Minguo calendar

The Republic of China Calendar (traditional Chinese: 民國紀年(中華民國曆); simplified Chinese: 民国纪年(中华民国历); pinyin: Mínguó Jìyuán; Wade–Giles: Min2-kuo2 Chi4-yüan2; literally: 'Republic[an] year numbering system (Republic of China calendar)') is the official calendar of the Republic of China. It is used to number the years for official purposes only in the Taiwan area after 1949. It was used in the Chinese mainland from 1912 until the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949.

Following the Chinese imperial tradition of using the sovereign's era name and year of reign, official ROC documents use the Republic (traditional Chinese: 民國; simplified Chinese: 民国; pinyin: Minguo; literally: 'Civilian Nation/ Republic') system of numbering years in which the first year was 1912, the year of the establishment of the Republic of China. Months and days are numbered according to the Gregorian calendar.

Gregorian calendar
14 March 2019
Minguo calendar
民國108年03月14日
ROC calendar
A calendar that commemorates the first year of the Republic of China as well as the election of Sun Yat-sen as the provisional President.

Calendar details

The Gregorian calendar was adopted by the nascent Republic of China effective 1 January 1912 for official business, but the general populace continued to use the traditional Chinese calendar. The status of the Gregorian calendar was unclear between 1916 and 1921 while China was controlled by several competing warlords each supported by foreign colonial powers. From about 1921 until 1928 warlords continued to fight over northern China, but the Kuomintang or Nationalist government controlled southern China and used the Gregorian calendar. After the Kuomintang reconstituted the Republic of China on 10 October 1928, the Gregorian calendar was officially adopted, effective 1 January 1929. The People's Republic of China has continued to use the Gregorian calendar since 1949.[1]

Despite the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, the numbering of the years was still an issue. The Chinese imperial tradition was to use the emperor's era name and year of reign. One alternative to this approach was to use the reign of the half-historical, half-legendary Yellow Emperor in the third millennium BC to number the years.[1] In the early 20th century, some Chinese Republicans began to advocate such a system of continuously numbered years, so that year markings would be independent of the Emperor's regnal name. (This was part of their attempt to de-legitimize the Qing Dynasty.)

When Sun Yat-sen became the provisional president of the Republic of China, he sent telegrams to leaders of all provinces and announced the 13th day of 11th Month of the 4609th year of the Yellow Emperor's reign (corresponding to 1 January 1912) to be the first year of the Republic of China.[1] The original intention of the Minguo calendar was to follow the imperial practice of naming the years according to the number of years the Emperor had reigned, which was a universally recognizable event in China. Following the establishment of the Republic, hence the lack of an Emperor, it was then decided to use the year of the establishment of the current regime. This reduced the issue of frequent change in the calendar, as no Emperor ruled more than 61 years in Chinese history — the longest being the Kangxi Emperor, who ruled from 1662–1722 (Kangxi 61). (Qianlong Emperor abdicated in 1795, i.e. Qianlong 60, but the reign name of Qianlong is still used unofficially until his death in 1799 i.e. Qianlong 64.)

As Chinese era names are traditionally two characters long, 民國 (Mínguó, "Republic") is employed as an abbreviation of 中華民國 (Zhōnghuá Mínguó, "Republic of China"). The first year, 1912, is called 民國元年 (Mínguó Yuánnián) and 2010, the "99th year of the Republic" is 民國九十九年, 民國99年, or simply 99.

Based on Chinese National Standard CNS 7648: Data Elements and Interchange Formats—Information Interchange—Representation of Dates and Times (similar to ISO 8601), year numbering may use the Gregorian system as well as the ROC era. For example, 3 May 2004 may be written 2004-05-03 or ROC 93-05-03.

The ROC era numbering happens to be the same as the numbering used by the Juche calendar of North Korea, because its founder, Kim Il-sung, was born in 1912. The years in Japan's Taishō period (30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926) also coincide with those of the ROC era.

In addition to the ROC's Minguo calendar, Taiwanese continue to use the lunar Chinese calendar for certain functions such as the dates of many holidays, the calculation of people's ages, and religious functions.

Arguments for and against

The use of the ROC era system extends beyond official documents. Misinterpretation is more likely in the cases when the prefix (ROC or 民國) is omitted.

There have been legislative proposals by pro-Taiwan Independence political parties, such as the Democratic Progressive Party to abolish the Republican calendar in favor of the Gregorian calendar.[2]

Relation to the Gregorian calendar

To convert any Gregorian calendar year between 1912 and the current year to Minguo calendar, 1912 needs to be subtracted from the year in question, then 1 added.

ROC era 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
AD 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921
ROC era 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
AD 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931
ROC era 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
AD 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941
ROC era 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
AD 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951
ROC era 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
AD 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961
ROC era 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
AD 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971
ROC era 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
AD 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981
ROC era 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
AD 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991
ROC era 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
AD 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
ROC era 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
AD 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
ROC era 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108
AD 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Endymion Wilkinson (2000). Chinese History: A Manual. Harvard Univ Asia Center. pp. 184–185. ISBN 978-0-674-00249-4.
  2. ^ Jimmy Chuang (25 February 2006). "Taiwan may drop idiosyncratic Republican calendar". Taipei Times. Retrieved 2017-09-05.
20th Golden Melody Awards

Ceremonies of the 20th Golden Melody Awards were held at the Taipei Arena in Taipei, Taiwan on June 27, 2009.

Chinese era name

A Chinese era name is the regnal year, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers. Some emperors have several era names, one after another, where each beginning of a new era resets the numbering of the year back to year one or yuán (元). The numbering of the year increases on the first day of the Chinese calendar each year. The era name originated as a motto or slogan chosen by an emperor.

Civil calendar

The civil calendar is the calendar, or possibly one of several calendars, used within a country for civil, official or administrative purposes. The civil calendar is almost always used for general purposes by people and private organizations.

The most widespread civil calendar and de facto international standard is the Gregorian calendar. Although that calendar is associated with the Catholic Church and the papacy, it has been adopted, as a matter of convenience, by many secular and non-Christian countries although some countries use other calendars.

Draft History of Qing

The Draft History of Qing (Chinese: 清史稿; pinyin: Qīng Shǐ Gǎo) is a draft of the official history of the Qing dynasty compiled and written by a team of over 100 historians led by Zhao Erxun who were hired by the Beiyang government of the Republic of China. The draft was published in 1928, but the Chinese Civil War caused a lack of funding for the project and it was put to an end in 1930. Both of the current regimes claiming Greater China have attempted to complete it.

Driving license in Taiwan

In Taiwan, Driving licences (Chinese: 汽車駕駛執照) are issued by the Ministry of Transportation and Communications to a qualified motor vehicle driver. The number of the driving licence in Taiwan is similar to the ID number of the licence holder.

East Asian age reckoning

East Asian age reckoning originated in China and continues in limited use there and in Japan, but is still common in Korea. People are born at the age of one, i.e. the first year of lifetime using ordinal number (instead of "zero" using cardinal number), and on Chinese New Year or New Year's Day one year is added to their age. Since age is incremented at the beginning of the lunar or solar year, rather than on the anniversary of a birthday, people may be one or two years older in Asian reckoning than in the international age system.

Epoch

An epoch, for the purposes of chronology and periodization, is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular calendar era. The "epoch" serves as a reference point from which time is measured.

The moment of epoch is usually decided by congruity (makes simple sense), or by following conventions understood from the epoch in question. The epoch moment or date is usually defined from a specific, clear event of change, epoch event. In a more gradual change, a deciding moment is chosen when the epoch criterion was reached.

Golden Bell Awards

The Golden Bell Awards (Chinese: 金鐘獎; pinyin: Jīnzhōngjiǎng) is an annual Taiwanese television production award presented in October or November each year by the Bureau of Audiovisual and Music Industry Development, a division of Taiwan's Ministry of Culture. It is the first television production award in Chinese circulation, founded in 1965, and Taiwan's equivalent to the Emmy Awards. It is also one of the three major annual awards presented in Taiwan, along with the Golden Melody Awards for music and the Golden Horse Film Festival and Awards for movies and films. The awards were presented by the Government Information Office until 2011.

Currently, there are two main streams presented at separate ceremonies: Television Golden Bell Awards (Chinese: 電視金鐘獎) and Broadcast Golden Bell Awards (Chinese: 廣播金鐘獎).

List of calendars

This is a list of calendars. Included are historical calendars as well as proposed ones. Historical calendars are often grouped into larger categories by cultural sphere or historical period; thus O'Neil (1976) distinguishes the groupings Egyptian calendars (Ancient Egypt), Babylonian calendars (Ancient Mesopotamia), Indian calendars (Hindu and Buddhist traditions of the Indian subcontinent), Chinese calendars and Mesoamerican calendars.

These are not specific calendars but series of historical calendars undergoing reforms or regional diversification.

In Classical Antiquity, the Hellenic calendars inspired the Roman calendar, including the solar Julian calendar introduced in 45 BC. Many modern calendar proposals, including the Gregorian calendar itself, are in turn modifications of the Julian calendar.

National Identification Card (Republic of China)

The National Identification Card (Chinese: 國民身分證; pinyin: Guómín Shēnfènzhèng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Kok-bîn Sin-hun-chèng) is a compulsory identity document issued to nationals of the Taiwan who have household registration in Taiwan. The Identification Card is used for virtually all other activities that require identity verification within the ROC such as opening bank accounts and voting. Household registration in Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu along with other outlying islands as evidenced by the Republic of China National Identification Card, rather than the Republic of China Passport, grants the holder the right of abode and right to vote in the ROC.

The card can be used to enter mainland China through most of its airports, for a stay of up to 3 months

New Taiwan dollar

The New Taiwan dollar (Chinese: 新臺幣; pinyin: Xīntáibì; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Sin-tâi-phiò; code: TWD; symbol: NT$, also abbreviated as NT) is the official currency of the Republic of China (ROC) used in the Taiwan Area. Formally, one dollar (圓) is divided into ten dimes (角), and to 100 cents (分), although cents are never used in practice. The New Taiwan dollars has been the currency of Taiwan since 1949, when it replaced the Old Taiwan dollar, at a rate of 40,000 old dollars per one new dollar. There are a variety of alternative names to the units in Taiwan. The unit of dollar is usually written in simpler form as 元. Colloquially, the currency unit usually called 塊 (kuài, literally piece) in Mandarin, 箍 (kho͘, literally hoop) in Taiwanese Hokkien, and 銀 (ngiùn, literally silver) in Hakka.

Since the year 2000, the Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) is the central bank of Taiwan, which currently issues the New Taiwan dollar. While the Bank of Taiwan issued banknotes prior to 2000, it was also the de facto central bank between 1949 and 1961.

North Korean calendar

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea calendar, DPRK calendar, or Juche calendar (Korean pronunciation: [tɕutɕʰe]), named after the Juche ideology, is the system of year-numbering used in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

Regnal year

A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign, from the Latin regnum meaning kingdom, rule.

The oldest dating systems were in regnal years, and considered the date as an ordinal, not a cardinal number. For example, a monarch could have a first year of rule, a second year of rule, a third year of rule, and so on, but not a zeroth year of rule.

Applying this ancient epoch system to modern calculations of time, which include zero, is what led to the debate over when the third millennium began.

Regnal years are "finite era names", contrary to "infinite era names" such as Christian era, Jimmu era, Juche era, and so on.

Republic of China (disambiguation)

The Republic of China is a state in East Asia, commonly known as Taiwan.

Republic of China may also refer to:

The Republic of China (1912–1949), state in East Asia from the end of the Qing dynasty to the end of the Chinese Civil War, ruling all of China

The Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1912), a government established in 1912

The Beiyang government, the government of northern China, 1913–1928

The Nationalist government, the Kuomintang-ruled government of China, 1928–1948

The Fujian People's Government, also known as the People's Revolutionary Government of the Republic of China, 1933–1934

The Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1937–40), puppet government of Japan

The Reformed Government of the Republic of China, puppet government of Japan

The Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China, puppet government of Japan, 1940–1945

The Government of the Republic of China, the current government of Taiwan

Republican Era

Republican Era can refer to:

Minguo calendar, the official era of the Republic of ChinaIt may also refer to any era in a country's history when it was governed as a republic or by a Republican Party. In particular, it may refer to:

Roman Republic (509 BCE–27 BCE)

Commonwealth of England (1649–53)

Republican Chile (1818–91)

History of Ecuador (1830–60), the beginning of that country's republican era

Republic of Cuba (1902–59)

Republic of China (1912–49)

Second Spanish Republic (1931–39)

Turkey (1922–present)

Seventh grade

Seventh grade, equivalent to Year 8 in England and Wales, and S1 in Scotland, is a year of education in many nations. The seventh grade is the seventh school year after kindergarten. Students are usually 12–13 years old.

Solar calendar

A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the season or almost equivalently the apparent position of the Sun relative to the stars. The Gregorian calendar, widely accepted as standard in the world, is an example of a solar calendar.

The main other type of calendar is a lunar calendar, whose months correspond to cycles of Moon phases. The months of the Gregorian calendar do not correspond to cycles of Moon phase.

The Kung Sheung Daily News

The Kung Sheung Daily News was a newspaper of British Hong Kong. It was owned indirectly by Ho Shai-lai (Chinese: 何世禮), former Republic of China general and son of Hong Kong tycoon Robert Hotung. It was a pro-Kuomintang newspaper and used the Minguo calendar.

Sister newspaper The Kung Sheung Evening News (Chinese: 工商晚報), was an evening newspaper, both day and evening editions were published by "The Industrial and Commercial Daily Press Limited" (Chinese: 工商日報有限公司), which was incorporated on 10 November 1928. The publisher was wound up on 26 December 1996, many years after the newspapers ceased publication.The Kung Sheung Daily News was also published as an "export imprint" (Chinese: 外埠版; literally: 'Outer Port version'), targeting Taiwan.

Y1C Problem

The Y1C Problem or the Year 100 problem was a potential problem involving computers and computer systems in Taiwan in the night of 31 December 2010 and 1 January 2011.Similar to the Y2K problem faced by much of the world in the lead-up to 2000, the Y1C problem is a side effect of Taiwan's use of the Minguo calendar for official purposes. This calendar is based on the founding of the Republic of China in 1912 (year 1), so the year 2011 on the Western Gregorian calendar corresponds to year 100 on Taiwan's official calendar, which posed potential problems for any program that only treats years as two-digit values.

Systems
Nearly universal
In wide use
In more
limited use
Historical
By specialty
Proposals
Fictional
Displays and
applications
Year naming
and
numbering

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