Mirror website

Mirror websites or mirrors are replicas of other websites. Such websites have different URLs than the original site, but host identical or near-identical content.[1] The main purpose of benign mirrors is often to reduce network traffic, improve access speed, improve availability of the original site, or provide a real-time backup of the original site.[2][3][4] Malicious mirror sites can attempt to steal user information, distribute malware, or profit from the content of the original site, among other uses.

Examples

Examples of websites with notable mirrors are KickassTorrents,[5][6][7][8] The Pirate Bay,[9][10][11][12] WikiLeaks,[13][14] the website of the Environmental Protection Agency,[15][16] and Wikipedia.[17][18][19] Examples of websites where a part of the website is mirrored are free and open-source software projects such as GNU,[20] in particular Linux distributions such as Debian[21] and Fedora;[22] such projects provide mirrors of the download sites (since those expected to have high load), but not do necessarily mirror the main websites.

Occasionally, some people will use web mirror software to produce static dumps of existing sites, such as the BBC's Top Gear and RedFlagDeals.

From 2009 to 2014, Moneysavingexpert had a static mirror site hosted on a free hosting site.

Malicious mirrors

There are known cases of mirror websites which attempt to gain sensitive information of or distribute malware to its users.[23] Other types of malicious mirrors might attempt to make profit from the content of other websites, identify users or manipulate website contents.

See also

References

  1. ^ Glushko, Robert J. The Discipline of Organizing: Core Concepts Edition. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.". ISBN 9781491912812. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  2. ^ "What is Mirror Site? Webopedia Definition". www.webopedia.com. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  3. ^ "What is Mirror Site? - Definition from Techopedia". Techopedia.com. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  4. ^ Wisshak, Max; Tapanila, Leif. Current Developments in Bioerosion. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9783540775973. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  5. ^ Russon, Mary-Ann (22 July 2016). "Kickass Torrents is back: New domains, mirrors and proxies show business is as usual". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  6. ^ Clark, Bryan (21 July 2016). "IsoHunt just launched a working KickassTorrent mirror". The Next Web. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  7. ^ "Mexican Police Target Popular KickassTorrents 'Clone,' Seize Domain - TorrentFreak". TorrentFreak. 23 September 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  8. ^ Wei, Wang. "New Kickass Torrents Site is Back Online by Original Staffers". The Hacker News. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  9. ^ "The Piratebay Blocked By Chrome, Mirror Sites Accessible". iTech Post. 8 October 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  10. ^ "The Pirate Bay is blocked Australia wide... except it really isn't". CNET. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  11. ^ "Pirate Bay Mirror Shut Down: Alternative Clone Had Kickass Torrents Skin, Vows To Continue". Tech Times. 24 September 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  12. ^ "Pirate Bay Blocked By Google Chrome And Firefox: Kickass Torrents Mirror, Extratorrent, Torrentz And Other Clones Accessible". Tech Times. 8 October 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  13. ^ Greenemeier, Larry. "How Has WikiLeaks Managed to Keep Its Web Site Up and Running?". Scientific American. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  14. ^ Schroeder, Stan. "WikiLeaks Now Has Hundreds of Mirrors". Mashable. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  15. ^ "The EPA Posted a Mirror of Its Website Before Trump Can Gut the Real One". Vice. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  16. ^ Hiltzik, Michael (24 April 2017). "Did 'people power' save a trove of EPA data from a shutdown by Trump?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  17. ^ "How to set up your own copy of Wikipedia - ExtremeTech". ExtremeTech. 18 January 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  18. ^ Broughton, John. Wikipedia: The Missing Manual. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.". ISBN 9780596515164. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  19. ^ Ayers, Phoebe; Matthews, Charles; Yates, Ben. How Wikipedia Works: And how You Can be a Part of it. No Starch Press. ISBN 9781593271763. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  20. ^ "gnu.org". www.gnu.org. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  21. ^ "Debian worldwide mirror sites". www.debian.org. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  22. ^ "Home - MirrorManager". admin.fedoraproject.org. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  23. ^ "Watch Out for Malicious Mirrors of KickassTorrents". PCMag UK. 15 August 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2017.

External links

24 Hours in Cyberspace

24 Hours in Cyberspace (February 8, 1996) was "the largest one-day online event" up to that date, headed by photographer Rick Smolan with Jennifer Erwitt, Tom Melcher, Samir Arora and Clement Mok. The project brought together the world's top 1,000 photographers, editors, programmers, and interactive designers to create a digital time capsule of online life."

Altoona Curve

The Altoona Curve are a Minor League Baseball team based in Altoona, Pennsylvania, named after nearby Horseshoe Curve (but also alluding to the curveball, a kind of pitch). The team plays in the Eastern League and is the Double-A affiliate of the Pittsburgh Pirates. The Curve play in Peoples Natural Gas Field, located in Altoona; it was opened in 1999 and seats 7,210 fans.

The Altoona Curve hosted the Eastern League All-Star Game at Blair County Ballpark on July 12, 2006, before a standing-room-only crowd of 9,308.

Cheyenne Mountain Complex

The Cheyenne Mountain Complex is a military installation and defensive bunker located in unincorporated El Paso County, Colorado, next to the city of Colorado Springs, at the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station, which hosts the activities of several tenant units. Also located in Colorado Springs is Peterson Air Force Base, where the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) headquarters are located.

Coventry Telegraph

The Coventry Telegraph is a local English tabloid newspaper. It was founded as The Midland Daily Telegraph in 1891 by William Isaac Iliffe, and was Coventry's first daily newspaper. Sold for half a penny, it was a four-page broadsheet newspaper. It changed its name to the Coventry Evening Telegraph on 17 November 1941, and then the Coventry Telegraph on 2 October 2006 (which reflected its switch to morning publication).

The newspaper became a part of the then Mirror Group (prior to its merger with Trinity to become Trinity Mirror), in 1997. In April 2015, the publication had a paid daily circulation of just over 18,000 copies.Historical copies of the Coventry Telegraph, dating back to 1914, are available to search and view in digitised form at the British Newspaper Archive.

DVD Decrypter

DVD Decrypter is a deprecated software application for Microsoft Windows that can create backup disk images of the DVD-Video structure of DVDs. While it was still supported, it could be used to make a copy of any DVD protected with Content Scrambling System (CSS). The program can also record images to disc — functionality that the author has now incorporated into a separate product called ImgBurn. The software also allows a copy of a region-specific DVD to be made region free. It also removes Macrovision content protection, CSS, region codes, and user operation prohibition, but cannot copy DVDs protected with newer systems such as XProtect.

Daily Record (Scotland)

The Daily Record is a Scottish tabloid newspaper based in Glasgow. It is published six days a week, and its sister paper is the Sunday Mail. As part of Reach plc, it has a close kinship with the British-based Daily Mirror, with major stories of British significance being reported in both titles.

The Daily Record had a print circulation in December 2016 of 160,557, a drop of 9.7% year on year. According to NRS PADD figures, the Daily Record is by far the leading news brand in Scotland with a total audience of 3.1 million (rising to 3.4 million including the Sunday Mail). This compares with The Scottish Sun's audience in Scotland of 1.41 million and The Scotsman at 1.13 million. The Daily Record's print sales are dropping at a rate of over 20,000 a year. Its January 2010 circulation was 323,831. This has dropped to a January 2017 circulation of 155,772.

IUP (software)

The IUP Portable User Interface is a computer software development kit that provides a portable, scriptable toolkit to build graphical user interfaces (GUIs) using the programming languages C, Perl, Lua and Nim, among others. This allows rapid, zero-compile prototyping and refinement of deployable GUI applications.

IUP's purpose is to allow programs user interface to run in different systems in unmodified form.It provides this ability by binding Lua with its C/C++ code, or simply writing C to the application programming interface (API). It handles user interface elements by using native controls provided by native APIs, such as Windows API in Windows, GTK+ in Linux, and Motif-LessTif in older Unices. It also provides some custom developed controls using graphics APIs such as CD - Canvas Draw or OpenGL.

Internet censorship in China

Internet censorship in China is among the most extensive censorships in the world due to a wide variety of legal and administrative regulations. More than sixty internet restrictions have been created by the Government of China, which have been implemented by provincial branches of state-owned ISPs, companies, and organizations. According to CNN, the apparatus of China's internet control is considered more extensive and advanced than any other country in the world. The government authorities not only block website content but also monitor internet access of individuals. Such measures have attracted the nickname "The Great Firewall of China."

As per Hoffman, different methods are used to block certain websites or pages including DNS poisoning, blocking access to IPs, analysing and filtering URLs, inspecting filter packets and resetting connections.Amnesty International notes that China has "the largest recorded number of imprisoned journalists and cyber-dissidents in the world," and Paris-based Reporters Without Borders stated in 2010 and 2012 that "China is the world's biggest prison for netizens." The offences which they are accused of include communicating with groups abroad, signing online petitions, and calling for reform and an end to corruption. The escalation of the government's effort to neutralise critical online opinions comes after a series of large anti-pollution and anti-corruption protests, as well as ethnic riots, many of which were organized or publicised using instant messaging services, chat rooms, and text messages. The size of the Chinese internet police force was reported by state media to be 2 million in 2013.Carrie Gracie wrote that local Chinese businesses such as Baidu, Tencent, and Alibaba, some of the world's largest internet enterprises, benefited from the way China blocked international rivals from the market thus encouraging domestic competition.Since May 2015, Chinese Wikipedia has been blocked in mainland China. This was done after Wikipedia started to use HTTPS encryption which made selective censorship more difficult or impossible.

Although the censorship affects the whole nation, it does not affect China's special administrative regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. These regions enjoy a high degree of autonomy, as specified in local laws and the "One country, two systems" principle. Nevertheless, it was reported that the central government authorities have been closely monitoring Internet use in these regions.

Local World

Local World Holdings Ltd. is a large regional newspaper publisher in the UK that publishes around 100 print titles and more than 70 websites. It was formed in 2012 by David Montgomery, a former chief executive of Trinity Mirror, to buy the Daily Mail and General Trust's Northcliffe Media business, and the Yattendon Group's Iliffe newspaper group.In October 2015, Trinity Mirror reached agreement with Local World's other shareholders to buy the company. The sale was completed on 13 November 2015. In April 2017 the Local World website started redirecting to the Trinity Mirror website.

Mirror (disambiguation)

A mirror is an object whose surface reflects an image.

Mirror may also refer to:

Reflection (mathematics), creating the mirror image of a shape across a point, line or plane

The "silver mirror", created in chemical tests involving Tollens' reagent

Current mirror, an electric circuit designed to copy a current through one active device by controlling the current in another active device of a circuit

Magnetic mirror, a magnetic field configuration

Acoustic mirror, a device used to focus and amplify sound waves

Nantucket

Nantucket is an island about 30 miles (50 km) by ferry south from Cape Cod, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. Together with the small islands of Tuckernuck and Muskeget, it constitutes the Town of Nantucket, and the conterminous Nantucket County. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,172. Part of the town is designated the Nantucket CDP, or census-designated place. The region of Surfside on Nantucket is the southernmost settlement in Massachusetts.

The name "Nantucket" is adapted from similar Algonquian names for the island, perhaps meaning "faraway land or island" or "sandy, sterile soil tempting no one."Nantucket is a tourist destination and summer colony. Due to tourists and seasonal residents, the population of the island increases to at least 50,000 during the summer months. The average sale price for a single-family home was $2.3 million in the first quarter of 2018.The National Park Service cites Nantucket, designated a National Historic Landmark District in 1966, as being the "finest surviving architectural and environmental example of a late 18th- and early 19th-century New England seaport town."

National Museum of American History

The National Museum of American History: Kenneth E. Behring Center collects, preserves, and displays the heritage of the United States in the areas of social, political, cultural, scientific, and military history. Among the items on display is the original Star-Spangled Banner. The museum is part of the Smithsonian Institution and located on the National Mall at 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW in Washington, D.C.

Pornhub

Pornhub is a Canadian pornographic video sharing and pornography site on the Internet. Pornhub was launched in Montreal, providing professional and amateur photography since 2007. Pornhub also has offices and servers in San Francisco, Houston, New Orleans and London. In March 2010, Pornhub was bought by Manwin (now known as MindGeek), which owns numerous other pornographic websites.

Replication (computing)

Replication in computing involves sharing information so as to ensure consistency between redundant resources, such as software or hardware components, to improve reliability, fault-tolerance, or accessibility.

Salisbury

Salisbury (locally SAWZ-bər-ee) is a cathedral city in Wiltshire, England, with a population of 40,302, at the confluence of the rivers Avon, Nadder, Ebble, Wylye and Bourne. The city is approximately 20 miles (32 km) from Southampton and 30 miles (48 km) from Bath.

Salisbury is in the southeast of Wiltshire, near the edge of Salisbury Plain. Salisbury Cathedral was formerly north of the city at Old Sarum. Following the cathedral's relocation, a settlement grew up around it which received a city charter in 1227 as New Sarum, which continued to be its official name until 2009 when Salisbury City Council was established. Salisbury railway station is an interchange between the West of England Main Line and the Wessex Main Line.

Stonehenge, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Salisbury.

Stefan Arngrim

Stefan Arngrim (born December 23, 1955), sometimes credited as Stephan Arngrim, is a Canadian actor and musician.

Web archiving

Web archiving is the process of collecting portions of the World Wide Web to ensure the information is preserved in an archive for future researchers, historians, and the public. Web archivists typically employ web crawlers for automated capture due to the massive size and amount of information on the Web. The largest web archiving organization based on a bulk crawling approach is the Internet Archive, which strives to maintain an archive of the entire Web.

The International Web Archiving Workshop (IWAW), begun in 2001, has provided a platform to share experiences and exchange ideas. The later founding of the International Internet Preservation Consortium (IIPC), in 2003, has greatly facilitated international collaboration in developing standards and open source tools for the creation of web archives. These developments, and the growing portion of human culture created and recorded on the web, combine to make it inevitable that more and more libraries and archives will have to face the challenges of web archiving. National libraries, national archives and various consortia of organizations are also involved in archiving culturally important Web content.

Commercial web archiving software and services are also available to organizations who need to archive their own web content for corporate heritage, regulatory, or legal purposes.

Website

A website or Web site is a collection of related network web resources, such as web pages, multimedia content, which are typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, and amazon.com.

Websites can be accessed via a public Internet Protocol (IP) network, such as the Internet, or a private local area network (LAN), by a uniform resource locator (URL) that identifies the site.

Websites can have many functions and can be used in various fashions; a website can be a personal website, a corporate website for a company, a government website, an organization website, etc. Websites are typically dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's website for its employees, are typically part of an intranet.

Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents, typically composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML, XHTML). They may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors. Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user. The user's application, often a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal.

Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, which often starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content. Some websites require user registration or subscription to access content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. End users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers, smartphones and smart TVs.

Wget

GNU Wget (or just Wget, formerly Geturl, also written as its package name, wget) is a computer program that retrieves content from web servers. It is part of the GNU Project. Its name derives from World Wide Web and get. It supports downloading via HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP.

Its features include recursive download, conversion of links for offline viewing of local HTML, and support for proxies. It appeared in 1996, coinciding with the boom of popularity of the Web, causing its wide use among Unix users and distribution with most major Linux distributions. Written in portable C, Wget can be easily installed on any Unix-like system. Wget has been ported to Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, OpenVMS, HP-UX, MorphOS and AmigaOS. Since version 1.14 Wget has been able to save its output in the web archiving standard WARC format.It has been used as the basis for graphical programs such as GWget for the GNOME Desktop.

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