The Miyako Islands (宮古列島 Miyako-rettō, Miyako: Myaaku, Tarama dialect: Meeku, Okinawan: Naaku) (also Miyako Sima group) are a group of islands in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, belonging to the Ryukyu Islands. They are situated between the Okinawa Island and Yaeyama Islands.
In the early 1870's, the population of the islands was estimated to number about ten thousand. Miyako island has 55,914 people. A bridge connects Miyako Island to Ikema Island, which has 801 people. Tarama village has 1,214 people, between the two islands of Minna and Tarama.
|Native name: |
Map of the Miyako Islands
|Adjacent bodies of water||East China Sea|
|Major islands||Miyako Island, Irabu Island, Tarama Island|
|Area||226.20 km2 (87.34 sq mi)|
|Population||55,522 (January 2018)|
|Pop. density||246.2 /km2 (637.7 /sq mi)|
I was in some hope that, on one of our long tacks, we might have come within view of Kumi, the westernmost island of the Miyako Sima group. It lies about sixty miles east from Dome Point, and has four villages. Two or three of the islands lying further east have a much larger area than Botel Tobago, and the population of the entire group is estimated to number about ten thousand. They are said to be a poor but contented and unarmed race, in appearance similar to the Luchuans (to whom they are subject), but resembling the Japanese more in manners, customs, and language.
The Asiatic toad or Chusan Island toad (Bufo gargarizans) is a species of toad endemic to East Asia. It is common in China (specifically Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, and Zhejiang) and portions of the Russian Far East (up north to the Amur River valley and on Sakhalin Island, and east to Transbaikalia in Siberia), but relatively rare on the Korean Peninsula. Asiatic toads are also found on the Miyako Islands of southern Japan, although they have been extirpated from some islands in recent years, possibly including Okinawa. The Miyako subspecies, Bufo gargarizans miyakonis, is also known as the Miyako toad.The Asiatic toad avoids dense forests, but is found in most other habitats, including grasslands, open forests, meadows, and cultivated areas. It prefers humid areas, and is seldom found at altitudes of more than 800 meters.The Asiatic toad plays an important role in traditional Oriental medicine. An extract of the toxins secreted by the toad, known as toad venom or chan-su, has long been touted for its medicinal properties. In addition, dried toad skins have been prescribed as remedies for dropsy and other ailments. More recently, Western medical science has also taken an interest in the toad. In 1998, an antimicrobial peptide was extracted from the toad, and patented.The species was previously classed as Bufo bufo gargarizans, a subspecies of the common toad.Ikema Island
Ikema Island (池間島, Ikema-jima, Miyako: Ikyaama (イキャーマ)), is located to the north of Miyako Island in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. The island is connected to Miyako Island with a 1,425-metre-long (4,675 ft) bridge, which was completed in February 1992 . There is a pond in the centre of the island. To the north-east is the Ikema-jima Block Beach (池間島ブロックビーチ). The variety of Miyako language spoken here is also called Ikema (Ikima in the vernacular). It is set apart from closely related language variants by its lexical word-tone system.Irabu Island
Irabu Island (伊良部島, Irabu-jima) (Miyako: Irav), is an island in Miyakojima, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. The island is connected to Miyako Island by a 3,540-metre-long (11,610 ft) bridge, which was completed in January 2015 . There are multiple language variants spoken on the island: Nakachi-Irabu, Kuninaka, Sawada-Nakahama, and Sarahama (which is a variant of Ikema language spoken by descendants of emigrants from Ikema Island).Japanese cruiser Miyako
Miyako (宮古) was an unprotected cruiser of the early Imperial Japanese Navy. The name Miyako comes from the Miyako Islands, one of the three island groups making up current Okinawa prefecture. Miyako was used by the Imperial Japanese Navy primarily as an aviso (dispatch boat) for scouting, reconnaissance and delivery of high priority messages.Japanese expatriates in the Solomon Islands
A small, resident expatriate community of Japanese nationals was present in Solomon Islands from the 1970s onwards. Japanese nationals in Solomon Islands are usually employees of fishing corporations that had established branch companies in the country. The majority of them are fishermen from the Miyako Islands in the Ryukyu Islands, as well as a few Japanese mainlanders.Kuichaa
Kuichaa (Miyako:, クイチャー), also known as kuichaa-aagu is a genre of songs from the Miyako Islands, Okinawa Prefecture of southwestern Japan. They are performed by a group of young men and women and usually accompany dancing. Like other songs from the Miyako Islands, they have relatively free verse forms. Although Miyako culture is known for epic songs called aagu, kuichaa lean toward lyric songs.Macaria abydata
Macaria abydata, commonly known as the dot-lined angle, is a moth of the family Geometridae. It is native from northern Argentina to the Caribbean and southern United States (southern states from Arizona to Florida, regularly wandering north to Colorado, Kentucky and other more northern states). It has been introduced to the Pacific and has spread rapidly since. The first introduction occurred in Hawaii in 1970 (recorded from all the main islands in 1984). Further spread occurred as follows:
1975: Yap, central Micronesia
1976: Bonin Islands (Chichi-jima, Haha-jima)
1977: Saipan, central Micronesia (1985)
1980: Okinawa Island
1985: Guam, central Micronesia (1985) Sulawesi (1986)
1986: Tonga (1985), Fiji (1985), Miyako Islands (Miyako-jima), Luzon, the Philippines (1985)
1987: New Caledonia (1985), Sabah, Malaysia
1988: western Samoa (1985)
1992: Hong KongThe wingspan is 22–27 mm.
Recorded host plants for larvae in its natural range are Vachellia farnesiana, Cassia, Sesbania, Parkinsonia aculeata and Glycine max. Larvae have been observed on Acacia koa and introduced Lysiloma latisiliquum and Litchi chinensis in Hawaii. In the Indo-Australian tropics it has been reared from Leucaena and Mimosa diplotricha.Minna Island (Tarama, Okinawa)
Minna Island, or Minnajima (水納島), is an island in the Miyako Islands in the jurisdiction of Tarama, Miyako District, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.Miyako-jima
Miyako Island (宮古島, Miyako-jima, Miyako: Myaaku (ミャーク); Okinawan: Naaku (ナーク)) is the largest and the most populous island among the Miyako Islands of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Miyako Island is administered as part of the City of Miyakojima, which includes not only Miyako Island, but also five other populated islands.Miyako District, Okinawa
Miyako (宮古郡, Miyako-gun, Miyako: Myaaku, Tarama dialect: Meeku, Okinawan: Naaku) is a district located in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, that consists of a single village, Tarama.Miyako Subprefecture
Miyako Subprefecture (宮古支庁, Miyako-shichō) was a subprefecture of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. It was abolished in March 2009. Most of its functions were taken over by the Miyako Office of the prefecture.
It included the following cities and towns of Miyako Islands:
Miyakojima (city on Miyakojima, Ikemajima, Ōgamijima, Kurimajima, Irabujima, and Shimojishima)
Tarama (village on Taramajima and Minnajima), constituting Miyako DistrictMiyako language
The Miyako language (宮古口/ミャークフツ Myaakufutsu/Myaakufutsї [mjaːkufutss̩] or 島口/スマフツ Sumafutsu/Sїmafutsї) is a language spoken in the Miyako Islands, located southwest of Okinawa. The combined population of the islands is about 52,000 (as of 2011). Miyako is a Southern Ryukyuan language, most closely related to Yaeyama. The number of competent native speakers is not known; as a consequence of Japanese language policy which refers to the language as the Miyako dialect (宮古方言, Miyako hōgen), reflected in the education system, people below the age of 60 tend to not use the language except in songs and rituals, and the younger generation mostly uses Japanese as their first language. Miyako is notable among the Japonic languages in that it allows non-nasal syllable-final consonants, something not found in most Japonic languages.Nakasone Toyomiya
Nakasone Toyomiya Genga (仲宗根豊見親玄雅, Okinawan: Nakasone Tuyumya Genga) (active c. 1500-1530) was a Ryūkyūan Chieftain and later Anji of the Miyako Islands credited with repelling an invasion from Ishigaki Island, and expanding Miyako political control over some of the Yaeyama Islands. When the Miyako Islands were attacked by the Ryūkyū Kingdom, Nakasone saved the people of Miyako from harm by agreeing to surrender to annexation by the Kingdom.Sakishima Islands
The Sakishima Islands (先島諸島, Sakishima-shotō) (or 先島群島, Sakishima-guntō) (Okinawan: Sachishima, Miyako: Saksїzїma, Yaeyama: Sakїzїma, Yonaguni: Satichima) are an archipelago located at the southernmost end of the Japanese Archipelago. They are part of the Ryukyu Islands and include the Miyako Islands and the Yaeyama Islands. The islands are administered as part of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.Shimoji-shima
Shimoji-shima (下地島), (Miyako: Sïmuzï) is one of the Miyako Islands, a part of the Ryukyu Islands. The island is administered by Miyakojima, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.
Shimoji-shima is included within the Irabu Prefectural Natural Park and is the main setting for the anime series Stratos 4.
Shimojishima Airport is located on the island.Shō Boku
Shō Boku (尚 穆, May 3, 1739 – February 19, 1794) was a king of Ryukyu. His reign began in 1752. Although a period of relative stability, he had to contend with a tsunami in 1771 that devastated the Miyako Islands and Yaeyama Islands. His reign also saw the Chinese envoy Chou Huang who wrote a sixteen volume topography of the islands for the Qianlong Emperor.Southern Ryukyuan languages
The Southern Ryukyuan languages (南琉球語群, Minami Ryūkyū gogun) form one of two branches of the Ryukyuan languages. They are spoken on the Sakishima Islands in Okinawa Prefecture. The three languages are Miyako (on the Miyako Islands) and Yaeyama and Yonaguni (on the Yaeyama Islands, of the Macro-Yaeyama subgroup). The Macro-Yaeyaman languages have been identified as "critically endangered" by UNESCO and Miyako as "definitely endangered".All Ryukyuan languages are officially labeled as dialects of Japanese by the Japanese government despite mutual unintelligibility. While the majority of Ryukyuan languages have used Chinese or Japanese script for writing, the Yaeyama Islands never had a full-featured writing system. Islanders developed the Kaidā glyphs as a simple method to record family names, items, and numerals to aid in tax accounting. This system was used until the 19th century introduction of Japanese-language education. Even today, communication in the Yaeyama or Yonaguni languages is almost exclusively oral, and written communication is done in Japanese.Water supply in Miyakojima
The water supply in Miyakojima involves the history and development of the current water supply on Miyakojima, a small coral island with only one river, which is administered by Okinawa Prefecture of southwestern Japan.Yaeyama Islands
The Yaeyama Islands (八重山列島 Yaeyama-rettō, also 八重山諸島 Yaeyama-shotō, Yaeyama: Yaima, Yonaguni: Daama, Okinawan: Yeema) are an archipelago in the southwest of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and cover 591.46 square kilometres (228.36 sq mi). The islands are located southwest of the Miyako Islands, part of the Ryukyu Islands archipelago. The Yaeyama Islands are the remotest part of Japan from the main islands and contain Japan's most southern (Hateruma) and most western (Yonaguni) inhabited islands. The city of Ishigaki serves as the political, cultural, and economic center of the Yaeyama Islands.The Yaeyama Islands are home to numerous species of subtropical and tropical plants, and mangrove forests. The islands produce sugarcane and pineapples. Coral reefs around the islands are ideal habitats for dolphins, sea turtles, and larger fish such as manta rays and whale sharks. Before being wiped out by humans, whales and dugongs were common as well, and Yaeyama once had the largest population of dugongs in the Ryukyu Islands. On Aragusuku Island, there is a Utaki which specially enshrines hunted dugongs with their skulls, but non-residents are not permitted to enter unless they receive special permission from inhabitants, and it is said that any aliens without permission will be driven out by force.