Ministry of Internal Affairs (Russia)

The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (MOI, Russian: Министерство внутренних дел, МВД, Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del, MVD) is the interior ministry of Russia. Emperor Alexander I of Russia founded its predecessor in 1802 in Imperial Russia. The Ministry has its headquarters in Moscow.

The current Minister of Internal Affairs, General of Police Vladimir Kolokoltsev, assumed office in 2012. He had served as the Moscow Police Commissioner between 2009 and 2012.

Ministry of Internal Affairs
Министерство внутренних дел Российской Федерации
Ministerstvo vnutrennih del Rossijskoj federacii
Emblem of the Ministry of Internal Affairs
Ministry emblem
Flag of MVD of Russia
Flag of the Ministry of the Interior
Ministry of Internal Affairs (Moscow)

Ministry of Internal Affairs (Moscow)
Agency overview
FormedMarch 1802
Preceding agency
JurisdictionPresident of Russia
HeadquartersZhitnaya St. 16, Moscow, Russia
55°43′51″N 37°36′50″E / 55.73083°N 37.61389°ECoordinates: 55°43′51″N 37°36′50″E / 55.73083°N 37.61389°E
Employees907,630 (2012)
Annual budget1192.2 billion roubles (FY 2011)[1]
Minister responsible
Child agency
Websiteen.mvd.ru

History

Russian Empire

Created by Alexander I on 28 March 1802 in the process of government reforms to replace the aging collegia of Peter the Great, the MVD was one of the most powerful governmental bodies of the Empire, responsible for the police forces and Internal Guards and the supervision of gubernial administrations. Its initial responsibilities also included penitentiaries, firefighting, state enterprises, the state postal system, state property, construction, roads, medicine, clergy, natural resources, and nobility; most of them were transferred to other ministries and government bodies by the mid-19th century.

Police

As the central government began to further partition the countryside, the ispravniks were distributed among the sections.[2] Serving under them in their principal localities were commissaries (stanovoi pristav). Ispravniki and pristav alike were armed with broad and obscurely-defined powers, which, combined with the fact that they were for the most part illiterate and wholly ignorant of the law, formed crushing forces of oppression.[3] Towards the end of the reign of Alexander II, the government, in order to preserve order in the country districts, also created a special class of mounted rural policemen (uryadniks, from uriad, order), who, in a time without habeas corpus, were armed with power to arrest all suspects on the spot.[3] These uryadniks rapidly became the terror of the countryside. Finally, in the towns of the rural countryside, every house was provided with a "guard dog" of sorts, in the form of a porter (dvornik), who was charged with the duty of reporting the presence of any suspicious characters or anything of interest to the police.[3]

Secret Police

In addition to the above there was also the secret police, in direct subordination to the ministry of the interior, of which the principal function is the discovery, prevention, and extirpation of political sedition. Its most famous development was the so-called Third Section (of the imperial chancery) instituted by the emperor Nicholas I in 1826. This was entirely independent of the ordinary police, but was associated with the previously existing Special Corps of Gendarmes, whose chief was placed at its head. Its object had originally been to keep the emperor in close touch with all the branches of the administration and to bring to his notice any abuses and irregularities, and for this purpose its chief was in constant personal intercourse with the sovereign.[3]

Following the growth of the revolutionary movement and assassination of Tsar Alexander II, the Department of State Police inherited the secret police functions of the dismissed Third Section and transferred the most capable Gendarmes to the Okhrana. In 1896 the powers of the minister were extended at the expense of those of the under-secretary, who remained only at the head of the corps of gendarmes; but by a law of 24 September 1904 this was again reversed, and the under-secretary was again placed at the head of all the police with the title of under-secretary for the administration of the police.[3]

By World War I, the Department had spawned a counter-intelligence section. After the February Revolution of 1917, the Gendarmes and the Okhrana were disbanded as anti-revolutionary.

Soviet Era

GAZ-24 "Volga" police edition monument
A 1970s- or 80s-vintage GAZ-24 Volga, in the period squad car livery, installed as a monument in front of the Nizhny Novgorod Main Directorate for Road Traffic Safety headquarters.

Having won the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks disbanded the tsarist police forces and formed an all-proletarian Workers' and Peasants' Militsiya under the NKVD of the Russian SFSR. After the establishment of the USSR there was no Soviet (federal) NKVD until 1934.

In March 1946, all of the People's Commissariats (NK) were redesignated as Ministries (M). The NKVD was renamed the MVD of the USSR, along with its former subordinate, the NKGB which became the MGB of the USSR. The NKVDs of Union Republics also became Ministries of Internal Affairs subordinate to MVD of the USSR.

Secret police became a part of MVD after Lavrenty Beria merged the MGB into the MVD in March 1953. Within a year Beria's downfall caused the MVD to be split up again; after that, the MVD retained its "internal security" (police) functions, while the new KGB took on "state security" (secret police) functions.

In his efforts to fight bureaucracy and maintain 'Leninist principles', Nikita Khrushchev, as the Premier of the Union, called for the dismissal of the All-Union MVD. The Ministry ceased to exist in January 1960 and its functions were transferred to the respective Republican Ministries. The MVD of the Russian SFSR was renamed the Ministry for Securing the Public Order in 1962.

Leonid Brezhnev again recreated the All-Union Ministry for Securing the Public Order in July 1966 and later assigned Nikolai Shchelokov as Minister; the RSFSR Ministry was disbanded for the second time, the first being at the creation of the NKVD of the Soviet Union. The MVD regained its original title in 1968.

Another role of the reformed MVD was to combat economic crimes, that is, to suppress private business which was largely prohibited by socialist law. This fight was never successful due to the pervasive nature of the black market.

By the mid-1980s, the image of the people's militsiya was largely compromised by the corruption and disorderly behaviour of both enlisted and officer staff (the most shocking case was the robbery and murder of a KGB operative by a group of militsiya officers stationed in the Moscow Metro in 1980). Many high-ranking MVD officers, including the Minister himself, were revealed to be routinely bribed by illegal shadow businesses and criminals.

Russian Federation

The Russian MVD re-formed as the MVD of the Russian SFSR in 1990 following the restoration of the republican Council of Ministers and the Supreme Soviet. It continued in its functions when Russia gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. As of 2017 the Ministry controls:

Since the disbanding of the Tax Police Service in 2003 the MVD also investigates economic crimes.

Two long-time units of the Imperial MVD and NKVD, the Firefighting Service and the Prisons Service, transferred to the Ministry of Emergency Situations in 2001 and to the Ministry of Justice in 2006 respectively. The last reorganization abolished Main Directorates inherited from the NKVD in favour of Departments. In 2012 Vladimir Kolokoltsev became the Minister of Internal Affairs in Russia.

On 5 April 2016 Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered the Internal Troops, OMON (the Special Purpose Mobility Unit), and SOBR (SWAT) forces to form the basis of the new National Guard of Russia, and these moved from MVD control and were reassigned to the Security Council of Russia. In turn and on the same day, the Federal Drug Control Service and the Federal Migration Service merged into the MVD and is now known as the Main Directorate for Drugs Control and the Main Directorate for Migration Affairs, respectively.[4][5][6]

Ministers

В. А. Колокольцев
Current Minister of Internal Affairs Vladimir Kolokoltsev.
Interior ministers
Minister Start year End year
Viktor Yerin 1992 1995
Anatoly Kulikov 1995 1998
Sergei Stepashin 1998 1999
Vladimir Rushailo 1999 2001
Boris Gryzlov 2001 2003
Rashid Nurgaliyev 2004 2012
Vladimir Kolokoltsev 2012

See also

Sports

References

  1. ^ "Basic parameters of the Russian draft federal budget for 2011"
  2. ^ From Catherine II's time to that of Alexander II, these chiefs of police were put in power by the ruling nobility. This was changed after the Emancipation reform of 1861.
  3. ^ a b c d e Wikisource Phillips, Walter Alison (1911). "Russia" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 876.
  4. ^ "Putin orders creation of National Guard to fight terrorism, organized crime". rt.com. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  5. ^ http://www.interfax.ru/russia/502171
  6. ^ Galleoti, Mark. "Putin's new National Guard – what does it say when you need your own personal army?". Ukrainian Policy. Retrieved 8 April 2016.

Further reading

  • Ronald Hingley, The Russian Secret Police, Muscovite, Imperial Russian and Soviet. Political Security Operations, 1565–1970
  • Dominic Lieven (ed.), The Cambridge History of Russia, Volume II: Imperial Russia, 1689–1917, Cambridge University Press (2006), ISBN 978-0-521-81529-1.

External links

Russian

2001 Moscow Victory Day Parade

The Moscow Victory Parade of 2001 was a celebration of the 56th anniversary of the defeat of Nazi Germany in the Great Patriotic War. The commander of the parade was the acting head of the Moscow Garrison Colonel General Nikolai Makarov. Reviewing the parade was Minister of Defence Sergei Ivanov. Music was performed by the Moscow Garrison's Central Orchestra under Lieutenant General Viktor Afanasyev. This was the very first parade that was inspected by a civilian defense minister.

2011 Moscow Victory Day Parade

The Moscow Victory Day Parade in Moscow was held on 9 May, 2011 to commemorate the 66th anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The parade marked the Soviet Union's victory in the Great Patriotic War.

Federal State Unitary Enterprise Guard (Russia)

Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Guard" is governmental militarized security organization of the National Guard of Russia.

Hatsavita Mountain Warfare Training Centre

The Hatsavita Mountain Training Center is a Ministry of Internal Affairs (Russia) (or MVD) training facility located in Labinsk, Krasnodar Krai, southern Russia. The MVD, together with the Federal Security Service (FSB), carries out most internal security operations in Chechnya.

The "Hatsavita" mountain training center was organized in 2005 to increase the effectiveness of Russian Army special forces (Spetsnaz GRU) during fighting in North Caucasus Mountains, especially Chechnya and Dagestan.

Irina Yanina

Irina Yuryevna Yanina (Russian: Ири́на Ю́рьевна Я́нина; 27 November 1966 – 31 August 1999) was a Russian nurse, medical sergeant and Hero of the Russian Federation.

Joseph Kobzon

Iosif (Joseph) Davydovich Kobzon (Russian: Ио́сиф Давы́дович Кобзо́н; 11 September 1937 – 30 August 2018) was a Soviet and Russian singer of Jewish descent, known for his crooner style.

List of protective service agencies

This is a list of government Security Police and Bodyguard organizations.

Nikolai Leonidovich Obolensky

Prince Nikolai Leonidovich Obolensky (Russian: Никола́й Леони́дович Оболе́нский; 5 July [O.S. 23 June] 1878 - 11 March 1960) was a Russian governor. Born Orthodox by his princely origin of the Obolensky Russian family of the Rurik Dynasty. In exile he was converted to Catholicism and became a member of the Russian apostolate abroad.

OBKhSS

Department Against Misappropriation of Socialist Property (shortly The OBKhSS, Russian: Отдел по борьбе с хищениями социалистической собственности, ОБХСС) was the Soviet financial police. It was responsible for the regulation of economic laws fight against theft of socialist property in the organizations and institutions of state commerce, consumer, industrial and individual co-operatives, savings banks and procurement agencies, as well as to fight against speculation.

OBKhSS was established as a department of the Main Police Department of the NKVD USSR in March 16, 1937 in Order of the People's Commissar № 0018. From 1946 to 1991 under the authority of The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR.

Currently Successor of the OBKhss in similar function is the OBEP - The Department for fighting against Economic crimes of MVD and the DEB - Department for Economic Security.

Pavel Sudoplatov

Lieutenant General Pavel Anatolyevich Sudoplatov (Russian: Пáвел Aнатóльевич Cудоплáтов; July 7, 1907 – September 26, 1996) was a member of the intelligence services of the Soviet Union who rose to the rank of lieutenant general. He was involved in several famous episodes, including the assassination of Leon Trotsky, the Soviet espionage program which obtained information about the atomic bomb from the Manhattan Project, and Operation Scherhorn, a Soviet deception operation against the Germans in 1944. His autobiography, Special Tasks, made him well known outside the USSR, and provided a detailed look at Soviet intelligence and Soviet internal politics during his years at the top.

Police of Russia

Police (Russian: полиция, tr. politsiya, IPA: [pɐˈlʲitsɨjə]) is the federal law-enforcement agency in Russia, operating under the Ministry of Internal Affairs. It was established in 2011, replacing the Militsiya, the former police service. It is the federal police service of Russia that operates according to the law on police (Закон "о полиции"), as approved by the Federal Assembly, and subsequently signed into law on February 7, 2011 by then President of the Russian Federation, Dmitry Medvedev.

Public holidays in Russia

The following is the list of official public holidays recognized by the Government of Russia. On these days, government offices, embassies and some shops, are closed. If the date of observance falls on a weekend, the following Monday will be a day off in lieu of the holiday.

Ryadovoy

Ryadovoy (Russian: рядово́й, en: private) in the Army, Airborne troops, and Air Force of the Russian Federation is the designation of a member of the rank group of enlisted personnel. The rank is equivalent to matros (Russian: матрос) in the Russian Navy. In terms of the NATO rank-system the rank might be comparable to OR-1 in Anglophone armed forces.

The Imperial Russian Army used the designation ryadovoy before 1917. The word ryadovoy relates to the Russian ryad (Russian: ряд) , which in a military context means "file" or "rank" (in the sense of "rank and file"). The rank re-appeared in the newly-named Soviet Army in 1946, replacing the rank of "Red Army man" (Russian: красноармеец, translit. krasnoarmeyets) used in the Red Army from 1918 to 1946.

In the armed forces of the Soviet Union (and later in those of the Russian Federation) yefreytor is the second-lowest rank of enlisted personnel. Using the NATO rank-system, the rank might be comparable to OR-4 in Anglophone armed forces.

Silovik

In politics of Russia, a silovik (Russian: силови́к, IPA: [sʲɪlɐˈvʲik]; plural: siloviki, Russian: силовики́, IPA: [sʲɪləvʲɪˈkʲi]) is a politician who came into politics from the security, military, or similar services, often the officers of the former KGB, GRU, FSB, SVR, the Federal Drug Control Service, or other armed services who came into power. A similar term is "securocrat".

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