A mobile app or mobile application is a computer program or software application designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone/tablet or watch. Apps were originally intended for productivity assistance such as Email, calendar, and contact databases, but the public demand for apps caused rapid expansion into other areas such as mobile games, factory automation, GPS and location-based services, order-tracking, and ticket purchases, so that there are now millions of apps available. Apps are generally downloaded from application distribution platforms which are operated by the owner of the mobile operating system, such as the App Store (iOS) or Google Play Store. Some apps are free, and others have a price, with the profit being split between the application's creator and the distribution platform. Mobile applications often stand in contrast to desktop applications which are designed to run on desktop computers, and web applications which run in mobile web browsers rather than directly on the mobile device.
In 2009, technology columnist David Pogue said that newer smartphones could be nicknamed "app phones" to distinguish them from earlier less-sophisticated smartphones. The term "app", short for "software application", has since become very popular; in 2010, it was listed as "Word of the Year" by the American Dialect Society.
Most mobile devices are sold with several apps bundled as pre-installed software, such as a web browser, email client, calendar, mapping program, and an app for buying music, other media, or more apps. Some pre-installed apps can be removed by an ordinary uninstall process, thus leaving more storage space for desired ones. Where the software does not allow this, some devices can be rooted to eliminate the undesired apps.
Apps that are not preinstalled are usually available through distribution platforms called app stores. They began appearing in 2008 and are typically operated by the owner of the mobile operating system, such as the Apple App Store, Google Play, Windows Phone Store, and BlackBerry App World. However, there are independent app stores, such as Cydia, GetJar and F-Droid. Some apps are free, while others must be bought. Usually, they are downloaded from the platform to a target device, but sometimes they can be downloaded to laptops or desktop computers. For apps with a price, generally a percentage, 20-30%, goes to the distribution provider (such as iTunes), and the rest goes to the producer of the app. The same app can, therefore, cost a different price depending on the mobile platform.
Apps can also be installed manually, for example by running an Android application package on Android devices.
Mobile apps were originally offered for general productivity and information retrieval, including email, calendar, contacts, the stock market and weather information. However, public demand and the availability of developer tools drove rapid expansion into other categories, such as those handled by desktop application software packages. As with other software, the explosion in number and variety of apps made discovery a challenge, which in turn led to the creation of a wide range of review, recommendation, and curation sources, including blogs, magazines, and dedicated online app-discovery services. In 2014 government regulatory agencies began trying to regulate and curate apps, particularly medical apps. Some companies offer apps as an alternative method to deliver content with certain advantages over an official website.
With a growing number of mobile applications available at app stores and the improved capabilities of smartphones, people are downloading more applications to their devices. Usage of mobile apps has become increasingly prevalent across mobile phone users. A May 2012 comScore study reported that during the previous quarter, more mobile subscribers used apps than browsed the web on their devices: 51.1% vs. 49.8% respectively. Researchers found that usage of mobile apps strongly correlates with user context and depends on user's location and time of the day. Mobile apps are playing an ever-increasing role within healthcare and when designed and integrated correctly can yield many benefits.
Market research firm Gartner predicted that 102 billion apps would be downloaded in 2013 (91% of them free), which would generate $26 billion in the US, up 44.4% on 2012's US$18 billion. By Q2 2015, the Google Play and Apple stores alone generated $5 billion. An analyst report estimates that the app economy creates revenues of more than €10 billion per year within the European Union, while over 529,000 jobs have been created in 28 EU states due to the growth of the app market.
There are mainly three kinds of apps- Native, Hybrid and Web-based.
All Apps targeted towards particular mobile platforms are known as Native apps. Therefore, an App meant for Apple device will never open in Android devices. This is why most businesses develop apps for multiple platforms.
While developing native apps, professionals incorporate best-in-class user interface modules. This accounts for better performance, consistency and good user experience. Users also benefit from wider access to Apps Program Interfaces (APIs) and make limitless use of all Apps from the particular device. Further, they also switch over from one app to another effortlessly.
The main purpose behind creating such apps is to ensure best performance for specific mobile operating system.
Concept of Hybrid Apps is a mix of native and web-based apps. Apps developed using Xamarin, React Native, Sencha Touch and other similar technology fall within this category.
These are made to support web and native technologies across multiple platforms, hence the name hybrid. Moreover, these apps are easier and faster to develop. It involves use of single code which works in multiple mobile operating systems.
Despite such advantages, hybrid apps are slower in speed and performance. Often, apps fail to bear the same look n feel in different mobile operating systems.
By default, these Apps captures minimum memory space in the user devices compared to Native and Hybrid Apps. Since all the personal databases are saved on the Internet servers, users can fetch their desired data from any device through internet.
The only con is that app developers don’t get sufficient access to mobile operating system API.
Developing apps for mobile devices requires considering the constraints and features of these devices. Mobile devices run on battery and have less powerful processors than personal computers and also have more features such as location detection and cameras. Developers also have to consider a wide array of screen sizes, hardware specifications and configurations because of intense competition in mobile software and changes within each of the platforms (although these issues can be overcome with mobile device detection).
Mobile application development requires the use of specialized integrated development environments. Mobile apps are first tested within the development environment using emulators and later subjected to field testing. Emulators provide an inexpensive way to test applications on mobile phones to which developers may not have physical access.
Mobile user interface (UI) Design is also essential. Mobile UI considers constraints and contexts, screen, input and mobility as outlines for design. The user is often the focus of interaction with their device, and the interface entails components of both hardware and software. User input allows for the users to manipulate a system, and device's output allows the system to indicate the effects of the users' manipulation. Mobile UI design constraints include limited attention and form factors, such as a mobile device's screen size for a user's hand. Mobile UI contexts signal cues from user activity, such as location and scheduling that can be shown from user interactions within a mobile application. Overall, mobile UI design's goal is primarily for an understandable, user-friendly interface.
Mobile UIs, or front-ends, rely on mobile back-ends to support access to enterprise systems. The mobile back-end facilitates data routing, security, authentication, authorization, working off-line, and service orchestration. This functionality is supported by a mix of middleware components including mobile app servers, Mobile Backend as a service (MBaaS), and SOA infrastructure.
Conversational interfaces display the computer interface and present interactions through text instead of graphic elements. They emulate conversations with real humans. There are two main types of conversational interfaces: voice assistants (like the Amazon Echo) and chatbots.
David Limp, Amazon's senior vice president of devices, says in an interview with Bloomberg, "We believe the next big platform is voice."
Google Play (formerly known as the Android Market) is an international online software store developed by Google for Android devices. It opened in October 2008. In July 2013, the number of apps downloaded via the Google Play Store surpassed 50 billion, of the over 1 million apps available. As of September 2016, according to Statista the number of apps available exceeded 2.4 million. The store generated a revenue of 6 billion U.S. dollars in 2015.
Apple's App Store for iOS was not the first app distribution service, but it ignited the mobile revolution and was opened on July 10, 2008, and as of September 2016, reported over 140 billion downloads. The original AppStore was first demonstrated to Steve Jobs in 1993 by Jesse Tayler at NeXTWorld Expo As of June 6, 2011, there were 425,000 apps available, which had been downloaded by 200 million iOS users. During Apple's 2012 Worldwide Developers Conference, CEO Tim Cook announced that the App Store has 650,000 available apps to download as well as 30 billion apps downloaded from the app store until that date. From an alternative perspective, figures seen in July 2013 by the BBC from tracking service Adeven indicate over two-thirds of apps in the store are "zombies", barely ever installed by consumers.
Microsoft Store (formerly known as the Windows Store) was introduced by Microsoft in 2012 for its Windows 8 and Windows RT platforms. While it can also carry listings for traditional desktop programs certified for compatibility with Windows 8, it is primarily used to distribute "Windows Store apps"—which are primarily built for use on tablets and other touch-based devices (but can still be used with a keyboard and mouse, and on desktop computers and laptops).
Mobile application management (MAM) describes software and services responsible for provisioning and controlling access to internally developed and commercially available mobile apps used in business settings. The strategy is meant to off-set the security risk of a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) work strategy. When an employee brings a personal device into an enterprise setting, mobile application management enables the corporate IT staff to transfer required applications, control access to business data, and remove locally cached business data from the device if it is lost, or when its owner no longer works with the company. Containerization is an alternate BYOD security solution. Rather than controlling an employees entire device, containerization apps create isolated and secure pockets separate from all personal data. Company control of the device only extends to that separate container.
Especially when employees "bring your own device", mobile apps can be a significant security risk for businesses, because they transfer unprotected sensitive data to the Internet without knowledge and consent of the users. Reports of stolen corporate data show how quickly corporate and personal data can fall into the wrong hands. Data theft is not just the loss of confidential information, but makes companies vulnerable to attack and blackmail.
Professional mobile application management helps companies protect their data. One option for securing corporate data is app wrapping. But there also are some disadvantages like copyright infringement or the loss of warranty rights. Functionality, productivity and user experience are particularly limited under app wrapping. The policies of a wrapped app can't be changed. If required, it must be recreated from scratch, adding cost. An app wrapper is a mobile app made wholly from an existing website or platform, with few or no changes made to the underlying application. The "wrapper" is essentially a new management layer that allows developers to set up usage policies appropriate for app use. Examples of these policies include whether or not authentication is required, allowing data to be stored on the device, and enabling/disabling file sharing between users. Because most app wrappers are often websites first, they often do not align with iOS or Android Developer guidelines.
Alternatively, it is possible to offer native apps securely through enterprise mobility management without limiting the native user experience. This enables more flexible IT management as apps can be easily implemented and policies adjusted at any time.
An application server is a software framework that provides both facilities to create web applications and a server environment to run them.Application Server Frameworks contain a comprehensive service layer model. An application server acts as a set of components accessible to the software developer through a standard API defined for the platform itself. For Web applications, these components are usually performed in the same running environment as their web server(s), and their main job is to support the construction of dynamic pages. However, many application servers target much more than just Web page generation: they implement services like clustering, fail-over, and load-balancing, so developers can focus on implementing the business logic.In the case of Java application servers, the server behaves like an extended virtual machine for running applications, transparently handling connections to the database on one side, and, often, connections to the Web client on the other.Other uses of the term may refer to the services that a server makes available or the computer hardware on which the services run.CricBuzz
CricBuzz is a sports news website and app covering the game of cricket exclusively. The site features news, articles, live coverage of cricket matches (including videos,scorecards and text commentary), player rankings and team rankings. The website also offers many mobile apps. CricBuzz is also the largest mobile app for cricket news and scores in India.Google Trips
Google Trips is a trip planner mobile app developed by Google for the Android and iOS operating systems. The mobile app launched on September 19, 2016 for Android and iOS.HOOQ
HOOQ (pronounced as hook) is a video on demand streaming service. It is a joint-venture of Sony Pictures, Warner Bros., and Singtel. HOOQ is Asia's first premium video-on-demand service to launch across the South East Asia and India.Hello (social network)
hello is a social networking service founded by Orkut Büyükkökten, the creator of Orkut. The service currently supports access via a mobile app and is available for Android and iOS.List of mobile app distribution platforms
This list of mobile app distribution platforms includes digital distribution platforms that are intended to provide mobile apps to mobile devices. For information on each mobile platform and its market share see the operating systems section of the mobile operating system and smartphone. A comparison of development capabilities of each mobile platform can be found in the article mobile development. For cross-platform development see multiple phone web-based application framework. The article mobile software contains other general information.Marco Polo (app)
Marco Polo is a video messaging and video hosting service mobile app. The app was created in 2014 by Joya Communications.Joya Communications was founded by Vlada Bortnik and Michael Bortnik. The app markets itself as a video walkie talkie.MobiKwik
MobiKwik is an Indian company founded in 2009 that provides a mobile phone based payment system and digital wallet. Customers add money to an online wallet that can be used for payments. In 2013 the Reserve Bank of India authorized the company's use of the MobiKwik wallet, and in May 2016 the company began providing small loans to consumers as part of its service. The company launched its MobiKwik Lite mobile app in November 2016, designed for users of older 2G mobile networks and for those in areas with poor internet connectivity. In November 2016, the company reported having 1.5 million merchants using its service and a user base of 55 million customers.Mobile app development
Mobile UIs, or front-ends, rely on mobile back-ends to support access to enterprise systems. The mobile back-end facilitates data routing, security, authentication, authorization, working off-line, and service orchestration. This functionality is supported by a mix of middleware components including mobile app server, mobile backend as a service (MBaaS), and service-oriented architecture (SOA) infrastructure.NPR One
NPR One is a mobile app from NPR (National Public Radio), first launched in July 2014, which aims at making it easier for listeners to stream local NPR stations live, and listen to NPR podcasts by autoplaying content and permitting easy navigation.Sencha Touch
Sky On Demand is a video on demand service exclusively available to Sky subscribers in the Philippines. It is owned and operated by Sky Cable Corporation, a subsidiary of ABS-CBN. It allows users who are subscribed to either Sky Cable, Sky Broadband, Sky Direct or Sky Mobi to watched on demand contents from many pan-regional television channels such as ABS-CBN, AXN, Basketball TV, History Channel, Warner TV, Disney Channel, S+A as well as a wide array of foreign and local TV shows and movies from Star Cinema, Paramount Pictures, NBCUniversal, Regal Films, and Viva Films.Users can access the contents of Sky On Demand through either the website interface, the Sky On Demand IPTV set-top box connected to Sky Broadband or through its mobile app available for iOS and Android devices connected to Sky Mobi. The Sky On Demand mobile app can also be accessed through other internet service providers or through WiFi with reduced number of contents.
The multi-screen capability of Sky On Demand allow subscribers to choose which gadget they prefer to watch the contents of Sky. Apart from the multi-screen capability, Sky On Demand has advanced features such as tailor-fit recommendations on what to watch and a resume capability of partially watched programs. The service also creates customized playlists for favorite episodes and movies, and for partially watched videos.Thiruvananthapuram City Police Mobile App
Thiruvananthapuram City Police Mobile App , also known as TCP app, or UR Safe(TM) (previously known as iSafe), is the official mobile application for the citizens and public by the Thiruvananthapuram City Police in Kerala, India. The mobile application is developed by UST Global, a digital technology services company. The ‘UR Safe’ feature of the app helps people, especially women, to send instant alerts to the police control room by using the Panic Button or by a long press of volume rocker (down) key of their mobile phones and police to arrive at the location.VBOX7
VBOX7 (pronounced "vi box sedem" in Bulgarian and "vi box seven" in English) is a popular Bulgarian video platform. As of April 2017, it is the 22nd most popular website in Bulgaria. The website has been 100% owned by the Netinfo company since October 2007.Wedidit
WeDidIt is a New York City-based company founded in 2012 that provides an online platform and a mobile app for nonprofits to raise funds.
It allows nonprofits to launch campaigns online, collect donations through their website, and collect funds and scan credit cards in person through the WeDidIt mobile app.