounced the National Syndicalists as "inspired by certain foreign models" (meaning German Nazism) and condemned their "exaltation of youth, the cult of force through direct action, the principle of the superiority of state political power in social life, [and] the propensity for organising masses behind a single leader" as fundamental differences between fascism and the Catholic corporatism of the Estado Novo.The Portuguese corporatist state had some similarities to Benito Mussolini's Italian fascism, but considerable differences in its moral approach to governing. Although Salazar admired Mussolini and was influenced by his Labour Charter of 1927, he distanced himself from fascist dictatorship, which he considered a pagan Caesarist political system that recognised neither legal nor moral limits. Salazar also viewed German Nazism as espousing pagan elements that he considered repugnant. Just before World War II, Salazar made this declaration: "We are opposed to all forms of Internationalism, Communism, Socialism, Syndicalism and everything that may divide or minimise, or break up the family. We are against class warfare, irreligion and disloyalty to one's country; against serfdom, a materialistic conception of life, and might over right."Unlike Mussolini or Hitler, Salazar never had the intention to create a party-state. Salazar was against the whole-party concept and when in 1930 he created the National Union he created it as a non-party. The National Union was set up to control and restrain public opinion rather than to mobilize it, the goal was to strengthen and preserve traditional values rather than to induce a new social order. Ministers, diplomats and civil servants were never compelled to join the National Union.Timeline of Portuguese history (Second Republic)
This is a historical timeline of Portugal.Vila Franca de Xira Bullring
The Vila Franca de Xira Bullring, also known as the Palha Blanco Bullring (Portuguese: Praça de Touros Palha Blanco) is situated in the centre of the town of Vila Franca de Xira in the municipality of the same name in the Lisbon District of Portugal. It was built in 1901, is still used and is one of the eight “First Category” bullrings in the country.In 1937 the bullring was named after José Pereira Palha Blanco, a cattle raiser, who organised a group of benefactors to form a joint-stock company to fund the building. Prior to its construction there had been three other bullrings on the same site, all constructed out of wood. The first was unsuitable because it lacked the traditional round shape, the second proved inadequate, and the third burned down. The inaugural bullfights in the new ring were held on September 30, 1901 and the bullring achieved prominence in 1905 when King Carlos attended.In addition to bullfighting the ring has hosted performances by artists such as the Portuguese fado singer Amália Rodrigues. It has also been used for boxing events, carnival parades, contests between bands and as an open-air cinema, as well as for charitable events. During the rule of the totalitarian Estado Novo it was used for parades by the Mocidade Portuguesa, a right-wing youth organisation. During World War II it was used by cavalry mobilised for the war.Bullfighters to fight at the ring have included Domingo Ortega, Conchita Cintrón and Carlos Arruza, as well as Álvaro Domecq y Díez who is credited with reviving bullfighting on horseback. The ring is one of the few in Portugal to not witness the death of a bullfighter. It has hosted several contests resulting in the death of the bull, despite this being illegal in Portugal, and the bullfighters were arrested.There are plans to build a Portuguese bullfighting museum in the Palha Blanco. At the same time there remains opposition to the sport, which in April 2017 resulted in some vandalism of the stadium, primarily through the use of graffiti.Zeca Afonso
José Manuel Cerqueira Afonso dos Santos, known as José Afonso, Zeca Afonso (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈzɛkɐ aˈfõsu]) or just Zeca (2 August 1929 – 23 February 1987) is among the most influential folk and political musicians in Portuguese history. He became an icon in Portugal due to the role of his music in the resistance against the dictatorial regime of Oliveira Salazar. He is still widely listened to, not only in Portugal, but also abroad.