Miyako-jima

Miyako Island (宮古島 Miyako-jima, Miyako: Myaaku (ミャーク); Okinawan: Naaku (ナーク)) is the largest and the most populous island among the Miyako Islands of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Miyako Island is administered as part of the City of Miyakojima, which includes not only Miyako Island, but also five other populated islands.[1]

Miyako Island
Native name:
Miyako-jima (宮古島)
Miyako map
Miyako Island is the largest of the Miyako Islands
Miyako Island is located in Japan
Miyako Island
Miyako Island
Geography
LocationOkinawa Prefecture
Coordinates24°46′N 125°19′E / 24.767°N 125.317°E
ArchipelagoMiyako Islands
Area158.87 km2 (61.34 sq mi)
Highest elevation114.8 m (376.6 ft)
Highest pointNakao
Administration
Japan
Demographics
Population 51,449 (1 January 2019)
Pop. density275.4 /km2 (713.3 /sq mi)
Miyakojima sky view
Aerial view of Miyako Island from northwest.

Geography

Miyako-jima lies approximately 300 kilometres (190 mi) southwest of Okinawa Island and 400 kilometres (250 mi) east of Taipei, Taiwan.[1] With an area of 158.70 square kilometres (61.27 sq mi), Miyako is the fourth-largest island in Okinawa Prefecture.[2] The island is triangular in shape and is composed of limestone.[1] Miyako-jima is subject to drought and is frequently struck by typhoons.[1]

Miyako-jima is well known for its beauty, particularly the Eastern Cape (東平安名岬 Higashi-hennazaki), a nationally designated Place of Scenic Beauty at the southeastern most point of Miyako-jima. It is considered by many as one of the most beautiful spots in Japan. Other notable locations include Yonaha Maehama beach, Sunayama beach, Painagama Beach and the sights on Irabu-jima. There are three islands nearby which are connected by bridges to Miyako-jima, Irabujima (as of early 2015), Ikema Island (池間島 Ikema-jima), and Kurima Island (来間島 Kurima-jima).

Ikema Bridge connects Miyako Island and Ikema Island. It is 1,425-metre-long (4,675 ft) and was completed in February 1992.[3] Yonaha Maehama beach can be viewed from the opposite side on Kurima Island. The Miyako language, one of several Ryukyuan languages spoken there to some degree.

Yonahamaehama Miyakojima Okinawa Japan02bs3s4592

Yonaha Maehama beach in Miyako-jima

Miyako sunayama beach 3

Sunayama beach in Miyako-jima

Yonahamaehama Miyakojima Okinawa Japan06s3s4592

Yonaha Maehama Beach view from Kurima Island in Miyakojima, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

Miyakojima - Higashihennazai

Eastern Cape (Higashi-hennazaki) of Miyako Island

Miyako ikema bridge

Ikema bridge connects Ikema Island with Miyako Island. It's 1,425-metre-long (4,675 ft).

Culture

Miyako is home to a unique festival called Paantu (パーントゥ), which occurs in the ninth month of the cultural (lunar) calendar. Three men dressed in grass, leaves and mud go walk around town smearing the mud on houses, cars and people. They carry sticks in one hand and an expressionless mask in the other. Legend holds that those who have been muddied by the Pantu will have a year of protection and good fortune. Owners of new homes will also invite Pantu to give a muddy 'blessing' to their homes.

Miyako has its own version of soba. Otōri is a custom of drinking awamori, a distilled beverage native to Okinawa, Japan. It is performed by people sitting (usually around a table). One offers a toast, drinks from a small glass, and then offers some to each person at the table making a round, and usually going to the right. When the toaster makes his way back to his spot the person who passed the otori before pours him another glass. He then announces "tsunagimasu" and drinks his second glass. After a brief interval, it is then the turn of the next person to pass the otori, which continues until the celebration is ended.

Economy

Miyako-jima is home to sugarcane cultivation, and produces brown sugar.[1] Miyako jōfu is a locally produced hand-woven textile made from ramie fiber. It was formerly known as Satsuma jōfu. The textile traces its production to the Tensho period, 1573-92.[2][4][5] The city has seen a tourism boom initially with locals and Taiwanese in the early 2010s, but since 2016 is struggling to cope with cruise megaships from mainland China, but the port can only handle ships as large as 50,000 tons, eventually they hope to service ships as large as 200,000 tons.[6] However, this may change the character of the island as its population is small and rural.

Defense

The Miyako Strait between the island and Okinawa mainland are problematic due to their width to allow Chinese ships to pass through, without invoking UNCLOS rights. However, such passages puts Japan on high alert due to fears of territory being cut off and generally degrades bilateral relations.

In late April 2015, it was confirmed that the Japanese Ministry of Defense was in advanced planning regarding the permanent deployment of a GSDF security unit to Miyakojima, to begin sometime in fiscal year 2016. This is part of ongoing efforts to improve the defenses of the Nansei Islands. A GSDF security unit is a battalion sized force, of up to 500 personnel, whose role on Miyakojima will include providing the initial response to large-scale disasters in the area as well as acting as a rapid response force to counterattacks on remote islands within its area of responsibility.[7][8]

The Miyakojima security unit's exact composition is unclear as of April 2015, though given its known taskings, it's likely that the TOE will include both the Komatsu LAV and soft skinned vehicles with all terrain capability.

Consideration is also currently being given to deploying GSDF units equipped with anti-aircraft and anti-ship missiles to the island.[7][8]

Points of interest

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Miyakojima". Encyclopedia of Japan. Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC 56431036. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  2. ^ a b "宮古島" [Miyako-jima]. Dijitaru Daijisen (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC 56431036. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
  3. ^ "Ikema Ohashi", 池間ねっと, 2018. Retrieved on 13 January 2018.
  4. ^ "宮古上布" [Miyako jōfu]. Dijitaru Daijisen (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC 56431036. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
  5. ^ "宮古上布" [Miyako jōfu]. Nihon Daihyakka Zensho (Nipponika) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC 153301537. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
  6. ^ https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/12/09/national/cruise-liner-influx-overwhelming-miyakojimas-economy/#.WgOVY9-YWwE
  7. ^ a b "GSDF unit to deploy on Miyakojima". The Yomiuri Shimbun. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  8. ^ a b "GSDF may permanently station hundreds of troops on Okinawan island". The Asahi Shimbun. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  9. ^ "JAL Group Offices Information." Japan Airlines. Retrieved on July 22, 2011. "MIYAKO Only Domestic Ticketing Available Address 223 Nishizato Hirara Miyako City, 906-0012" Map
  10. ^ 宮古島100kmワイドーマラソン <1月> Retrieved September 20, 2015 (in Japanese)

External links

112th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

The 112th Division (第112師団, Dai-hyakujūni Shidan) was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army. Its call sign was the Public Division (公兵団, Kimi Heidan). It was formed 12 July 1944 in Hunchun as a triangular division. The nucleus for the formation was the remnants of the 28th Division been transferred to Miyako-jima. The division was initially assigned to the Third army.

Aiteng mysticus

Aiteng mysticus is a species of sea slug in the family Aitengidae, found around Hisamatsu, Miyako-jima, Okinawa, Japan. Morphologically it clearly belongs to the Aitengidae, but it shows differences to Aiteng ater at genus or species level. Its affinity to Aiteng ater is confirmed by comparison of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequences.

FM Okinawa

FM Okinawa (エフエム沖縄) is an FM radio station in Okinawa, Japan. The station is an affiliate of the Japan FM Network (JFN). It started broadcasting on September 1, 1984, replacing its existing AM radio station Far East Broadcasting (極東放送) which started broadcasting in February 1958.

The station is also receivable at Yoronjima in Kagoshima Prefecture and parts of the Amami Islands. Some of the station's programs are also broadcast on FM Miyako (76.5 MHz), a community FM radio station for the Miyako-jima island due to no relay transmitters in Sakishima Islands and Daito Island.

The station is also receivable in Honshu in good conditions during Sporadic E layer outbreak layer conditions which happen from the middle of May until late June.

The station broadcasts 24 hours a day which starts at 5:00 am every day. However the station will be closed for maintenance between 1:00 and 5:00 am on Monday early mornings (Sunday late night).

List of the busiest airports in Japan

Japan's busiest airports are a series of lists ranking the fifty busiest airports in the country according to the number of total passengers, and also including statistics for total aircraft movements and total cargo movements, following the official register yearly. The data here presented are provided by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT), and the results are for the calendar year (as the Ministry also presents yearly results for the fiscal year).

The lists are presented in chronological order starting from the latest year. The number of total passengers is measured in persons and includes any passenger that arrives, depart or travel on transit in every airport in the country. The number of total aircraft movements is estimated, measuring airplane-times and includes the departures and arrivals of any kind of aircraft in schedule or charter conditions. The number of total cargo movements in metric tonnes and includes all the movements of cargo and mail that arrives or departs from the airport.

Macaria abydata

Macaria abydata, commonly known as the dot-lined angle, is a moth of the family Geometridae. It is native from northern Argentina to the Caribbean and southern United States (southern states from Arizona to Florida, regularly wandering north to Colorado, Kentucky and other more northern states). It has been introduced to the Pacific and has spread rapidly since. The first introduction occurred in Hawaii in 1970 (recorded from all the main islands in 1984). Further spread occurred as follows:

1975: Yap, central Micronesia

1976: Bonin Islands (Chichi-jima, Haha-jima)

1977: Saipan, central Micronesia (1985)

1980: Okinawa Island

1983: Taiwan

1985: Guam, central Micronesia (1985) Sulawesi (1986)

1986: Tonga (1985), Fiji (1985), Miyako Islands (Miyako-jima), Luzon, the Philippines (1985)

1987: New Caledonia (1985), Sabah, Malaysia

1988: western Samoa (1985)

1992: Hong KongThe wingspan is 22–27 mm.

Recorded host plants for larvae in its natural range are Vachellia farnesiana, Cassia, Sesbania, Parkinsonia aculeata and Glycine max. Larvae have been observed on Acacia koa and introduced Lysiloma latisiliquum and Litchi chinensis in Hawaii. In the Indo-Australian tropics it has been reared from Leucaena and Mimosa diplotricha.

Miyako Airport

Miyako Airport (宮古空港, Miyako Kūkō, (IATA: MMY, ICAO: ROMY)) is an airport on Miyako-jima (Miyako Island) in Miyakojima, Okinawa, Japan.

Miyakojima, Okinawa

Miyakojima (宮古島市, Miyakojima-shi, Miyako: Myaaku, Okinawan: Naaku) is a city jurisdiction located on several islands in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

The modern city of Miyakojima was established on October 1, 2005, from the merger of the old city of Hirara, the towns of Gusukube, Irabu and Shimoji, and the village of Ueno (all from Miyako District). As a result of the merger, Miyako District only has one remaining village.

As of December 2012 the city has an estimated population of 54,908 and a population density of 268.45 per km2. The total area is 204.54 km2. The city had 24,728 households. The mayor of Miyakojima is Toshihiko Shimoji (born 1945), who took office in the second mayoral election of the city in 2009.The islands administered by the city of Miyakojima include:

Miyako-jima

Ikemajima

Ōgamijima

Irabujima

Shimojishima

Kurimajima

Miyakojima City Tropical Plant Garden

The Miyakojima City Tropical Plant Garden (宮古島市熱帯植物園, Miyakojima-shi Nettai Shokubutsuen) is a botanical garden in Hirara, Miyako-jima, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

Landscaping began in 1967 on a site that before the war was a forest of Ryūkyū pines. The garden now contains about 1,600 species of plant and 40,000 trees in an area of 120,000 m².The gardens, located at 1166-286 Higashinakasonezoe, are open daily and admission is free.

Okinawa Prefectural Board of Education

The Okinawa Prefectural Board of Education is the prefectural education agency of Okinawa Prefecture in Japan.

The board oversees municipal school districts in Okinawa and directly operates many high schools.

Paantu

The Paantu (Miyako: パーントゥ) festival is an annual festival on the island of Miyako-jima in Japan's Okinawa Prefecture.Every year during the ninth month of the lunisolar calendar, male villagers will dress up as paantu, supernatural beings meant to spread good luck and scare away evil spirits. The common feature is a wooden mask with a large forehead, small eyes, and a thin mouth, and the spreading of sacred mud onto newly built houses or onto newborn children's faces. In some villages, the Paantu are accompanied by traditional animist noro priestesses.In other villages, the Paantu will chase after small children, making them cry, or chase after people who are avoiding having their faces smeared with the sacred mud.

Ryukyu kingfisher

The Ryukyu kingfisher (Todiramphus cinnamominus miyakoensis) is an enigmatic taxon of tree kingfisher. It is extinct and was only ever known from a single specimen. Its taxonomic status is doubtful; it is most likely a subspecies of the Guam kingfisher, which would make its scientific name Todiramphus cinnamomina miyakoensis. As the specimen is extant at the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, the question could be resolved using DNA sequence analysis; at any rate, the Guam kingfisher is almost certainly the closest relative of the Ryukyu bird. The IUCN considers this bird a subspecies and has hence struck it from its redlist.

The one known bird, probably a male, was according to its label collected on Miyako-jima, the main island of the Miyako group, Ryūkyū Shotō, on February 5, 1887. While it is often and correctly stated that specimen labels may be incorrect or misleading, the locality, to the northwest of the extant populations of Todiramphus cinnamomina, seems sound in a biogeographical sense. At least the specimen labels of Ryukyu collections by later Japanese collectors are usually very reliable; whether this is true for earlier collection too is not known.

The only differences between the Miyako-jima bird and males of the Guam kingfisher (the nominate subspecies of the Micronesian kingfisher; presently only surviving in captivity) are the former's lack of a black nape band and the red feet (black in Guam birds). The bill color is unknown due to damage to the specimen, and supposed differences in the proportion of the remiges are almost certainly an artifact of specimen preparation. Indeed, the specimen was not recognized as distinct until some 30 years after its collection.

If the bird was indeed a resident of the Miyako group (and as there was better habitat on neighboring Irabu-jima, it is probable that it would have been found there too), it became extinct in the late 19th century. While this seems early, the population must have always been small as there never was much habitat available in historic times. Certainly, thorough research in the early 20th century failed to find the bird again. The reasons for the disappearance of the population would have been land clearance and draining of wetlands for agriculture.

This Armor

This Armor is the second studio album recorded by Japanese singer-songwriter Chihiro Onitsuka, released in March 2002. It features two lead singles "infection", "Ryūseigun", and remake versions of "Arrow of Pain" (B-Side of a single "Gekko" in 2000) and "Little Beat Rifle" (double A-Side to "infection").

Onitsuka described the album as "a sequel to Insomnia", her chart-topping debut which came out in 2001. Like its predecessor, the title of the album was named by the artist, simply because she liked the sound of the phrase. Cover art was taken by photographer Mika Ninagawa in Miyako-jima, Okinawa prefecture.

This Armor debuted and peaked at the number-three on the Japanese Oricon albums chart and remained the top-300 for 25 weeks, with estimated sales of over half a million copies. The album was certified Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of Japan upon its release, for shipments of over 400,000 units.

Typhoon Fitow

Typhoon Fitow, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Quedan, was the strongest typhoon to make landfall in Mainland China during October since 1949. The 21st named storm of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season, Fitow developed on September 29 to the east of the Philippines. It initially tracked north-northwestward, gradually intensifying into a tropical storm and later to typhoon status, or with winds of at least 120 km/h (75 mph). Fitow later turned more to the west-northwest due to an intensifying ridge to the east, bringing the typhoon over the Ryukyu Islands with peak winds of 140 km/h (85 mph) on October 5. The next day, the typhoon struck China at Fuding in Fujian province. Fitow quickly weakened over land, dissipating on October 7.

Across its path, Fitow spurred many airlines to cancel flights and caused other transport disruptions. In Japan, the typhoon damaged 1,464 houses and left about 6,800 households without power on Miyako-jima. Heavy rainfall in Taiwan flooded houses and caused mudslides that closed two highways. Damage was heaviest in Fujian and Zhejiang provinces in China near where Fitow struck. In the latter province, rainfall peaked at 803 mm (31.6 in) in Yuyao, which flooded 70% of the town with up to 3 m (9.8 ft) of waters; as a result, the floods were the worst in a century for Yuyao, which disrupted aid distribution in the storm's aftermath. Across China, Fitow damaged about 95,000 houses and left at least 159,000 other houses without power. The storm also flooded about 75,000 hectares (185,000 acres) of fields and killed thousands of fish at fish farms. Total damage in the country reached ¥63.14 billion (2013 RMB, $10.4 billion USD), of which ¥6 billion (RMB, US$1 billion) was from insured losses, the second-costliest event on record. There were also 12 deaths in China, eight of them related to electrocutions.

Typhoon Lekima (2019)

Typhoon Lekima, known in the Philippines as the Typhoon Hanna, was the second-costliest typhoon in Chinese history, only behind Fitow in 2013. The ninth named storm of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season, Lekima originated from a tropical depression that formed east of the Philippines on July 30. It gradually organized, became a tropical storm and was named on August 4. Lekima intensified under favourable environmental conditions and peaked as a Category 4–equivalent super typhoon. However, an eyewall replacement cycle caused the typhoon to weaken before it made landfall in Zhejiang late on August 9, as a Category 2–equivalent typhoon. Lekima weakened subsequently while moving across the East China, and made its second landfall in Shandong on August 11.

Lekima's precursor enhanced the southwestern monsoon in the Philippines, which brought heavy rain to the country. The rains caused three boats to sink and 31 people died in this accident. Lekima brought catastrophic damage in mainland China, with a death toll of 89 people and more than CN¥53.7 billion (US$7.6 billion) in damages. The system also caused minor damage in Ryukyu Islands and Taiwan.

Typhoon Maemi

Typhoon Maemi (pronounced [mɛ.mi]), known in the Philippines as Typhoon Pogi, was the most powerful typhoon to strike South Korea since record-keeping began in the country in 1904. Maemi formed on September 4, 2003 from a disturbance in a monsoon trough in the western Pacific Ocean. It slowly intensified into Tropical Storm Maemi while moving northwestward, becoming a typhoon on September 8. That day, favorable conditions facilitated more rapid strengthening; the storm developed a well-defined eye and reached peak maximum sustained winds of 195 km/h (120 mph). While near peak intensity, Maemi decelerated and began turning to the north-northeast. Soon after, the eyewall passed over the Japanese island of Miyako-jima on September 10 and produced an air pressure reading of 912 mbar (26.9 inHg), the fourth-lowest recorded in the nation. Due to warm waters, Maemi was able to maintain much of its intensity before it made landfall just west of Busan, South Korea, on September 12. The typhoon became extratropical in the East Sea(Sea of Japan) the next day, although its remnants persisted for several days, lashing northern Japan with strong winds.

The typhoon first affected the Ryukyu Islands of Japan. On Miyako-jima, strong winds damaged 104 buildings and left 95% of residents without power. Maemi caused heavy rainfall there, with rates of 58.5 mm (2.30 in) in an hour and 402.5 mm (15.85 in) in 24 hours, the latter setting a record. One person died on Miyako-jima after being struck by airborne debris. Elsewhere in Japan, the storm caused flights to be canceled, and rainfall-induced landslides blocked roads. There were two other deaths in Japan, and damage totaled ¥11.3 billion yen (JPY, $96 million USD). Damage was heaviest in South Korea, particularly where it moved ashore. On Jeju Island, Maemi produced a peak wind gust of 216 km/h (134 mph) and a minimum pressure of 950 mbar (28 inHg), both setting records for the country; the pressure reading broke the longstanding lowest pressure set by Typhoon Sarah in 1959. Winds in Busan near the landfall location reached 154 km/h (96 mph), the second-highest on record. The port there sustained heavy damage, restricting exports in the months following the storm. Nationwide, the high winds destroyed about 5,000 houses and damaged 13,000 homes and businesses, leaving 25,000 people homeless. About 1.47 million households lost power, and widespread crop damage occurred, resulting in the poorest rice harvest in 23 years. Across South Korea, Maemi killed 117 people, and overall damage totaled ₩5.52 trillion won (KRW, US$4.8 billion).

Typhoon Mireille

Typhoon Mireille, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Rosing, was the costliest typhoon on record, striking Japan in September 1991. The 20th named storm of the 1991 Pacific typhoon season, Mireille formed on September 13 from the monsoon trough near the Marshall Islands. It moved westward for several days as a small system, steered by the subtropical ridge to the north. The storm rapidly intensified to typhoon status on September 16, and several days later passed north of Saipan in the Northern Marianas Islands. Mireille intensified further after deleterious effects from a nearby tropical storm subsided. On September 22, the American-based Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) estimated maximum 1‑minute sustained winds of 240 km/h (150 mph), and on the next day, the official Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) estimated 10‑minute sustained winds of 185 km/h (115 mph). The typhoon weakened slightly while turning northward, passing just east of Miyako-jima and later to the west of Okinawa. On September 27, Mireille made landfall near Nagasaki in southwestern Japan with winds of 175 km/h (110 mph), the strongest since Typhoon Nancy in 1961. The storm accelerated to the northeast through the Sea of Japan, moving over Hokkaido before becoming extratropical on September 28. The remnants of Mireille continued to the east, passing through the Aleutian Islands of Alaska on October 1.

The typhoon first threatened Guam, although it passed well to the north of the island, bringing damaging winds to northern Saipan. The first part of Japan affected was Miyako-jima, where heavy rainfall and high winds damaged crops. Mireille lashed Okinawa with strong waves, while strong winds up to 189 km/h (118 mph) damaged power lines and trees. The typhoon ultimately caused damage in 41 of 47 prefectures of Japan, with overall damage estimated at $10 billion (USD), making it the costliest typhoon on record as of 2017. Mireille produced record wind gusts at 26 locations, with a peak gust of 218 km/h (136 mph) in western Honshu. The winds caused record power outages across Japan that affected 7.36 million people, or about 13% of total customers. Mireille also left extensive crop damage totaling $3 billion, mostly to the apple industry, after 345,000 tons of apples fell to the ground and another 43,000 were damaged on the trees. The storm damaged over 670,000 houses, of which 1,058 were destroyed, and another 22,965 were flooded. Throughout Japan, Mireille killed 66 people and injured another 2,862 people, including ten deaths on a capsized freighter. Elsewhere, the typhoon killed two people in South Korea, and its remnants brought strong winds to Alaska.

Typhoon Rammasun (2002)

Typhoon Rammasun, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Florita, was the first of four typhoons to contribute to heavy rainfall and deadly flooding in the Philippines in July 2002. The fifth tropical cyclone of the 2002 Pacific typhoon season, Rammasun developed around the same time as Typhoon Chataan, only further to the west. The storm tracked northwestward toward Taiwan, and on July 2 it attained its peak intensity with winds of 160 km/h (100 mph). Rammasun turned northward, passing east of Taiwan and China. In Taiwan, the outer rainbands dropped rainfall that alleviated drought conditions. In China, the rainfall occurred after previously wet conditions, resulting in additional flooding, although damage was less than expected; there was about $85 million in crop and fishery damage in one province.

After affecting Taiwan and China, Rammasun began weakening due to an approaching trough, which turned the typhoon northeastward. It passed over the Japanese island of Miyako-jima and also produced strong winds in Okinawa. About 10,000 houses lost power on the island, and high surf killed two sailors. On the Japanese mainland, there was light crop damage and one serious injury. After weakening to a tropical storm, Rammasun passed just west of the South Korean island of Cheju-do, killing one person from high waves. The storm crossed the country, killing three others and leaving $9.5 million in damage. High rains also affected North Korea and Primorsky Krai in the Russian Far East.

Typhoon Sarah (1959)

Typhoon Sarah was among the deadliest typhoons on record in the western Pacific Ocean, killing around 2,000 people. It formed during the peak of the busy 1959 Pacific typhoon season near Guam, and moved generally to the west-northwest. Continued observations from the Hurricane Hunters allowed the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) to track Sarah from its origins to its peak as a powerful typhoon, with maximum sustained winds estimated at 305 km/h (190 mph) on September 15. Shortly thereafter, the typhoon struck the small Japanese island of Miyako-jima, where the barometric pressure fell to 908.1 mbar (26.82 inHg), the second-lowest on record for the country. Sarah turned to the north and northeast, weakening from its peak intensity. On September 17, the typhoon made landfall just west of Busan, South Korea with winds of 185 km/h (115 mph), the nation's strongest landfall at the time and only to be surpassed by Typhoon Maemi in 2003. Sarah later became extratropical over the Japanese island of Hokkaido on September 18, although the remnants persisted for several days, crossing into the Russian Far East and later dissipating on September 23.

On Miyako-jima, Sarah damaged all of the crops and destroyed about 6,000 houses. Damage was estimated at $2 million, and there were seven deaths. The damage prompted the Japan Meteorological Agency to give Sarah the special name of the "Miyakojima Typhoon". However, the effects were worst in South Korea, and Sarah was described as the worst typhoon there in 50 years. Wind gusts there peaked at 169 km/h (105 mph), the highest at the time in the country. High winds and waves heavily damaged the port of Busan. Nationwide, the storm destroyed over 14,000 homes and left 782,126 people homeless, causing over $100 million in damage. At least 669 people were killed in South Korea, and an additional 1,200 fishermen were lost offshore the country. In Japan, widespread flooding killed 47 people and destroyed 16,632 homes.

USS Steamer Bay

USS Steamer Bay (CVE-87) was a Casablanca class escort carrier of the United States Navy. She was laid down on 4 December 1943 at Vancouver, Washington, by the Kaiser Shipbuilding Company; launched on 26 February 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Henry S. Kendall; and commissioned on 4 April 1944, Captain Steadman Teller in command.

Steamer Bay held sea trials in Puget Sound and sailed for San Diego on 2 May. On the 14th, she headed for the New Hebrides, carrying the men and aircraft of Marine Air Group (MAG) 61. She arrived at Espiritu Santo on the 30th, unloaded, and began her return voyage to San Diego on 2 June. The carrier was on the west coast from 20 June to 19 July when she again steamed west, with 298 marines and 72 aircraft, bound for the Marshall Islands.

Steamer Bay arrived at Majuro on 1 August to discharge her cargo and passengers. She was routed back to Pearl Harbor and attached to the 3d Fleet as a carrier of replacement aircraft. Seventy-two planes were loaded on board; and the ship steamed for Seeadler Harbor, Manus Island, on 21 August. During the next two and one-half months, the carrier supplied replacement aircraft and pilots to Task Force (TF) 38 which was supporting the operations in the Palau and Philippine Islands. She spent the period from 15 November to 5 December at Pearl Harbor undergoing repairs and training. The ship returned to Seeadler Harbor on 17 December 1944 and was assigned to Task Group (TG) 77.4, the San Fabian Carrier Group, which sortied on 1 January 1945.

The group (Taffy 2), consisting of six escort carriers under the command of Rear Admiral Felix Stump, supported the Lingayen landings. While steaming through the Sulu and South China seas toward the Lingayen beaches, during the first week of January 1945, the group was the target of numerous enemy air attacks. Of the six carriers, Ommaney Bay (CVE-79) was sunk on 4 January by a kamikaze plane; and Manila Bay (CVE-61) and Savo Island (CVE-78) were damaged the next day. During the landings, the CVE's launched over 1,400 aircraft sorties in support of ground forces. Steamer Bay remained in the Philippine Islands with the 7th Fleet until she got underway on 31 January for Ulithi.

Steamer Bay anchored there from 5 February to 10 February, when she departed with units of the 5th Fleet for the invasion of Iwo Jima. She was with four other escort carriers which arrived at their assigned area of operations, 50 miles west of Iwo Jima, on 16 February. Their mission was to neutralize Japanese bases in the Nanpō Islands until 19 February (D-Day) and then provide air cover and direct support for the marines during the landings and the struggle for the strategic island.

Steamer Bay was relieved on 7 March and arrived at San Pedro Bay, Leyte, on the 12th. She sailed for the Ryukyus on 27 March and arrived in the operating area south of Okinawa on the morning of 1 April. She remained off Okinawa until 26 May when she sailed to Apra Harbor, Guam, for repairs. On 10 June, the carrier was ordered to join the 3d Fleet east of Miyako Jima and assist in neutralizing Japanese airfields in Sakishima Gunto. She conducted air strikes against the fields from 14 June to 22 June, when she sailed for Ulithi.

Steamer Bay stood out of Ulithi, on 3 July, with the Logistics Support Group resupplying the fast carrier forces during operations against the Japanese mainland. On the 20th, she was detached and sailed, via Guam and Pearl Harbor, for the west coast, arriving at San Diego on 10 August.

Steamer Bay was in drydock when hostilities with Japan ended, and she was given additional bunks to accommodate veterans returning from overseas. She sailed for Pearl Harbor, on 28 September, on her first “Magic Carpet” assignment.

Steamer Bay was assigned to the Pacific Reserve Fleet on 4 February 1946 and berthed at Tacoma, Washington. In January 1947, she was placed in reserve, out of commission. Her designation was changed from CVE-87 to CVHE-87 on 12 June 1955. The carrier was struck from the Navy list on 1 March 1959 and sold to Hyman-Michaels Co., Chicago, Illinois, on 29 August 1959 for scrap.

Steamer Bay received six battle stars for World War II service.

Core city
Cities
Districts

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.