Mimulus /ˈmɪmjuːləs/[1] is a plant genus in the family Phrymaceae, which was traditionally placed in family Scrophulariaceae. The genus now contains only seven species, two native to eastern North America and the other five native to Asia, Australia, Africa, or Madagascar.[2] In the past, about 150 species were placed in this genus, most of which have since been assigned to other genera, the majority to genus Erythranthe. Mimulus species prefer wet or moist areas and are not drought resistant.[3] Several are cultivated as ornamental garden plants.

Monkey flower brdgwtr 20080803 3047
Mimulus ringens
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Phrymaceae
Genus: Mimulus

Presently some 150, but see text


Erythranthe, and see text


Prior to the 2012 restructuring, it had long been recognized that there were two large groups of species within the genus Mimulus as it was traditionally defined, with the largest group of species in western North America, and a second group with center of diversity in Australia. In the 2012 restructuring of Mimulus by Barker, et al., based largely upon DNA evidence, seven species were left in Mimulus, 111 placed into Erythranthe (species with axile placentation and long pedicels), 46 placed into Diplacus (species with parietal placentation and sessile flowers), two placed in Uvedalia, and one each placed in Elacholoma, Mimetanthe, and Thyridia.[2][4][5]

The removal of Mimulus from family Scrophulariaceae has been supported by studies of chloroplast DNA first published in the mid-1990s.[6] Multiple studies of chloroplast DNA and two regions of nuclear rDNA[7] suggest that the genera Phryma, Berendtiella, Hemichaena, Leucocarpus, Microcarpeae, Peplidium, Glossostigma, and Elacholoma are all derived from within Mimulus and would need to be rearranged.[8]

Species of Mimulus sensu stricto

The species remaining in Mimulus are:[2]

  • Mimulus alatus – Sharpwing monkey-flower (eastern North America)
  • Mimulus aquatilis – (Queensland, Australia)
  • Mimulus gracilis – (Australia)
  • Mimulus madagascariensis – (Madagascar)
  • Mimulus orbicularis – (Bangladesh to Myanmar, central Thailand and Vietnam)
  • Mimulus ringens – Allegheny monkey-flower, square-stemmed monkey-flower (eastern North America)
  • Mimulus strictus – (Africa, India and Australia)
  • Mimulus guttatus - (western North America)


  1. ^ Staff (1995). Sunset Western Garden Book. Maumelle: Leisure Arts. pp. 606–607. ISBN 978-0376038517.
  2. ^ a b c Barker, W. L. (Bill); et al. (2012). "A Taxonomic Conspectus of Phyrmaceae: A Narrowed Circumscription for Mimulus, New and Resurrected Genera, and New Names and Combinations" (PDF). Phytoneuron. 39: 1–60. ISSN 2153-733X.
  3. ^ "California Monkey flowers". Las Pilitas Nursery. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  4. ^ Cooley, Arielle M.; Willis, John H. (2009). "Genetic divergence causes parallel evolution of flower color in Chilean Mimulus". New Phytologist. 183 (3): 729–739. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.02858.x. PMID 19453433.
  5. ^ Vallejo-Marín, Mario; Buggs, Richard J.; Cooley, Arielle M.; Puzey, Joshua R. (2015). "Speciation by genome duplication: Repeated origins and genomic composition of the recently formed allopolyploid species Mimulus peregrinus". Evolution. 69 (6): 1487–1500. doi:10.1111/evo.12678. PMC 5033005. PMID 25929999.
  6. ^ Beardsley, P. M.; Yen, Alan; Olmstead, R. G. (2003). "AFLP Phylogeny of Mimulus Section Erythranthe and the Evolution of Hummingbird Pollination". Evolution. 57 (6): 1397–1410. doi:10.1554/02-086. JSTOR 3448862.
  7. ^ Beardsley, P. M.; Olmstead, R. G. (2002). "Redefining Phrymaceae: the placement of Mimulus, tribe Mimuleae, and Phryma". American Journal of Botany. 89 (7): 1093–1102. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.7.1093. JSTOR 4122195. PMID 21665709.
  8. ^ Beardsley, P. M.; Schoenig, Steve E.; Whittall, Justen B.; Olmstead, Richard G. (2004). "Patterns of Evolution in Western North American Mimulus (Phrymaceae)". American Journal of Botany. 91 (3): 474–4890. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.3.474. JSTOR 4123743. PMID 21653403.

External links

Alexandria false antechinus

The Alexandria false antechinus (Pseudantechinus mimulus), also known as the Carpentarian false antechinus or Carpentarian pseudantechinus, is a small carnivorous marsupial, found only in a number of small, isolated localities in northern Australia. It is the smallest and rarest of the false antechinuses.


Diplacus is a plant genus in the family Phrymaceae, which was traditionally placed in family Scrophulariaceae. In the 2012 restructuring of Mimulus by Barker, et al., based largely upon DNA evidence, seven species were left in Mimulus, 111 placed into Erythranthe (species with axile placentation and long pedicels), 46 placed into Diplacus (species with parietal placentation and sessile flowers), two placed in Uvedalia, and one each placed in Elacholoma, Mimetanthe, and Thyridia. Diplacus used to be a separate genus from Mimulus but no later than 1905, it was merged into Mimulus until the 2012 restructuring. Dry and rocky areas are preferred.

Diplacus aurantiacus

Diplacus aurantiacus, the sticky monkey-flower or orange bush monkey-flower, is a flowering plant that grows in a subshrub form, native to southwestern North America from southwestern Oregon south through most of California. It is a member of the lopseed family, Phrymaceae. It was formerly known as Mimulus aurantiacus.

Diplacus mephiticus

Diplacus mephiticus is a species of monkeyflower known by the common names skunky monkeyflower and foul odor monkeyflower. It was formerly known as Mimulus mephiticus.It has been reclassified as Mimulus nanus (now Diplacus) var. mephiticus.

Diplacus rupicola

Diplacus rupicola, the Death Valley monkeyflower, is a flowering plant in the family Phrymaceae.


Erythranthe, the monkey-flowers and musk-flowers, is a diverse plant genus with at least 111 members (as of 2017) in the family Phrymaceae. Erythranthe was originally described as a separate genus, then generally regarded as a section within the genus Mimulus, and recently returned to generic rank. Mimulus sect. Diplacus was segregated from Mimulus as a separate genus at the same time. Mimulus remains as a small genus of eastern North America and the Southern Hemisphere. Molecular data show Erythranthe and Diplacus to be distinct evolutionary lines that are distinct from Mimulus as strictly defined.

Member species are usually annuals or herbaceous perennials. Flowers are red, pink, or yellow, often in various combinations. A large number of the Erythranthe species grow in moist to wet soils with some growing even in shallow water. They are not very drought resistant, but many of the species now classified as Diplacus are. Species are found at elevations from oceanside to high mountains as well as a wide variety of climates, though most prefer wet areas such as riverbanks.

The largest concentration of species is in western North America, but species are found elsewhere in the United States and Canada, as well as from Mexico to Chile and eastern Asia. Pollination is mostly by either bees or hummingbirds. Member species are widely cultivated and are subject to several pests and diseases. Several species are listed as threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

Erythranthe cardinalis

Erythranthe cardinalis, the scarlet monkeyflower, is a flowering perennial in the family Phrymaceae. Together with other species in Mimulus section Erythranthe, it serves as a model system for studying pollinator-based reproductive isolation. It was formerly known as Mimulus cardinalis.

Erythranthe dentata

Erythranthe dentata is a species of monkeyflower known by the common names coastal monkeyflower and toothleaf monkeyflower. It is native to the western coast of North America from British Columbia to northern California, where it grows in moist habitat. It was formerly known as Mimulus dentatus.

Erythranthe glaucescens

Erythranthe glaucescens is a species of monkeyflower known by the common name shieldbract monkeyflower. It was formerly known as Mimulus glaucescens.

Erythranthe guttata

Erythranthe guttata, with the common names seep monkeyflower and common yellow monkeyflower, is a yellow bee-pollinated annual or perennial plant. It was formerly known as Mimulus guttatus.Erythranthe guttata is a model organism for studies of evolution and ecology, and in that context is still commonly known as Mimulus. There may be as many as 1000 scientific papers focused on this species. The genome is (as of 2012) being studied in depth.

Erythranthe michiganensis

Erythranthe michiganensis (formerly Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis and Mimulus michiganensis) is a rare species of flowering plant in the lopseed family, known by the common name Michigan monkeyflower. It is the only plant endemic to the American state of Michigan, where it occurs only in the Grand Traverse and Mackinac Straits areas.It is restricted to a specific type of habitat, and one that is being degraded and lost to development. It was federally listed as an endangered species of the United States in 1990.

Erythranthe moschata

Erythranthe moschata is a species of monkeyflower known by the common names muskflower, musk monkeyflower, and formerly as the common musk, eyebright and musk plant. It was formerly known as Mimulus moschatus.

False antechinus

The genus Pseudantechinus are members of the order Dasyuromorphia. They are often called false antechinuses, although this genus includes the sandstone dibbler, which was previously assigned to a different genus.

The species of this genus are as follows:

Sandstone dibbler, Pseudantechinus bilarni

Fat-tailed false antechinus, Pseudantechinus macdonnellensis

Alexandria false antechinus, Pseudantechinus mimulus

Ningbing false antechinus, Pseudantechinus ningbing

Rory Cooper's false antechinus, Pseudantechinus roryi

Woolley's false antechinus, Pseudantechinus woolleyae

Mimulus ringens

Mimulus ringens is a species of monkeyflower known by the common names Allegheny monkeyflower and square-stemmed monkeyflower.

It is native to eastern and central North America, and there are occurrences in the western United States, some of which may represent introductions. It grows in a wide variety of wet habitat types. Seeds are available from commercial suppliers.

This is rhizomatous perennial growing 20 centimeters to well over a meter tall, its 4-angled stem usually erect. The oppositely arranged leaves are lance-shaped to oblong, up to 8 centimeters long, and sometimes joined or nearly so clasping the stem. The herbage is hairless. The flower 2 to 3 centimeters long, its tubular base encapsulated in a ribbed calyx of sepals with pointed lobes. The flower is lavender in color and divided into an upper lip and a larger, swollen lower lip.

One variety of this plant, var. colophilus, is rare, ecologically restricted, and vulnerable. It is known from Quebec, it has been reported in Vermont, and there are a few occurrences in Maine, where it grows only in freshwater sections of tidal estuaries. This plant variety faces several threats, but its current status is not known due to a lack of data.

Ocoruro District

Ocoruro (Hispanicized spelling) or Uqururu (Aymara and Quechua for Mimulus glabratus) is one of eight districts of the Espinar Province in Peru.


OpenWetWare is a wiki whose mission is "to support open research, education, publication, and discussion in biological sciences and engineering."

OpenWetWare was created by graduate students at MIT on April 20, 2005. Initially, it served as a private lab wiki for the labs of Drew Endy and Tom Knight at MIT. The site was opened up to allow any lab to join on June 22, 2005. As of April 6, 2007 the site hosted 100 research laboratories from over 40 institutions, including Boston University, Brown University, Caltech, Cambridge Research Institute, CNRS, Duke University, and many others.

In addition to laboratories, a number of scientific communities are based on the site, including synthetic biology, Mimulus, and the BioBricks Foundation. One scientific community is the iGEM community with over 60 different teams represented on June 28, 2013 including the | NRP-UEA-Norwich team and the | Groningen team.

OpenWetWare runs on MediaWiki software on Linux servers. All content is available under free content licenses, specifically the GNU free documentation license (GFDL) and the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike license.


Phrymaceae, also known as the lopseed family, is a small family of flowering plants in the order Lamiales. It has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, but is concentrated in two centers of diversity, one in Australia, the other in western North America. Members of this family occur in diverse habitats, including deserts, river banks and mountains.

Phrymaceae is a family of mostly herbs and a few subshrubs, bearing tubular, bilaterally symmetric flowers. They can be annuals or perennials. Some of the Australian genera are aquatic or semiaquatic. One of these, Glossostigma, is among the smallest of flowering plants, larger than the aquatic Lemna but similar in size to the terrestrial Lepuropetalon. The smallest members of Phrymaceae are only a few centimeters long, while the largest are woody shrubs to 4 m tall. The floral structure of Phrymaceae is variable, to such an extent that a morphological assessment is difficult. Reproduction is also variable, being brought about by different mating systems which may be sexual or asexual, and may involve outcrossing, self-fertilization, or mixed mating. Some are pollinated by insects, others by hummingbirds. The most common fruit type in this family is a dehiscent capsule containing numerous seeds, but exceptions exist such as an achene, in Phryma leptostachya, or a berry-like fruit in Leucocarpus.

About 16 species are in cultivation. They are known horticulturally as "Mimulus" and were formerly placed in the genus Mimulus when it was defined broadly to include about 150 species. Mimulus, as a botanical name, rather than a common name or horticultural name, now represents a genus of only seven species. Most of its former species have been transferred to Diplacus or Erythranthe. Six of the horticultural species are of special importance. These are Diplacus aurantiacus, Diplacus puniceus, Erythranthe cardinalis, Erythranthe guttata, Erythranthe lutea, and Erythranthe cuprea.

Phrymaceae has recently become a model system for evolutionary studies.Within the order Lamiales, Phrymaceae is a member of an unnamed clade of five families. This clade has the topology of a phylogenetic grade and can therefore be represented as {Mazaceae [Phrymaceae (Paulowniaceae )]}. Two of these families, Mazaceae and Rehmanniaceae are not part of the APG III system. They were not formally validated until 2011.The composition of Phrymaceae and the delimitation of genera changed radically from 2002 to 2012 as a result of molecular phylogenetic studies. Previously, Phrymaceae had been monotypic with Phryma leptostachya as its only species. It was limited in geographic range to eastern North America and eastern China. Phryma had been previously placed by Cronquist in Verbenaceae. Research on phylogenetic relationships revealed that several genera, traditionally included in Scrophulariaceae, were actually more closely related to Phryma than to Scrophularia. These genera became part of an expanded Phrymaceae. Mazus and Lancea were included in Phrymaceae for a short time before further studies indicated that they, along with Dodartia should be segregated as a new family, Mazaceae.

As currently understood, Phrymaceae consists of about 210 species in 13 genera. Erythranthe (111 species) and Diplacus (46 species) are much larger than the other genera. Phrymaceae is distributed nearly worldwide but with the majority of species in western North America (about 130 species) and Australia (about 30 species). Phrymaceae consists of four clades, all of which have strong statistical support in cladistic analyses of DNA sequences. No relationships among these four clades have been strongly supported by the bootstrap or posterior probability assessments of clade support in any of the datasets that have been produced so far. One of the four main clades consists of a single species, Phryma leptostachya. Another consists of Mimulus sensu stricto (seven species) and six genera that have an Australian distribution. The other two clades have an American-Asian disjunct distribution. One of these includes the large genus Diplacus, while the other of these includes the other large genus, Erythranthe.

Estimates of the number of species in Phrymaceae have varied widely because of a lack of clear differences between species in certain genera, especially Diplacus and Erythranthe. When these two genera have been treated as segregates of Mimulus, the number of species assigned to Mimulus sensu lato has ranged from about 90 to about 150. A 2008 paper indicates that the actual number of species is well over 150.In 2012, a revision of Phrymaceae recognized 188 species in the family, but noted that 17 species from Australia and five from North America would be named and described in future publications. Ten of those unnamed species will be in Peplidium, raising the number of species in that genus from four to 14.

Thyridia repens

Thyridia repens, with common names creeping monkeyflower, Native musk, Maori musk, and native monkey flower, is a herbaceous succulent plant native to New Zealand and Australia that grows as low mats. Its flowers are light purple or white. It is the only species in the genus Thyridia.


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