A miniature book is a very small book. Standards for what may be termed a miniature rather than just a small book have changed through time. Today, most collectors consider a book to be miniature only if it is 3 inches or smaller in height, width, and thickness, particularly in the United States. Many collectors consider nineteenth-century and earlier books of 4 inches to fit in the category of miniatures. Book from 3-4 inches in all dimensions are termed macrominiature books. Books less than 1 inch in all dimensions are called microminiature books. Books less than 1/4 inch in all dimensions are known as ultra-microminiature books.
Miniature books stretch back far in history; many collections contain cuneiform tablets stretching back thousands of years, and exquisite medieval Books of Hours. Printers began testing the limits of size not long after the technology of printing began, and around 200 miniature books were printed in the sixteenth century. Exquisite specimens from the 17th century abound. In the 19th century, technological innovations in printing enabled the creation of smaller and smaller type. Fine and popular additions alike grew in number throughout the 19th century. While some miniature books are objects of high craft, bound in fine Moroccan leather, with gilt decoration and excellent examples of woodcuts, etchings, and watermarks, others are cheap, disposable, sometimes highly functional items not expected to survive. Today, miniature books are produced both as fine works of craft and as commercial products found in chain bookstores.
Some popular types of miniature books from various periods include Bibles, encyclopedias, dictionaries, Bilingual dictionaries, short stories, verse, famous speeches, political propaganda, travel guides, almanacs, children's stories, and the miniaturization of well-known books such as The Compleat Angler, The Art of War, and Sherlock Holmes stories.
Abraham Lincoln, Proclamation of Emancipation (Boston : John Murray Forbes, 1863). This miniature edition was the first of this text. It is estimated that a million copies were distributed to Union troops.
Many books have claim to the title of smallest book in the world at the time of their publication. The title can apply to a variety of accomplishments: smallest overall size, smallest book with movable type, smallest printed book, smallest book legible to the naked eye, and so on.
750: Hyakumantō darani or ‘One Million Pagoda Dharani.' Also one of the earliest known printed texts, these 2-3/8" tall Buddhist charms were printed, rolled into a scroll, placed in miniature white pagodas, and distributed to Buddhist temples. A million were printed at the command of Japanese Empress Shotoku.
1674: Bloem-Hofje (Amsterdam: Benedict Schmidt, 1674). For more than two centuries, this remained the smallest book printed with moveable type.
1878: Dante, Divina Commedia (Milan: Gnocchi, 1878). 500 pages. 5 cm x 3.5 cm. Typeset and printed by the Salmin Brothers of Padua.
1897: Galileo Galilei. Galileo a Madama Cristina di Lorena (Padua: dei Fratelli Salmin, 1897). 150 pages. This remains to this day the smallest book set from movable type.
1932: The Rose Garden of Omar Khayyam.
1985: Old King Cole (Paisley: Gleniffer Press, 1985). Height: 0.9 mm. For 20 years this was the "smallest book in the world printed using offset lithography".
2001: New Testament (King James version) Cambridge: M.I.T, 2001). 5 x 5 mm.
2007: Teeny Ted from Turnip Town (category: world's smallest reproduction of a printed book. Single sheet, not codex format.) 0.07 x 0.10 mm
2016: Vladimir Aniskin, [Untitled] (Russia: Vladimir Aniskin, 2016). "The micro-book consists of several pages, each measuring only very tiny fractions of a millimeter: the precise size of the pages is 70 by 90 micrometers or 0.07 by 0.09 millimeters — too small to be read by the naked human eye. Made by gluing white paint to extremely thin film, the pages are hung from a tiny ring binder that allows them to be turned. The whole construction rests on a horizontal sliver of a poppy seed."
In 2007, archaeologists found a miniature Bible (Glasgow: David Bryce & Son, 1901) tucked into a child's boot hidden in a chimney cavity in an English cottage in Ewerby, Lincolnshire. Shoes were placed in such locations as early as the fourteenth-century as anti-witchcraft devices known as "spirit traps."
The creation of a miniature book requires exceptional skill in all aspects of book production, because elements such as bindings, pages, and type, illustrations, and subject matter all need to be approached with a new set of problems in mind. For instance, the pages of a miniature book do not fall open as do those of larger books, because the pages are not heavy enough. Bindings require exceptionally thin materials, and creating type that is readable and beautiful requires great skill. Many printers have created miniature books to test their own technical limits or to show off their skill. Many books have claimed the sought-after title of "smallest book in the world," which is now held by experiments in nanoprinting.
Good Book Press, Santa Cruz, California
Dawson's Book Shop, Los Angeles, CA
Gloria Stuart, the film actress, published numerous miniature books as collaborations with significant printers
Oxford University Press published many miniature religious books and children's books in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Running Press, known for miniature books marketed as impulse buys in bookstore checkout lines.
The largest collection of miniature books in the United States is held by the Lilly Library at Indiana University Bloomington. Donated by collector Ruth E. Adomeit, it numbers more than 16,000 items. Second in size is the McGehee Miniature Book Collection of more than 15,000 items, at the Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library at the University of Virginia. The collection was donated by collector Caroline Yarnell Lindemann McGehee Brandt, a charter member of the Miniature Book Society. The University of Iowa Special Collections and University Archives holds a collection of 4,000 miniatures donated by collector Charlotte M. Smith, which they feature on tumblr. Rutgers University Library holds some 1,500 volumes in the Alden Jacobs Collection. Washington University in St. Louis holds a significant collection, some on view in a permanent exhibition space, donated by Julian Edison.
The Morgan Library & Museum houses more than 8,000 miniature books. Queen Mary's Dolls' House at Windsor Castle in Great Britain contains a miniature library of 200 books created expressly for the collection in the 1920s at a 1:12 scale. Along with reference volumes, a Bible and the Quran, the library includes works--some written expressly for the collection--by prominent authors of the day such as Arthur Conan Doyle, Thomas Hardy, and Vita Sackville-West. The books were bound by Sangorski & Sutcliffe, and contained miniature bookplates illustrated by E. H. Shepard. The Baku Museum of Miniature Books in Azerbaijan is the only museum dedicated only to miniature books. The Museum Meermanno in the Hague, Netherlands contains a significant miniature collection on permanent display.
Achille St. Onge (1913–1978) was a publisher of miniature books from Worchester, Massachusetts. St. Onge began publishing miniature books as a hobby in 1935, and by the time he stopped publishing in 1977, he had created 48 miniature books, which are prized by collectors.
St. Onge's publications are known for their uniformity of size and elegance and clarity of design. He oversaw every aspect of the books, and collaborated with many prominent printers, presses, type designers, and binders. Some of these include the Merrymount Press, binders Sangorski & Sutcliffe, printer and papermaker Daniel Berkeley Updike, and book designer and typographer Bruce Rogers. St. Onge published traditional, often revered texts, such as famous speeches by presidents, classic short stories and essays, sermons, eulogies, and brief biographies of famous historical figures.A miniature book published by St. Onge was the only book taken on the Apollo 11 mission in 1969, and was thus the first book on the moon. It was a copy of Robert Hutchins Goddard: Father of the Space Age (1966). The book's colophon states, "One thousand nine hundred twenty six copies of this book were printed by Joh. Enschedé en Zonen, Haarlem, Holland, and bound by Proost en Brandt N.V., Amsterdam, Holland to commemorate the fortieth anniversary of the launching of the first liquid-propelled rocket at Auburn, Massachusetts, March 16, 1926."Baku Museum of Miniature Books
The Baku Museum of Miniature Books is the only museum of miniature books in the world, settled in the old part of Baku, called Inner City. The museum started its operation on April 2, 2002. In 2015 the Museum of Miniature Books was presented the Certificate of the Guinness Book of Records as the largest private museum of miniature books.Book
As a physical object, a book is a stack of usually rectangular pages (made of papyrus, parchment, vellum, or paper) oriented with one edge tied, sewn, or otherwise fixed together and then bound to the flexible spine of a protective cover of heavier, relatively inflexible material. The technical term for this physical arrangement is codex (in the plural, codices). In the history of hand-held physical supports for extended written compositions or records, the codex replaces its immediate predecessor, the scroll. A single sheet in a codex is a leaf, and each side of a leaf is a page.
As an intellectual object, a book is prototypically a composition of such great length that it takes a considerable investment of time to compose and a still considerable, though not so extensive, investment of time to read. This sense of book has a restricted and an unrestricted sense. In the restricted sense, a book is a self-sufficient section or part of a longer composition, a usage that reflects the fact that, in antiquity, long works had to be written on several scrolls, and each scroll had to be identified by the book it contained. So, for instance, each part of Aristotle's Physics is called a book, as of course the Bible encompasses many different books. In the unrestricted sense, a book is the compositional whole of which such sections, whether called books or chapters or parts, are parts.
The intellectual content in a physical book need not be a composition, nor even be called a book. Books can consist only of drawings, engravings, or photographs, or such things as crossword puzzles or cut-out dolls. In a physical book the pages can be left blank or can feature an abstract set of lines as support for on-going entries, i.e., an account book, an appointment book, a log book, an autograph book, a notebook, a diary or day book, or a sketch book. Some physical books are made with pages thick and sturdy enough to support other physical objects, like a scrapbook or photograph album. Books may be distributed in electronic form as e-books and other formats.
Although in ordinary academic parlance a monograph is understood to be a specialist academic work, rather than a reference work on a single scholarly subject, in library and information science monograph denotes more broadly any non-serial publication complete in one volume (book) or a finite number of volumes (even a novel like Proust's seven-volume In Search of Lost Time), in contrast to serial publications like a magazine, journal, or newspaper. An avid reader or collector of books or a book lover is a bibliophile or colloquially, "bookworm". A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookshop or bookstore. Books are also sold elsewhere. Books can also be borrowed from libraries. Google has estimated that as of 2010, approximately 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published. In some wealthier nations, the sale of printed books has decreased because of the use of e-books, though sales of e-books declined in the first half of 2015.Constitution of Russia
The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Russian: Конституция Российской Федерации, Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii; pronounced [kənsʲtʲɪˈtutsɨjə rɐˈsʲijskəj fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨɪ]) was adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993. Russia's constitution came into force on December 25, 1993, at the moment of its official publication, and abolished the Soviet system of government. The current Constitution is the second most long-lived in the history of Russia, behind the Constitution of 1936.
The 1993 Constitutional Conference was attended by over 800 participants. Sergei Alexeyev, Sergey Shakhray, and sometimes Anatoly Sobchak are considered as co-authors of the constitution. The text of the constitution was inspired by Mikhail Speransky's constitutional project and current French constitution.US Agency for International Development, also known as USAID (banned in Russia since 2012) drafted main concepts of the Constitution. Misleading wordings of certain sentences introduced concepts that very few countries have, including priority of international laws over domestic laws (15.4), right of overseas ownership of natural resources (9.2), ban for the government to be guided by a national ideology (13.2) and other concepts that hurt national sovereignty.
A constitutional referendum was held in Russia on 12 December 1993. Of all registered voters, 58,187,755 people (or 54.8%) participated in the referendum. Of those, 32,937,630 (54.5%) voted for adoption of the Constitution. It replaced the previous Soviet-era Constitution of April 12, 1978 of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (which had already been amended in April 1992 to reflect the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the sovereignty of the Russian Federation), following the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis.Depictions of Muhammad
The permissibility of depictions of Muhammad in Islam has been a contentious issue. Oral and written descriptions of Muhammad are readily accepted by all traditions of Islam, but there is disagreement about visual depictions. The Quran does not explicitly forbid images of Muhammad, but there are a few hadith (supplemental teachings) which have explicitly prohibited Muslims from creating visual depictions of figures. It is agreed on all sides that there is no authentic visual tradition as to the appearance of Muhammad, although there are early legends of portraits of him, and written physical descriptions whose authenticity is often accepted.
The question of whether images in Islamic art, including those depicting Muhammad, can be considered as religious art remains a matter of contention among scholars. They appear in illustrated books that are normally works of history or poetry, including those with religious subjects; the Quran is never illustrated: "context and intent are essential to understanding Islamic pictorial art. The Muslim artists creating images of Muhammad, and the public who beheld them, understood that the images were not objects of worship. Nor were the objects so decorated used as part of religious worship".However, scholars concede that such images have "a spiritual element", and were also sometimes used in informal religious devotions celebrating the day of the Mi'raj. Many visual depictions only show Muhammad with his face veiled, or symbolically represent him as a flame; other images, notably from before about 1500, show his face. With the notable exception of modern-day Iran, depictions of Muhammad were rare, never numerous in any community or era throughout Islamic history, and appeared almost exclusively in the private medium of Persian and other miniature book illustration. The key medium of public religious art in Islam was and is calligraphy. In Ottoman Turkey the hilya developed as a decorated visual arrangement of texts about Muhammad that was displayed as a portrait might be.
Visual images of Muhammad in the non-Islamic West have always been infrequent. In the Middle Ages they were mostly hostile, and most often appear in illustrations of Dante's poetry. In the Renaissance and Early Modern period, Muhammad was sometimes depicted, typically in a more neutral or heroic light. These depictions began to encounter protests from Muslims, and in the age of the internet, a handful of caricature depictions printed in the European press have caused global protests and controversy, and been associated with violence.How Watson Learned the Trick
"How Watson Learned the Trick" is a Sherlock Holmes parody written by Arthur Conan Doyle in 1924. It concerns Doctor Watson attempting to demonstrate to Holmes how he has learned the latter's "superficial trick" of logical deduction by giving a summary of Holmes' current state of mind and plans for the day ahead, only for Holmes to then reveal that every single one of Watson's deductions is incorrect.
Conan Doyle was one of several authors commissioned to provide books for the library of Queen Mary's Dolls' House; others included J. M. Barrie, Thomas Hardy, Rudyard Kipling and W. Somerset Maugham. Conan Doyle was provided with a book approximately into which he wrote the 503-word story of How Watson Learned the Trick by hand, taking up 34 pages. The original manuscript is still part of the Dolls' House library.Ian Eaves
Ian Donald Dietrich Eaves, , is a British researcher and consultant on arms and armour. He served for eighteen years as the Keeper of Armour at the Royal Armouries, from 1978 to approximately 1996. Also starting in 1978, and continuing until 1983, he served as the editor of the Journal of the Arms & Armour Society; he was appointed the society's president in 1995, and currently serves as a vice-president emeritus. In addition to editorial duties he has written several articles for the journal himself, including on a shaffron from Warwick, on the Greenwich armour of Henry Lee of Ditchley, and on a jack of plate discovered during archaeological excavations of Beeston Castle in Beeston, Cheshire; he also translated an article for the journal by the German scholar Ortwin Gamber, on the military equipment found in the Sutton Hoo ship-burial. Articles written for other journals include one on the tournament armours that were worn by King Henry VIII of England, a subject on which Eaves has also lectured.As of 2019, Eaves works as a consultant on arms and armour, and has been commissioned to create several catalogues of large collections. In 2002 he published Catalogue of European Armour at the Fitzwilliam Museum, and in 2016 he coauthored the long-awaited Arms & Armour in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, a 528-page work which Eaves had been working on for more than a decade. He has also coauthored a volume of an illustrated miniature series, The Art of the Gun: European Firearms Masterpieces from the 17th to the 19th Centuries. Eaves's work as a consultant has also included duties for auction houses, including Sotheby's and Thomas Del Mar Limited.Eaves has also collected armour himself; one of his former pieces is now owned by the Metropolitan Museum of Art.Indiana University Bloomington
Indiana University Bloomington (IU Bloomington, IU, or simply Indiana) is a public research university in Bloomington, Indiana, United States. It is the flagship institution of the Indiana University system and, with over 40,000 students, its largest university.Indiana University is a "Public Ivy" university and consistently ranks in the top 100 national universities in the U.S. and among the top 50 public universities. It is a member of the Association of American Universities and has numerous schools and programs, including the Jacobs School of Music, the School of Informatics, Computing, and Engineering, the Kelley School of Business, the School of Public Health, the School of Nursing, the School of Optometry, the School of Public and Environmental Affairs, the Maurer School of Law, the School of Education, the Media School, and the Hamilton Lugar School of Global and International Studies.As of Fall 2017, 43,710 students attend Indiana University. While 55.1% of the student body was from Indiana, students from all 50 states, Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico and 165 countries were also enrolled. As of 2018, the average ACT score is a 28 and a SAT score of 1276. The university is home to an extensive student life program, with more than 750 student organizations on campus and with around 17 percent of undergraduates joining the Greek system. Indiana athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Indiana Hoosiers. The university is a member of the Big Ten Conference; since it does not have a mascot, all teams are known simply as "Hoosiers".
Indiana's faculty, staff, and alumni include nine Nobel laureates, 17 Rhodes Scholars, 17 Marshall Scholars, and five MacArthur Fellows. In addition, students and alumni have won six Academy Awards, 49 Grammy Awards, 32 Emmy Awards, 20 Pulitzer Prizes, four Tony Awards, and 104 Olympic medals (55 gold, 17 silver, and 32 bronze).Notable Indiana alumni include James Watson, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA; Jimmy Wales, the co-founder of Wikipedia; Robert Gates, the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense; CEO and co-founder of Siri and Viv Dag Kittlaus; award-winning author Suzanne Collins, who wrote The Hunger Games series; composer and songwriter Hoagy Carmichael; John Chambers, executive chairman and former CEO of Cisco Systems; and billionaire investor Mark Cuban.Margaret Hicks
Margaret Turner Hicks (September 28, 1923 – August 3, 2006) was a world-renowned producer and promoter of Miniature Art.
Favoring representational art, Hicks painted landscapes and still lifes and the occasional portrait, using small brushes and a magnifying glass to achieve a high level of detail in paintings that were often just 2 to 4 inches wide.
Hicks often lectured on Miniature Art and was President of the Miniature Painters, Sculptors and Gravers Society of Washington from 1983 to 1988. In 1993 she published a miniature book on the topic — measuring just 2 7/8 by 2 5/8 inches — called Art in Miniature. As a collector of miniature books, Hicks "felt it would make a lot of sense" to do a miniature book on art in miniature. The book covers small-scale painting, sculpture, and engraving. All proceeds from the book went to a scholarship program for Washington DC high school students planning to study art.
Hicks' paintings and other artwork were exhibited in Washington and Baltimore, London, Japan, and at the U.S. Embassy in Gambia. Several of her pieces were among the more than 500 works in an international exhibition of miniature art she helped organize at the Smithsonian Institution's S. Dillon Ripley Center in 2004.
Margaret Turner Hicks was born in Philadelphia. She graduated from Temple University and went on to study art in Germany while her husband (now-retired Army Col. Stanford R. Hicks) was posted overseas. She also taught elementary school and tutored soldiers before becoming a full-time artist in 1968, a year after the couple settled in Washington, DC.
Hicks was an active leader in her community: President of The American Art League in Washington, member of the Arts club of Washington, Arts for Aging, The Miniature Art Society of Washington and other arts and civic groups. In addition to miniature art, she also made jewelry and clothing; her sweaters were known to be especially elaborate. She died of cancer on August 3, 2006.
"There is something fascinating about the exquisite art of miniature painting. The skill of the artist, reflected in the detail and delicate quality of the painting, reveals a world view often overlooked, except by those who take the time to see." — Margaret Hicks, artist's statementMiniature Painters, Sculptors and Gravers Society of Washington
The Miniature Painters, Sculptors and Gravers Society of Washington, D.C. (MPSGS) is an invitation-only organization dedicated to the promotion and encouragement of the practice of producing fine art in miniature. This miniature art society is headquartered in Washington, DC but includes members from around the world. Founded in 1931 by Alyn Williams, the Society is the second-oldest organization of its kind in the world next to the Royal Society of Miniature Painters, Sculptors and Gravers in London, England also founded by Mr. Williams. It is the oldest active organization of miniaturists in the United States.
Miniaturists are considered for membership in the Society after their works have been accepted in the Annual MPSGS International Exhibition in three shows or when they have been awarded a first, second, or third prize in the exhibition. As of 2000, the Society consisted of 48 Resident Members and 142 Associate Members from all over the world. There are ten Emeritus Members and five Auxiliary Members (non-artists). Society members offer exhibitions, lectures, videos, demonstrations and workshops.
The MPSGS also provides stipends for talented and deserving art students in visual arts graduating from the Duke Ellington School of the Arts in Washington, D.C.. The origin of these scholarship funds was the proceeds from sales of the first miniature book on miniaturizing, Art in Miniature, written and published by MPSGS member and past President, Margaret T. Hicks.
The Society holds an International Exhibition of Fine Art Miniatures for six weeks in November and December at the Strathmore Hall Arts Center in North Bethesda, Maryland.Miniboox
Miniboox is a German publisher who manufactures and markets miniature books.Minicomic
A minicomic is a creator-published comic book, often photocopied and stapled or with a handmade binding. In the United Kingdom and Europe the term small press comic is equivalent with minicomic, reserved for those publications measuring A6 (105 mm × 148 mm) or less.
Minicomics, sometimes called ashcan copies, are a common inexpensive way for those who want to make their own comics on a very small budget, with mostly informal means of distribution. A number of cartoonists — such as Jessica Abel, Julie Doucet, and Adrian Tomine — have started their careers this way and later gone on to more traditional types of publishing, while other established artists — such as Matt Feazell and John Porcellino — continue to publish minicomics as their main means of production.Outline of books
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to books:
Book – set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or other materials, usually fastened together to hinge at one side.Ruth E. Adomeit
Ruth E. Adomeit (January 30, 1910 – February 16, 1996) was an American author, editor, collector of miniature books and philanthropist.Tank (magazine)
Tank is an independent UK-based magazine launched in 1998. It is a quarterly publication, printed in the UK, that covers contemporary culture, fashion, art, architecture, technology and politics. The magazine is considered one of the pioneering publications in boutique magazine publishing, balancing fewer advertisements with a high cover price. Since its launch, the Tank group has expanded to include Tank Form, tank.tv, TankBooks and Because magazine.The News Letter of the LXIVmos
The News Letter of the LXIVmos was a near-monthly publication edited by book collector James D. Henderson (writing as "The Scrivener") that ran from 1927 to 1929. The twenty-one issues focused on miniature books, of which Henderson's collection was already considered to be "the finest ... in the world" when he displayed it at Harvard University as an undergraduate in 1933. The name comes from the book trade and is read "sixty-four-mos", meaning a sheet of paper folded 64 times to form a book with pages of three inches or smaller. Henderson regularly printed answers from his readers to the question "Why collect miniature books since they are too small to read?", with responses ranging from saving space, to pedagogy, to "Everyone should have a hobby."The editions were printed in a number of different cities around the world, including a special issue published by the Black Sun Press in Paris. Robert Massmann and Ruth Adomeit published an index to the periodical in 1962. A facsimile edition of the complete run was issued in 1968. LXIVmos inspired the creation of the later Miniature Book News and is listed, along with several other works by Henderson, in the Miniature Book Society's Essential References for a Miniature Book Collector.The Uplifters (club)
The Lofty and Exalted Order of Uplifters or simply The Uplifters is an invitation-only social club at the Los Angeles Athletic Club founded by Harry Marston Haldeman in 1913. The club is still in existence today.
Haldemen, originally from Chicago, was a plumbing magnate and grandfather of Watergate conspirator, H.R. Haldeman. Upon his arrival in Los Angeles, he sought to create a men's club similar to The Bugs. Its membership included Marco H. Hellman, Sim W. Crabill, Ralph Hamlin,Herman Paine, Sr., Ernest R. Ball, Byron Gay, Will Rogers, Walt Disney, Spencer Tracy, Clark Gable, Busby Berkeley, Leo Carrillo, Harold Lloyd, Darryl F. Zanuck, Ferde Grofé, Eugene Biscailuz, Hays Rice, Clarence R. Rundel, Louis F. Gottschalk, and L. Frank Baum. Baum created the group's name, wrote its anthem, "Haldeman," and scripted most of their amateur theatricals until his death, several of which were revived posthumously.
In its initial stage, the Uplifters met regularly at The Los Angeles Athletic Club after construction on the 12-story clubhouse finished in 1912. They also held an infamous annual party, called the Hijinx, first in Los Angeles and later in both Lake Arrowhead and Del Mar. The men-only affair featured heavy drinking, the staging of lewd plays and outdoor sports including polo and shooting.
Eventually the group moved out of the Los Angeles Athletic Club to avoid the scrutiny of prohibition, purchasing a ranch in 1920 near what is now Will Rogers State Historic Park. The ranch encompassed 120 acres and included a Spanish Colonial-style clubhouse with tennis courts, a swimming pool, trap shooting range, amphitheater and dormitories. Club members were invited to build their own getaway cottages on land leased from the club, provided they adhere to strict building guidelines.The Uplifters, long dormant, now meets regularly at The Los Angeles Athletic Club. Once an all male group, it is now run by two women. The club continues to uphold their founding motto - "To Uplift Art and Promote Goodfellowship," - while also promoting a contemporary spirit of inclusivity, and outward-facing engagement with the DTLA community. Contemporary Uplifter meetings follow the same structure and procedures set by the original membership, led by the "Board of Excelsiors" which includes a Grand Muscle (President), Elevator (Vice President), Lord High Raiser (Treasurer) and Royal Hoister (Secretary), positions and titles first devised by Baum himself.Thumb Bible
A Thumb Bible is a type of miniature book. A usually paraphrased or abridged version of the Bible, it is a devotional volume whose name refers to its size. Many thumb bibles were intended for children and were decorated with pictures. The first Thumb Bibles were published in the early seventeenth century, with several hundred different editions being printed in subsequent centuries.Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France. Of the then 58 members of the United Nations, 48 voted in favor, none against, eight abstained, and two did not vote.The Declaration consists of 30 articles affirming an individual's rights which, although not legally binding in themselves, have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, economic transfers, regional human rights instruments, national constitutions, and other laws. The Declaration was the first step in the process of formulating the International Bill of Human Rights, which was completed in 1966, and came into force in 1976, after a sufficient number of countries had ratified them.
Some legal scholars have argued that because countries have constantly invoked the Declaration for more than 50 years, it has become binding as a part of customary international law. However, in the United States, the Supreme Court in Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain (2004), concluded that the Declaration "does not of its own force impose obligations as a matter of international law." Courts of other countries have also concluded that the Declaration is not in and of itself part of domestic law.