Mimnermus

Mimnermus (Greek: Μίμνερμος Mímnermos) was a Greek elegiac poet from either Colophon or Smyrna in Ionia, who flourished about 630–600 BC. He was strongly influenced by the example of Homer yet he wrote short poems suitable for performance at drinking parties and was remembered by ancient authorities chiefly as a love poet. Mimnermus in turn exerted a strong influence on Hellenistic poets such as Callimachus and thus also on Roman poets such as Propertius, who even preferred him to Homer for his eloquence on love themes (see Comments by other poets below). His work was collected by Alexandrian scholars in just two "books" (relatively few compared for example with the twenty-six books for Stesichorus) and today only small fragments survive. The fragments confirm the ancient estimate of him as a "consummate poet"[3] but also indicate that he was a "sturdier character" than the indulgent love poet he was assumed to be by various ancient commentators.[4] Almost no reliable, biographical details have been recorded. One ancient account linked him romantically with a flute girl who subsequently gave her name, Nanno, to one of his two books.

Eclipse 4-12-2002 Woomera
Mimnermus was one of several ancient, Greek poets who composed verses about solar eclipses, and there was a total solar eclipse of his home town, Smyrna, on April 6, 648 BC[1] His poetry survives only as a few fragments yet they afford us a glimpse of his "brilliantly vivid" style.[2]

Life and work

The Byzantine encyclopaedia Suda provides a good example of the biographical uncertainties.

Mimnermus, son of Ligyrtyades, from Colophon or Smyrna or Astypalaea, an elegiac poet. He flourished in the 37th Olympiad (632–29 BC) and so is earlier than the seven sages, although some say that he was their contemporary. He was also called Ligyaistades because of his harmonious clarity. He wrote ... books.[5]

The gap indicates a corruption in the text and the original wording probably testified to two books, though the only source we have for this number was the grammarian Pomponius Porphyrion.[6] The Suda's mention of Astypalaea, an island in the southern Aegean, as a possible candidate for the poet's home town is mere fantasy.[7] Smyrna seems to be the most likely candidate.[8] The nickname Ligyaistades was probably taken by the Suda from an elegy addressed to Mimnermus by one of the seven sages—the Athenian lawgiver and elegiac poet, Solon (see Comments by other poets). Solon clearly admired the skills of the older poet, whom he addressed as Ligyaistades, yet he objected to his hedonism and singled out this couplet for criticism:

Aulos player Louvre G313
The aulos was an instrument that might accompany the singing of elegies (Brygos Painter, Attic red-figured kylix, ca. 490 BC)

αἲ γὰρ ἄτερ νούσων τε καὶ ἀργαλέων μελεδωνέων

ἑξηκονταέτη μοῖρα κίχοι θανάτου.

Would that my fated death might come at sixty, unattended by sickness and grievous cares.[9]

Solon thought he should be willing to live to eighty. Plutarch was another ancient author critical of the poet's self-indulgence, dismissing one poem (see Fragment 1 in Poetic style below) as "the utterances of intemperate people."[10] Mimnermus however was not timid in his hedonism, as indicated by a couplet attributed to him in the Palatine Anthology, an exhortation to others to live intemperately: "Enjoy yourself. Some of the harsh citizens will speak ill of you, some better.". However, the same lines have also been attributed to Theognis.[11] A robust side to his personality is shown by his versatility as a poet. Archaic elegy was often used for patriotic purposes, to screw courage to the sticking place in times of war and to celebrate national achievements, and there is ample evidence that Mimnermus assumed this role as a poet. A quote recorded by the geographer Strabo represents the earliest surviving account of the Ionian migration, celebrating the settlement of Colophon and Smyrna from Pylos,[12] [13] while another quote, recorded by Stobaeus, describes the heroic exploits of a Greek warrior against the cavalry of the Lydian king, Gyges, early in the 7th century—Mimnermus evidently hoped thereby to strengthen his countrymen's resolve against further Lydian encroachments.[14] The name "Mimnermus" might have been chosen by his parents to commemorate a famous Smyrnean victory against Gyges near the Hermus river (and yet names ending in -ermus were quite common in Ionia).[15] He was alive when Smyrna was besieged for the final time by the Lydians under Alyattes and possibly he died with the town.[16] The disappearance of Smyrna for the next three hundred years might be the reason why Colophon was able to claim the poet as one of its own, yet Smyrna's own claim persisted and this suggests that its claim had the advantage of being true.[17]

Smyrna lay near Mount Sipylos, one of whose rocky outcrops was traditionally imagined to be the tragic figure Niobe. Like other archaic poets, Mimnermus adapted myths to his own artistic needs and Aelian recorded that he attributed twenty children to Niobe, unlike Homer, for example, who attributed twelve to her.[18] According to Sallustius, Mimnermus was just as creative in his poetical account of Ismene, representing her as being killed by Tydeus at the command of the goddess, Athena, in the very act of making love to Theoclymenus[19]—an original account that was soon accepted by an international audience, being represented on an early Corinthian amphora[20] (pictured below). Imaginative accounts of the sun, voyaging at night from west to east in a golden bed, and of Jason the Argonaut voyaging to "Aeetes' city, where the rays of the swift Sun lie in a golden storeroom at the edge of Oceanus", survive in brief quotes by ancient authors.[21] According to Strabo, Smyrna was named after an Amazon and, according to a manuscript on proverbs, Mimnermus once composed on the theme of the proverb "A lame man makes the best lover", illustrating the Amazonian practice of maiming their men.[22]

Nanno

Unlike epic and lyric verse, which were accompanied by stringed instruments (the cithara and barbiton respectively), elegy was accompanied by a wind instrument (the aulos) and its performance therefore required at least two people—one to sing and one to play.[23] Ancient accounts associate Mimnermus with a female aulos player, Nanno, and one makes him her lover (see quote from Hermesianax in Comments by other poets below). Another ancient source indicates that Mimnermus was a pederast,[24] which is consistent with conventional sexual themes in Greek elegy. However, as noted by Martin Litchfield West, Mimnermus could have been a pederast and yet still have composed elegies about his love for Nanno: "Greek pederasty ... was for the most part a substitute for heterosexual love, free contacts between the sexes being restricted by society."[25] Mimnermus apparently was also capable of playing all by himself—Strabo described him as "both a pipe-player and an elegiac poet".[26] According to the poet Hipponax, Mimnermus when piping used the melancholy "fig-branch strain," apparently a traditional melody played while scapegoats were ritually driven from town, whipped with fig branches.[27]

ManisaAglayanKayaWeepingStoneTurkey
Weeping Stone, Mount Sipylos—associated with the tragic figure of Niobe.

Ancient commentators sometimes refer to a work called Nanno and there is one clear reference to a work called Smyrneis. Modern scholars have concluded that these could be the two books mentioned by Porphyrion. The Nanno appears to have been a collection of short poems on a variety of themes (not just love), whereas the Smyrneis appears to have been a quasi-epic about Smyrna's confrontation with the Lydians. A cryptic comment by the Hellenistic poet Callimachus (see Comments by other poets below) also seems to refer to those two books, commending one for "sweetness" and distinguishing it from "the great lady". The latter seems to be a reference to Smyrneis, whereas the sweet verses—apparently the slender, economical kind of verses on which Callimachus modelled his own poetry—appear to refer to Nanno. However, the comment is preserved as an incomplete fragment and modern scholars are not unanimous in their interpretation of it.[28] Another Callimachus fragment has been interpreted as proof that Mimnermus composed some iambic verse but this conjecture has also been disputed.[29]

Poetic style

Tydeus Ismene Louvre E640
Corinthian vase depicting Mimnermus's original account of Ismene's death. Tydeus is depicted in black (usual for a male), Ismene and her fleeing lover Theoclymenus are white (usual for females and appropriate for an adulterous male on the run).[30]

Elegy has been described as "a variation upon the heroic hexameter, in the direction of lyric poetry,"[31] and, in Mimnermus, this takes the form of a variation on Homer, as appears for example in Fragment 1, quoted below, about which one modern scholar had this to say"

Mimnermus' dependence on Homer is striking: it is amusing to see him express such un-Homeric thoughts as those of fr.1 in language which is almost entirely Homer's. Homer's vocabulary, line-endings, formulas, similes, all reappear, but from this material Mimnermus creates quite a distinctive poetry of easy grace and pleasing rhythm.

— David A. Campbell[32]
Fragment 1
τίς δὲ βίος, τί δὲ τερπνὸν ἄτερ χρυσῆς Ἀφροδίτης;
τεθναίην, ὅτε μοι μηκέτι ταῦτα μέλοι,
κρυπταδίη φιλότης καὶ μείλιχα δῶρα καὶ εὐνή·
οἷ’ ἥβης ἄνθεα γίγνεται ἁρπαλέα
ἀνδράσιν ἠδὲ γυναιξίν· ἐπεὶ δ’ ὀδυνηρὸν ἐπέλθῃ
γῆρας, ὅ τ’ αἰσχρὸν ὁμῶς καὶ καλὸν ἄνδρα τιθεῖ,
αἰεί μιν φρένας ἀμφὶ κακαὶ τείρουσι μέριμναι,
οὐδ’ αὐγὰς προσορῶν τέρπεται ἠελίου,
ἀλλ’ ἐχθρὸς μὲν παισίν, ἀτίμαστος δὲ γυναιξίν·
οὕτως ἀργαλέον γῆρας ἔθηκε θεός.


Typically, the elegiac couplet enabled a poet to develop his ideas in brief, striking phrases, often made more memorable by internal rhyme in the shorter, pentameter line.[33] Mimnermus employs the internal rhyme in the pentameter lines 2 (μοι... μέλοι) and 4 (ἄνθεα...ἁρπαλέα). Here is the same poem paraphrased in English to imitate the rhythms of an elegy, with half-rhymes employed in the same lines 2 (far...for) and 4 (youth...bloom):

What is life, what is sweet, if it is missing golden Aphrodite?
Death would be better by far than to live with no time for
Amorous assignations and the gift of tenderness and bedrooms,
All of those things that give youth all of its covetted bloom,
Both for men and for women. But when there arrives the vexatiousness
Of old age, even good looks alter to unsightliness
And the heart wears away under the endlessness of its anxieties:
There is no joy anymore then in the light of the sun;
In children there is found hate and in women there is found no respect.
So difficult has old age been made for us all by God!


Commenting on the poem, Maurice Bowra observed that "...after the challenging, flaunting opening we are led through a swift account of youth, and then as we approach the horrors of old age, the verse becomes slower, the sentences shorter, the stops more emphatic, until the poet closes with a short, damning line of summary."[34]

Of all the other early elegists, only Archilochus might be compared with Mimnermus for effective use of language,[35] both being lifelong poets of outstanding skill.[36]

Comments by other poets

Solon

Addressing Mimnermus and criticizing him for his stated wish to die at 80 years of age, as quoted above in Life and work, the Athenian sage said:

ἀλλ᾽ εἴ μοι κἂν νῦν ἔτι πείσεαι, ἔξελε τοῦτον:—
μηδὲ μέγαιρ᾽ ὅτι σεῦ λῷον ἐπεφρασάμην:—
καὶ μεταποίησον, Λιγυαιστάδη, ὧδε δ᾽ ἄειδε:
ὀγδωκονταέτη μοῖρα κίχοι θανάτου.[37]

But if even now you will listen to me, remove this (i.e. Mimnermus's objectionable verse)—
and do not be offended because my thoughts are better than yours—
and changing it, Ligyaistades, sing as follows:
May my fated death come at eighty.[38]

Hermesianax

"And Mimnermus who, after much suffering, discovered the sweet sound and breath given off by the soft pentameter, was on fire for Nanno..."[39]

Callimachus

Defining the kind of poetry he liked and believed best suited to his own, much later times, the Alexandrian scholar-poet commended Mimnermus thus [brackets indicate gaps in the text]:

"Of the two [types of poetry] it was his slender [verses?], not the big lady, that revealed Mimnermus' sweetness.

Propertius

plus in amore valet Mimnermi versus Homero: :carmina mansuetus lenia quaerit Amor.

[40]

In love the verses of Mimnermus prevail over those of Homer.
Gentle love calls for soft songs.[41]

Horace

si, Mimnermus uti censet, sine amore iocisque
nil est iucundum, vivas in amore iocisque.
[42]

If, as Mimnermus believes, without love and jests
There is no joy, may you live amid love and jests.[43]

Translations

  1. Greek lyric: an anthology in translation By Andrew M. Miller
  2. Loeb vol. 1 lyric poetry
  3. Several fragments translated by Steve Hays
  4. Translation of Fragment 2 into Elegiac couplets

References

  1. ^ Plutarch de.facie.lun., cited and annotated by Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), pages 99–101
  2. ^ J.P.Barron and P.E.Easterling, "Early Greek Elegy", P.Easterling and B.Knox (ed.s), The Cambridge History of Classical Literature:Greek Literature, Cambridge University Press (1985), page 136
  3. ^ Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb/Harvard University Press (1999), page 6 ISBN 9780674995826
  4. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), page 222
  5. ^ Suda, cited and translated by Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), page 73 note 3
  6. ^ Porph. on Hor. Epist. 2.2.101, cited, translated and annotated by Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), page 77 note 1
  7. ^ Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), page 73 note 1
  8. ^ A. Allen, The Fragments of Mimnermus: Text and Commentary, (Stuttgart 1993) page 13 note 17
  9. ^ Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), page 85
  10. ^ Plutarch de virt.mor. 6.445f, cited and translated by Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), page 81
  11. ^ Anth.Pal. 9.50 = Theognis 795–96, cited, translated and annotated by Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), pages 86 and 289
  12. ^ J.P. Barron and P.E. Easterling, "Early Greek Elegy", P. Easterling and B. Knox (ed.s), The Cambridge History of Classical Literature:Greek Literature, Cambridge University Press (1985), page 134
  13. ^ Strabo 14.1.4 and 14.1.3, cited by Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), pages 87–9
  14. ^ Stobaeus 3.7.11, cited and annotated by Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), pages 95–7
  15. ^ Martin Litchfield West, Studies in Greek Elegy and Iambus, Walter de Gruyter and Co. (1974), page 73
  16. ^ Stobaeus 3.7.11, cited by David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), pages 222–23
  17. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), pages 222
  18. ^ Aelian V.H. 12.36, cited and annotated by Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), page 99
  19. ^ Sallustius' preface to Sophocles, Antigone, cited by Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), page 99
  20. ^ J.P.Barron and P.E.Easterling, "Early Greek Elegy", P.Easterling and B.Knox (ed.s), The Cambridge History of Classical Literature:Greek Literature, Cambridge University Press (1985), page 136
  21. ^ Athenaeus 11.470a, and Strabo 1.2.40, cited by Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), page 91–3
  22. ^ Manuscript on proverbs, cited and annotated by Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), page 101–3
  23. ^ J.P. Barron and P.E. Easterling, "Early Greek Elegy", P. Easterling and B. Knox (ed.s), The Cambridge History of Classical Literature:Greek Literature, Cambridge University Press (1985), page 128
  24. ^ Alexander Aetolus fr. 5.4–5 Powell ap. Ath. 15.699b, cited by Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), page 77
  25. ^ Martin Litchfield West, Studies in Greek Elegy and Iambus, Walter de Gruyter and Co. (1974), page 75
  26. ^ Strabo 14.1.28, cited by Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), page 72
  27. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch de musica 8.1133f = Hipponax fr. 153 W., cited and annotated by Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), page 77
  28. ^ A. Allen, The Fragments of Mimnermus: Text and Commentary, (Stuttgart 1993) pages 146–56
  29. ^ Douglas E. Gerber, A Companion to Greek Lyric Poets, Brill (1997) page 111
  30. ^ James I Porter (ed), Construction of the Classical Body, University of Michigan Press (1999), pages 13, 38 Google preview
  31. ^ W.R.Hardie, Res Metrica 49, cited by David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), page xxiv-v
  32. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), pages 223-4
  33. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Press (1982), page xxv
  34. ^ Maurice Bowra, E.G.E.19, quoted by David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Press (1982), page 224
  35. ^ Douglas E. Gerber, A Companion to Greek Lyric Poets, Brill (1997) page 112
  36. ^ J.P. Barron and P.E. Easterling, 'Early Greek Elegy', P. Easterling and B. Knox (ed.s), The Cambridge History of Classical Literature:Greek Literature, Cambridge University Press (1985), page 133-34
  37. ^ Solon quoted by Diogenes Laertius 1.60
  38. ^ Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), page 141
  39. ^ Hermesianax fr.7.35-37 Powell ap. Ath. 13.597f, cited by Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), page 75
  40. ^ Propertius 1.9.11-12
  41. ^ Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), page 79
  42. ^ Horace, epist. 1.6.65-66
  43. ^ Douglas E. Gerber, Greek Elegiac Poetry, Loeb (1999), page 79

External links

Aleksandar Gatalica

Aleksandar Gatalica (Serbian Cyrillic: Александар Гаталица; born 1964) is a Serbian writer, critic and translator, best known for his novel The Great War, for which he won the NIN Award for best Serbian novel of the year. His works has been translated in more than ten languages.

Andraemon

In Greek mythology the name Andraemon (; Ancient Greek: Ἁνδραίμων Andraimōn) may refer to:

Andraemon, son of Oxylus and husband of Dryope.

Andraemon, father of Oxylus and thus grandfather of the precedent.

Andraemon, a Aetolian king and husband of Gorge of Calydon. By the latter, he became the father of Thoas. Andraemon succeeded his father-in-law Oeneus' power over Aetolia. He and his wife were buried in one tomb which was shown in the city of Amphissa.

Andraemon, brother of Leonteus. He married Amphinome, a daughter of Pelias.

Andraemon, one of the suitors of Penelope, from Dulichium.

Andraemon, a son of King Codrus. He participated in the colonization of Asia Minor and drove the Carians out of the city of Lebedus. His tomb was shown near Colophon. Mimnermus related that Andraemon was a native of Pylos and founder of Colophon.Similarly Andraemonides was a patronymic, frequently used to refer to Thoas, son of Andraemon and Gorge.

Callinus

Callinus (Ancient Greek: Καλλῖνος, Kallinos) was an ancient Greek elegiac poet who lived in the city of Ephesus in Asia Minor in the mid-7th century BC. His poetry is representative of the genre of martial exhortation elegy in which Tyrtaeus also specialized and which both Archilochus and Mimnermus appear to have composed. Along with these poets, all his near contemporaries, Callinus was considered the inventor of the elegiac couplet by some ancient critics.He resided in Ephesus in Asia Minor.Only a few fragments of the Callinus' poetry have survived. One of the longest fragments, consisting of 21 lines of verse, is a patriotic exhortation to his fellow Ephesians urging them to fight the invading Cimmerians, who were menacing the Greek colonies in Asia Minor:

Works of martial elegy such as this often allude to the language and the thematic content of Homer's Iliad. It is likely that Callinus performed his poetry at symposia.

Caucones

The Caucones (Greek: Καύκωνες Kaukônes) were an autochthonous tribe of Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) who later migrated to parts of the Greek mainland (Arcadia, Triphylian Pylos and Elis).

The phonology of the name Caucones may be evidence that they originated in the Caucasus Mountains.

Hittite tablets mention a kaz-kaz people who lived along the southern shore of the Black Sea – where Homer's Iliad placed the Kaukônes. According to Herodotus and other classical writers, the Caucones were displaced or absorbed by the Bithynians, who had migrated from Thrace. This suggests that the Bithynians spoke an Indo-European language, such as Thracian, while the Caucones did not. (The Bithynians also expelled or absorbed other autochthonous tribes, such as the Mysians, although one – the Mariandyni – maintained their cultural independence, in area that became north-east Bithynia. Strabo [12.3.3] states that in earlier times the Bithynians were known as Mysians. Herodotus [7.20, 75] says that some time before the Trojan War, the Mysians, alongside the Teucrians, invaded Thessaly.)

The Caucones appear in the Iliad Book X, when the Trojan herald Dolon reveals the array of Trojan allies, ranged among their neighbors like a lesson in geography: "Towards the sea lie the Karians, and Paionians of the bent bow, and the Leleges and Caucones, and noble Pelasgians." Caucones in Book XX were polemon meta thôrêssonto, "equipping themselves for war," as allies of the Trojans, when in a lighter moment, the hero Aenias fell into their midst, saved by Poseidon from certain death in direct combat with the mighty Greek hero Achilles. Aenias moves west in time receiving honors from Vergil among the founders of the Roman Empire. Recognition of the Caucones as deserving a place in the Neleiad kingdom in southwestern Greece occurs in later epic. Efforts were made, we are told by Pausanias (4.1.5). to 'historicize' Kaukon as the early ancestor of the Athenian genos Lykomidai around 480 BC by inventing a grandson of an earth-born Phlyus named Kaukon who taught the Eleusinian Mysteries to a royal queen Messene. His name was Kaukon, a teacher of religious rites.

In the Odyssey (3.366), Athena tells Nestor at Pylos in preparation for an ox sacrifice that she will secure the offering locally: "I'll go to the Caucones, where there's an old debt still owing me, not a small amount." This allusion may refer to northern inhabitants in Elis, from Bouprasion to Dyme, that Strabo's evidence claimed were Caucones. Their penetration beyond Arkadia (Strabo 7.7.1–2) and their claims to be sons of Lycaon or Lycos (Apollodorus, Library 3.8.1) explains their enduring presence over time in literature. Pausanias' description of the carved figure of Caucon holding a lyre atop his tomb speaks to their tribal poetic literacy. Several scholars believed Pylian Caucones (Hdt. 4.148, 1.147, 5.65) brought Neleid legends and Nestor's polemic exhortations to Kolophon. Mimnermus (fr. 9, 14–15, Strabo 14.1.3-4) their ancestor extended the traditional royal "we" of Homeric Nestor in his words of inspiration to Smyrnaeans fighting Lydian Gyges in the Hermus plain (Paus. 4.21.2, quoted by Theoclus, Paus. 5.8.7, 9.29.4). A Bronze Age titular figure of Kukunnis (KWKWN), son of Lycos (RWQQ), left an inscribed hieroglyphic obelisk for the governor of Byblos; and, as ruler of Wilusa (Ilion), he was commanded in correspondence by Hittite Muwatalli II (father of Mursili III), to "adopt an heir" named Alaksandu for the throne.Strabo (8.3.14–15) in discussing Triphylian Pylos lists Caucones once inhabiting Lepreion as does Pausanias (5.5.5), a settlement that may have had custody over Hades-Demeter shrines at Mt. Minthe that grew mint used for the kukeiôn at Eleusis (Homer, Hymn to Demeter 209: glêkhôni). These Caucones enter history with their expulsion (Hdt.4.148) and dispersion to Athens (Paus. 2.18.7–8, 7.2.1–5) and Ionian Miletos (Hdt. 1.146-7), after contributing to the spread of the Eleusinian Great Goddesses into Messenia and Thebes (Paus.4.1.5–9), Ephesos and Kolophon (Strabo 14.1.3). With these passages Pausanias affirms Herodotus (2.51) on the spread of Hermes and a cult of Kabeiroi throughout Attika under Hipparchus between 528–514 BC employing inscribed square-cut figures of Hermes in marble as road markers (Plato, Hipparchus 228b–229b). A Caucon priest Methapus had done much the same at Thebes. The Milesian Caucones, according to Herodotus (1.147), possessed ancestry from Pylian Codrus, son of Melanthos, the very same genealogy Herodotus (5.65) assigns to the Athenian tyrant Peisistratos. Strabo (12.3.5) reported Caucones once inhabiting the southern Black Sea coast from Heraclea Pontica (modern Karadeniz Ereğli) to Carambis promontory at Teion, on the Parthenios River, their likely Homeric geography (Iliad 20.328–9).

The Caucones are not to be confused with the Cicones (also mentioned in the Iliad and the Odyssey) who were a Thracian tribe on the south coast of Thrace.

Colophon (city)

Colophon (; Ancient Greek: Κολοφών) was an ancient city in Ionia. Founded around the turn of the first millennium BC, it was likely one of the oldest of the twelve cities of the Ionian League. In ancient times it was located between Lebedos (120 stadia to the west) and Ephesus (70 stadia to its south). Today the ruins of the city can be found south of the town Değirmendere Fev in the Menderes district of Izmir Province, Turkey.

The city's name comes from the word κολοφών, "summit", which is also the origin of the bibliographic term "colophon", in the metaphorical sense of a 'crowning touch', as it was sited along a ridgeline. The term colophony for rosin comes from the term colophonia resina, that is, resin from the pine trees of Colophon, which was highly valued for increasing friction of the bow hairs of stringed musical instruments.

Cycladic culture

Cycladic culture (also known as Cycladic civilisation or, chronologically, as Cycladic chronology) was a Bronze Age culture (c. 3200–c. 1050 BC) found throughout the islands of the Cyclades in the Aegean Sea. In chronological terms, it is a relative dating system for artefacts which broadly complements Helladic chronology (mainland Greece) and Minoan chronology (Crete) during the same period of time.

Elegiac couplet

The elegiac couplet is a poetic form used by Greek lyric poets for a variety of themes usually of smaller scale than the epic. Roman poets, particularly Propertius, Tibullus, and Ovid, adopted the same form in Latin many years later. As with the English heroic, each couplet usually makes sense on its own, while forming part of a larger work.

Each couplet consists of a hexameter verse followed by a pentameter verse. The following is a graphic representation of its scansion. Note that - is a long syllable, u a short syllable, and U is either one long syllable or two short syllables:

- U | - U | - U | - U | - u u | - -

- U | - U | - || - u u | - u u | -The form was felt by the ancients to contrast the rising action of the first verse with a falling quality in the second. The sentiment is summarized in a line from Ovid's Amores I.1.27 Sex mihi surgat opus numeris, in quinque residat—"Let my work rise in six steps, fall back in five." The effect is illustrated by Coleridge as:

In the hexameter rises the fountain's silvery column,

In the pentameter aye falling in melody back.translating Schiller,

Im Hexameter steigt des Springquells silberne Säule,

Im Pentameter drauf fällt sie melodisch herab.

Flat Earth

The flat Earth model is an archaic conception of Earth's shape as a plane or disk. Many ancient cultures subscribed to a flat Earth cosmography, including Greece until the classical period, the Bronze Age and Iron Age civilizations of the Near East until the Hellenistic period, India until the Gupta period (early centuries AD), and China until the 17th century.

The idea of a spherical Earth appeared in Greek philosophy with Pythagoras (6th century BC), although most pre-Socratics (6th–5th century BC) retained the flat Earth model. Aristotle provided evidence for the spherical shape of the Earth on empirical grounds by around 330 BC. Knowledge of the spherical Earth gradually began to spread beyond the Hellenistic world from then on.Despite the scientific fact of Earth's sphericity, pseudoscientific flat Earth conspiracy theories are espoused by modern flat Earth societies and, increasingly, by unaffiliated individuals using social media.

Ismene

Ismene (; Ancient Greek: Ἰσμήνη, Ismēnē) is the name of the daughter and half-sister of Oedipus, daughter and granddaughter of Jocasta, and sister of Antigone, Eteocles, and Polynices. She appears in several plays of Sophocles: at the end of Oedipus Rex, in Oedipus at Colonus and in Antigone. She also appears at the end of Aeschylus' Seven Against Thebes.

List of Ancient Greek poets

This list of Ancient Greek poets covers poets writing in the Ancient Greek language, regardless of location or nationality of the poet. For a list of modern-day Greek poets, see List of Greek poets.

Mimnermus in Church

Mimnermus in Church is a poem written by William Johnson Cory

Muses

In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the Muses (Ancient Greek: Μοῦσαι, Moũsai) are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts. They are considered the source of the knowledge embodied in the poetry, lyric songs, and myths that were related orally for centuries in these ancient cultures.

In current English usage, "muse" can refer in general to a person who inspires an artist, musician, or writer.

Nanno (disambiguation)

Nanno can refer to:

Nanno, a municipality in the province of Trento in Italy

Nannō, Gifu, a town in Japan

Yoko Minamino, whose nickname is "Nanno". Also several of her albums are named "Nanno".

Yōkō Minamino, a fictional character from the manga series Shonan Junai Gumi, whose nickname is "Nanno"

Nanno, a female flute player described in several poems of Mimnermus, a Greek elegiac poet

Nanno Nanigashi, an archaic form of the Japanese equivalent of John Doe

Nanno de Groot, an artist known for abstract expressionism

Nanno, a genus of prehistoric cephalopod

Paideia

In the culture of ancient Greece, the term paideia (also spelled paedeia) (; Greek: παιδεία, paideía) referred to the rearing and education of the ideal member of the polis. It incorporated both practical, subject-based schooling and a focus upon the socialization of individuals within the aristocratic order of the polis. The practical aspects of this education included subjects subsumed under the modern designation of the liberal arts (rhetoric, grammar, and philosophy are examples), as well as scientific disciplines like arithmetic and medicine. An ideal and successful member of the polis would possess intellectual, moral and physical refinement, so training in gymnastics and wrestling was valued for its effect on the body alongside the moral education which the Greeks believed was imparted by the study of music, poetry, and philosophy. This approach to the rearing of a well-rounded Greek male was common to the Greek-speaking world, with the exception of Sparta where a rigid and militaristic form of education known as the agoge was practiced.

Smyrna

Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrnē or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. Since 1930, the modern city located there has been known as İzmir, in Turkey, the Turkish rendering of the same name. Due to its advantageous port conditions, its ease of defense and its good inland connections, Smyrna rose to prominence. Two sites of the ancient city are today within the boundaries of İzmir. The first site, probably founded by indigenous peoples, rose to prominence during the Archaic Period as one of the principal ancient Greek settlements in western Anatolia. The second, whose foundation is associated with Alexander the Great, reached metropolitan proportions during the period of the Roman Empire. Most of the present-day remains of the ancient city date from the Roman era, the majority from after a 2nd-century AD earthquake.

In practical terms, a distinction is often made between these. Old Smyrna was the initial settlement founded around the 11th century BC, first as an Aeolian settlement, and later taken over and developed during the Archaic Period by the Ionians. Smyrna proper was the new city which residents moved to as of the 4th century BC and whose foundation was inspired by Alexander the Great.

Old Smyrna was located on a small peninsula connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus at the northeastern corner of the inner Gulf of İzmir, at the edge of a fertile plain and at the foot of Mount Yamanlar. This Anatolian settlement commanded the gulf. Today, the archeological site, named Bayraklı Höyüğü, is approximately 700 metres (770 yd) inland, in the Tepekule neighbourhood of Bayraklı at 38°27′51″N 27°10′13″E.

New Smyrna developed simultaneously on the slopes of the Mount Pagos (Kadifekale today) and alongside the coastal strait, immediately below where a small bay existed until the 18th century.

The core of the late Hellenistic and early Roman Smyrna is preserved in the large area of İzmir Agora Open Air Museum at this site. Research is being pursued at the sites of both the old and the new cities. This has been conducted since 1997 for Old Smyrna and since 2002 for the Classical Period city, in collaboration between the İzmir Archaeology Museum and the Metropolitan Municipality of İzmir.

Solon

Solon (Greek: Σόλων Sólōn [só.lɔːn]; c.  630 – c.  560 BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet. He is remembered particularly for his efforts to legislate against political, economic and moral decline in archaic Athens. His reforms failed in the short-term, yet he is often credited with having laid the foundations for Athenian democracy. He wrote poetry for pleasure, as patriotic propaganda, and in defence of his constitutional reforms.

Modern knowledge of Solon is limited by the fact that his works only survive in fragments and appear to feature interpolations by later authors and by the general paucity of documentary and archaeological evidence covering Athens in the early 6th century BC. Ancient authors such as Herodotus and Plutarch are the main sources, but wrote about Solon long after his death. 4th-century orators, such as Aeschines, tended to attribute to Solon all the laws of their own, much later times.

Theognis of Megara

Theognis of Megara (Greek: Θέογνις ὁ Μεγαρεύς, Théognis ho Megareús) was a Greek lyric poet active in approximately the sixth century BC. The work attributed to him consists of gnomic poetry quite typical of the time, featuring ethical maxims and practical advice about life. He was the first Greek poet known to express concern over the eventual fate and survival of his own work and, along with Homer, Hesiod and the authors of the Homeric Hymns, he is among the earliest poets whose work has been preserved in a continuous manuscript tradition (the work of other archaic poets is preserved as scattered fragments). In fact more than half of the extant elegiac poetry of Greece before the Alexandrian period is included in the approximately 1,400 lines of verse attributed to him (though several poems traditionally attributed to him were composed by others, e.g. Solon, Euenos). Some of these verses inspired ancient commentators to value him as a moralist yet the entire corpus is valued today for its "warts and all" portrayal of aristocratic life in archaic Greece.The verses preserved under Theognis' name are written from the viewpoint of an aristocrat confronted by social and political revolution typical of Greek cities in the archaic period. Part of his work is addressed to Cyrnus, who is presented as his erōmenos. The author of the poems celebrated him in his verse and educated him in the aristocratic values of the time, yet Cyrnus came to symbolize much about his imperfect world that the poet bitterly resented:

In spite of such self-disclosures, almost nothing is known about Theognis the man: little is recorded by ancient sources and modern scholars question the authorship of most of the poems preserved under his name.

Tydeus

In Greek mythology, Tydeus (; Ancient Greek: Τυδεύς Tūdeus) was an Aeolian hero of the generation before the Trojan War. He was one of the Seven Against Thebes, and the father of Diomedes, who is frequently known by the patronymic Tydides.

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