Mitrospingidae

The Mitrospingidae is a family of passerine birds. It consists of three genera and four species. The family is found in South America and southern Central America. The family was identified in 2013, and consists of birds that have been traditionally been placed in the families Thraupidae.[1] The family was adopted by the American Ornithological Society in their 58th supplement of their checklist in 2017.[2]

Mitrospingidae
Olive-green Tanager - Itatiaia - Brazil MG 1112 (22625923163)
Olive-green tanager
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Superfamily: Passeroidea
Family: Mitrospingidae
Barker et al., 2013
Genera

see text.

Species

References

  1. ^ Barker, F. Keith; Burns, Kevin J.; Klicka, John; Lanyon, Scott M.; Lovette, Irby J. (March 2013). "Going to Extremes: Contrasting Rates of Diversification in a Recent Radiation of New World Passerine Birds". Systematic Biology. 62 (2): 298–320. doi:10.1093/sysbio/sys094.
  2. ^ Chesser, R. Terry; Burns, Kevin J.; Cicero, Carla; Dunn, Jon L.; Kratter, Andrew W.; Lovette, Irby J.; Rasmussen, Pamela C.; Remsen, J. V.; Rising, James D.; Stotz, Douglas F.; Winker, Kevin (July 2017). "Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society's". The Auk. 134 (3): 751–773. doi:10.1642/AUK-17-72.1.
Dusky-faced tanager

The dusky-faced tanager (Mitrospingus cassinii) is a species of bird formerly in the family Thraupidae.

It is found in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and heavily degraded former forest.

List of bird genera

List of bird genera concerns the chordata class of aves or birds, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and a high metabolic rate.

List of birds

This page lists living orders and families of birds. The links below should then lead to family accounts and hence to individual species.

The passerines (perching birds) alone account for well over 5000 species. In total there are about 10,000 species of birds described worldwide, though one estimate of the real number places it at almost twice that.

Taxonomy is very fluid in the age of DNA analysis, so comments are made where appropriate, and all numbers are approximate. In particular see Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy for a very different classification.

List of birds of Brazil

Brazil has one of the richest bird diversities in the world. The avifauna of Brazil include a total of 1806 confirmed species, of which 235 are endemic. Four have been introduced by humans, 70 are rare or vagrants, and four are extinct or extirpated. An additional 24 species are hypothetical (see below).

Brazil hosts about 60% of the bird species recorded for all of South America. These numbers are still increasing almost every year, due to new occurrences, new species being described, or splits of existing species. About 10% of the bird species found in Brazil are, nonetheless, threatened.

In June 2013 a simultaneous discovery of fifteen bird species in Brazil was announced, the first such since 1871, when August von Pelzeln described forty new species. The birds were from the families Corvidae, Thamnophilidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Tyrannidae, and Polioptilidae. Eleven of the new species are endemics of Brazil and four also inhabit Peru and Bolivia.Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The notes of population status, for instance (endangered), are those of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. The status notes apply to the worldwide population, not solely the Brazilian population except for endemic species.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Brazil

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Brazil

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Brazil as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Colombia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Colombia. The avifauna of Colombia has 1851 confirmed species, of which 81 are endemic, three have been introduced by humans, and 62 are rare or vagrants. One of the endemic species is believed to be extinct. An additional 37 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is noted otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The Colombian province of San Andrés and Providencia is much closer to Nicaragua than to the South American mainland, so the SACC does not address records there. An additional 17 species are listed here whose only Colombian records are from that province. Three of them are also considered hypothetical.The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Colombia

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Colombia

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Colombia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

(SA) San Andrés - a species whose only Colombian records are from the province of San Andrés and Providencia

List of birds of Costa Rica

Although Costa Rica is a small country, it is in the bird-rich neotropical region and has a huge number of species for its area. The official bird list published by the Costa Rican Rare Birds and Records Committee of the Asociación Ornitológica de Costa Rica (AOCR) contains 921 species as of January 2018. This number is more than have been recorded in all of the United States and Canada combined. Of those species, seven are endemic (three of which are found only on Cocos Island), 66 are rare or accidental, and four have been introduced by humans. Another 73 are near-endemic with ranges that include only Costa Rica and Panama. Twenty-three species, including five of the seven endemics, are globally vulnerable or endangered. Over an area of 51,100 km2, an area smaller than West Virginia, this is the greatest density of bird species of any continental American country. About 600 species are resident, with most of the other regular visitors being winter migrants from North America. A "split" and a "lump" announced in July 2018 add one near-endemic species.

Costa Rica's geological formation played a large role in the diversification of avian species. North America and South America were initially separate continents, but millions of years of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions eventually fused the two continents together. When this happened, species from the north and south poured into the land bridge that became Central America. Birds like the hummingbird came from the south, while birds like the jay came from the north.Part of the diversity stems from the wide array of habitats, which include mangrove swamps along the Pacific coast, the wet Caribbean coastal plain in the northeast, dry northern Pacific lowlands, and multiple mountain chains that form the spine of the country and rise as high as 3,500 m. These mountain chains, the largest of which is the Cordillera de Talamanca, form a geographical barrier that has enabled closely related but different species to develop on either side of the chain. A good example of this speciation is the white-collared manakin of the Caribbean side, which is now distinct from the orange-collared manakin of the Pacific slope.

In the past, higher sea levels left the mountains as highlands, and isolation again led to distinct species developing, with over thirty now endemic to the mountains, especially the Talamanca range which extends from southern Costa Rica into Panama.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species on the list are considered to occur regularly in Costa Rica as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence:

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Costa Rica

(R?) Residence uncertain - a species which might be resident

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Costa Rica

(E-R) Regional endemic - a species found only in Costa Rica and Panama

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Costa Rica as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Ecuador

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Ecuador including those of the Galápagos Islands. The avifauna of Ecuador has 1635 confirmed species, of which seven are endemic to the mainland and 30 are endemic to the Galápagos. Four have been introduced by humans, 64 are rare or vagrants, and two have been extirpated. An additional 49 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Ecuador

(EG) Endemic - Galápagos - a species endemic to the Galápagos Islands

(EM) Endemic - mainland - a species endemic to mainland Ecuador

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Ecuador as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Guyana

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Guyana. The avifauna of Guyana include a total of 785 confirmed species, of which one has been introduced by humans and two are extinct or extirpated. None are endemic. An additional 33 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence.

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Guyana as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Nicaragua

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Nicaragua. The avifauna of Nicaragua included a total of 781 species as of December 2017, according to Bird Checklists of the World. Of the species, 55 are rare or accidental and five have been introduced by humans. None are endemic.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, the species on this list are considered to occur regularly in Nicaragua as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The tags and notes of population status are from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Nicaragua

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Nicaragua as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Panama

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Panama. The avifauna of Panama included a total of 986 species as of January 2018, according to Bird Checklists of the World. Between that date and July 2018, 10 additional species have been added through eBird. Of the 996 species, 144 are rare or accidental and six have been introduced by humans. Seven are endemic. A "split" and a "lump" announced in July 2018 did not change any of these counts.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, the species on this list are considered to occur regularly in Panama as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The tags and notes of population status are from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Panama

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Panama

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Panama as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Venezuela

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Venezuela. The avifauna of Venezuela has 1386 confirmed species, of which 45 are endemic, six have been introduced by humans, 30 are rare or vagrants, and one has been extirpated. An additional 18 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Venezuela

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Venezuela

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Venezuela as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

Mitrospingus

Mitrospingus is a genus of bird formerly in the family Thraupidae. Established by Robert Ridgway in 1898, it contains the following species:

The name Mitrospingus is a combination of the Greek words mitra meaning "cap" or "head-dress" and spingos, meaning "finch".

Olive-backed tanager

The olive-backed tanager (Mitrospingus oleagineus) is a species of bird formerly in the family Thraupidae.

It is found in Venezuela, Guyana and adjacent northern Brazil.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

Olive-green tanager

The olive-green tanager (Orthogonys chloricterus) is a species of bird of the family Mitrospingidae, in the monotypic genus Orthogonys. It is endemic to Brazil, where its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests and heavily degraded former forest.

Passerida

Passerida is, under the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, one of two parvorders contained within the suborder Passeri (standard taxonomic practice would place them at the rank of infraorder). While more recent research suggests that its sister parvorder, Corvida, is not a monophyletic grouping, the Passerida as a distinct clade are widely accepted.

Passerine

A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds or – less accurately – as songbirds, passerines are distinguished from other orders of birds by the arrangement of their toes (three pointing forward and one back), which facilitates perching, amongst other features specific to their evolutionary history in Australaves.

With more than 140 families and some 6,600 identified species, Passeriformes is the largest order of birds and among the most diverse orders of terrestrial vertebrates. Passerines are divided into three suborders, Acanthisitti (New Zealand wrens), Tyranni (suboscines) and Passeri (oscine).The passerines contain several groups of brood parasites such as the viduas, cuckoo-finches, and the cowbirds. Most passerines are omnivorous, while the shrikes are carnivorous.

The terms "passerine" and "Passeriformes" are derived from the scientific name of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus, and ultimately from the Latin term passer, which refers to sparrows and similar small birds.

Red-billed pied tanager

The red-billed pied tanager (Lamprospiza melanoleuca) is a small passerine bird, a member of the family Mitrospingidae. It is the only member of the genus Lamprospiza.

The red-billed pied tanager is 17 cm (6.5 in) in length and weighs 34 g (1.2 oz). It lives in the Amazon Rainforest of Brazil, Bolivia, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru and Suriname. It occurs in groups of 3-6 individuals. It forages in mixed flocks for fruits in trees.

Tanager

The tanagers (singular ) comprise the bird family Thraupidae, in the order Passeriformes. The family has an American distribution. The Thraupidae are the second-largest family of birds and represent about 4% of all avian species and 12% of the Neotropical birds.Traditionally, about 240 species of tanagers have been described, but the taxonomic treatment of this family's members is currently in a state of flux. As more of these birds are studied using modern molecular techniques, some genera are expected to be relocated elsewhere. Already, species in the genera Euphonia and Chlorophonia, which were once considered part of the tanager family, are now treated as members of Fringillidae, in their own subfamily (Euphoniinae). Likewise, the genera Piranga (which includes the scarlet tanager, summer tanager, and western tanager), Chlorothraupis, and Habia appear to be members of the cardinal family, and have been reassigned to that family by the American Ornithological Society.

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