The Territory of Missouri was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from June 4, 1812 until August 10, 1821. In 1819, the Territory of Arkansas was created from a portion of its southern area. In 1821, a southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Missouri, and the rest became unorganized territory for several years.
|Territory of Missouri|
|Organized incorporated territory of the United States|
Flag of the United States
A map of the Territory of Missouri in 1812
|Government||Organized incorporated territory|
|•||Renaming of Louisiana Territory||June 4, 1812|
|•||Territory of Arkansas created||March 2, 1819|
|•||Missouri statehood||August 10, 1821|
The Missouri Territory was originally known as the Louisiana Territory and was renamed by the U.S. Congress in June 1812, to avoid confusion with the new state of Louisiana, which had been admitted to the Union on April 30, 1812.
The Anglo-American Convention of 1818 established the northern boundary of the Missouri Territory with the British territory of Rupert's Land at the 49th parallel north. This gave the Missouri Territory the Red River Valley south of the 49th parallel and gave Rupert's Land the slice of Missouri River Valley north of 49th parallel. The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 established the southern and western boundaries of the territory with the Spanish territories of Tejas and Santa Fe de Nuevo México. The United States surrendered a significant portion of the Missouri Territory to Spain in exchange for Spanish Florida. The Convention of 1818 and the Adams–Onís Treaty would be the last significant losses of United States territory from the contiguous United States, although the cession of lands north of the 49th parallel would turn out to be the only permanent cession of U.S. territory (the territories ceded to Spain would be re-taken by the U.S. following the Texas annexation and the Mexican–American War).
On March 2, 1819, all of the Missouri Territory south of the parallel 36°30' north, except the Missouri Bootheel between the Mississippi River and the Saint Francis River north of the 36th parallel north, was designated the new Territory of Arkansaw. (The spelling of Arkansaw would be changed a few years later, although the proper pronunciation of the name would be debated until 1881.) The southeastern portion of the Missouri Territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Missouri on August 10, 1821.
The remaining portion of the territory, consisting of the present states of Iowa, Nebraska, and the Dakotas, most of Kansas, Wyoming, and Montana, and parts of Colorado, Minnesota and New Mexico, effectively became an unorganized territory after Missouri became a state. In 1834, the portion east of the Missouri River was attached to the Michigan Territory. Over time, various territories were created in whole or in part from its remaining area: Iowa (1838), Minnesota (1849), Kansas and Nebraska (both 1854), Colorado and Dakota (both 1861), Idaho (1863), Montana (1864), and Wyoming (1868).
Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 13th Congress were held at different dates in the various states between August 3, 1812 (in Kentucky) and April 30, 1813 (in North Carolina) as James Madison was re-elected to a second term as President. The Congress convened on May 24, 1813.
A significant expansion in the size of the House occurred as a result of population increases revealed in the 1810 Census. The largest number of new seats were created to accommodate the rapid settlement of Western territories. After America's entry into the War of 1812 against Britain, the Democratic-Republican and Federalist Parties effectively served as pro-war and anti-war camps. Democratic-Republican representatives from Southern and Western states had been the primary leaders in the push to declare war, asserting that the British had violated America's sovereign rights. High levels of support for the conflict in agrarian regions resulted in the Democratic-Republicans taking many newly created rural districts. In contrast, the Federalists and their key supporters in New England opposed the war from the start, citing its potential for damaging American trade and infrastructure. This position found widespread support in the country. The 1812 elections were indeed marked by massive Federalist gains, with many coming in the mid-Atlantic States, where support for the war became lukewarm after the initial shots were fired. Nonetheless, the Federalists were unable to secure anywhere near enough seats to secure a majority in the House of Representatives.Ajax, Missouri
Ajax is an extinct town in Stoddard County, in the U.S. state of Missouri.Ajax was founded c. 1819, and named after Ajax, a character in Greek mythology.Arkansas Territory
The Territory of Arkansas, initially organized as the Territory of Arkansaw, was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1819, until June 15, 1836, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Arkansas.Benjamin Howard (Missouri)
Benjamin Howard (1760 – September 18, 1814) was a Congressman from Kentucky, the first governor of the Missouri Territory and a brigadier general in the War of 1812.
Howard was born in Lexington, Kentucky (then part of Virginia) and graduated in 1797 from the College of William & Mary. He was elected to the Kentucky General Assembly in 1800. He served in the 10th and 11th Congresses from Kentucky from 1807 until April 10, 1810. One week later, on April 17, 1810, James Madison appointed him Governor of the Louisiana Territory (the Louisiana Purchase district north of modern-day Louisiana), which was later renamed as the Missouri Territory in June 1812.
He resigned his post during the War of 1812 to become brigadier general of the Eighth Military Department. During the conflict he and Nathan Boone (Daniel Boone's youngest son) attacked Sac and Fox positions in Illinois and established Fort Clark by Peoria, Illinois.
He fell ill on the way back and died in St. Louis, Missouri. His original burial location is unknown, although likely somewhere in downtown St. Louis. He was moved to the Old Grace Church Graveyard just north of downtown St. Louis (11th and Warren Street) sometime between 1817 and 1844. He was then (allegedly) reinterred in Bellefontaine Cemetery sometime after 1851. However, the cemetery has no record of Howard's body; therefore, the true location of his body remains a mystery.
Benjamin Howard is the namesake of Howard County, Missouri.Bowling Green, Missouri
Bowling Green is a city in Pike County, Missouri, United States. The population was 5,334 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Pike County.Castor Township, Stoddard County, Missouri
Castor Township is a township in Stoddard County, in the U.S. state of Missouri.Castor Township was erected in 1820, taking its name from the Castor River.Hempstead County, Arkansas
Hempstead County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,609. The county seat is Hope. Hempstead County is Arkansas's fourth county, formed on December 15, 1818, alongside Clark and Pulaski counties. The county is named for Edward Hempstead, a delegate to the U.S. Congress from the Missouri Territory, which included present-day Arkansas at the time. It is an alcohol prohibition or dry county.
Historic Washington State Park is located in Hempstead County some nine miles northwest of Hope in the historic village of Washington, Arkansas. The state park opened in 1973 as "Old Washington Historic State Park", but the "Old" was dropped from the name in 2006. The park offers walking tours of the historic village, which contains more than a dozen historic structures from the 19th and early 20th centuries.Howard County, Missouri
Howard County is a county in the U.S. state of Missouri, with its southern border formed by the Missouri River. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,144. Its county seat is Fayette. The county was organized January 23, 1816 and named for Benjamin Howard, the first Governor of the Missouri Territory. Settled originally by migrants from the Upper South, it is part of the region historically known as Little Dixie. It is part of the Columbia, Missouri metropolitan area.Jackson, Missouri
Jackson is a city in Cape Girardeau County, Missouri, United States. The population was 13,758 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Cape Girardeau County. It is a principal city of the Cape Girardeau–Jackson, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area.Kansas Territory
The Territory of Kansas was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until January 29, 1861, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Kansas.
The territory extended from the Missouri border west to the summit of the Rocky Mountains and from the 37th parallel north to the 40th parallel north. Originally part of Missouri Territory, it was unorganized from 1821 to 1854. Much of the eastern region of what is now the State of Colorado was part of Kansas Territory. The Territory of Colorado was created to govern this western region of the former Kansas Territory on February 28, 1861.Lawrence County, Arkansas
Lawrence County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,415. The county seat is Walnut Ridge. Lawrence County is Arkansas's second county, formed on January 15, 1815, and named for Captain James Lawrence who fought in the War of 1812. It is an alcohol prohibition or dry county.List of Missouri Secretaries of State
The people below have all served as the Secretary of State for the U.S. state of Missouri.Madison County, Missouri
Madison County is a county located in the Lead Belt region of the U.S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,226. Its county seat and largest city is Fredericktown. The county was officially organized on December 14, 1818, and was named after President James Madison.Mining has been a key industry in this area with Madison County recorded as having the oldest lead mine west of the Mississippi River.Missouri Department of Corrections
The Missouri Department of Corrections is a state agency of Missouri that operates state prisons. It is headquartered in Jefferson City.Missouri Territory's at-large congressional district
On June 4, 1812, the Missouri Territory was created following the creation of the state of Louisiana. The Arkansas Territory was spun off in 1819. The state of Missouri was separated in 1821 and the remaining land was annexed by the Michigan Territory in 1834.Palmyra, Missouri
Palmyra is a city in and the county seat of Marion County, Missouri, United States. The population was 3,595 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Hannibal Micropolitan Statistical Area.State Treasurer of Missouri
The State Treasurer of Missouri is a statewide elected official responsible for serving as Missouri's chief financial officer. The current state treasurer is Scott Fitzpatrick, who was appointed in January 2019 following the resignation of the previous incumbent Eric Schmitt in order to accept appointment as Attorney General of Missouri. Treasurers are limited to two terms in office. Along with the Governor, these are the only statewide elected offices in Missouri that are subject to term limits. Schmitt was elected as State Treasurer after Clint Zweifel was ineligible to seek reelection as state treasurer in the 2016 elections, and announced that he would not run for any other political office that year.Unorganized territory
In the United States, an unorganized territory is a region of land without a "normally" constituted system of government. This does not mean that the territory has no government at all or that it is unclaimed territory. In practice, such territories are always sparsely populated.
Historically, the term "unorganized territory" was applied to an area in which there was no effective government control of affairs on a day-to-day basis, such as the former U.S. territories where the government exerted only transient control when its forces were actually present. In modern usage it indicates an area in which local government does not exist, or exists only in embryonic form. However the area is still, at least in theory, governed by the nation of which it forms part, or by a smaller unit of that nation.
These lightly governed regions were common in the 19th century during the growth of United States. Large tracts such as the Louisiana Territory, Missouri Territory and the Oregon Country were established by Congress. Later, a portion of a territory would organize and achieve the requirements for statehood, leaving the remainder "unorganized".William Clark
William Clark (August 1, 1770 – September 1, 1838) was an American explorer, soldier, Indian agent, and territorial governor. A native of Virginia, he grew up in prestatehood Kentucky before later settling in what became the state of Missouri. Clark was a planter and slaveholder.Along with Meriwether Lewis, Clark helped lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804 to 1806 across the Louisiana Purchase to the Pacific Ocean, and claimed the Pacific Northwest for the United States. Before the expedition, he served in a militia and the United States Army. Afterward, he served in a militia and as governor of the Missouri Territory. From 1822 until his death in 1838, he served as Superintendent of Indian Affairs.