Millie Hughes-Fulford

Millie Elizabeth Hughes-Fulford (born December 21, 1945) is an American medical investigator, molecular biologist and former NASA astronaut who flew aboard a NASA Space Shuttle mission as a Payload Specialist.

Millie E. Hughes-Fulford
BornDecember 21, 1945 (age 73)
Other namesMillie Elizabeth Hughes-Fulford
Alma materTarleton State University, B.S. 1968
Texas Woman's University, Ph.D. 1972
Space career
NASA Payload Specialist
Time in space
9d 02h 14m
Mission insignia


Hughes-Fulford was born in Mineral Wells, Texas. She graduated from Mineral Wells High School, in 1962, then received her Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry and Biology from Tarleton State University in 1968, and her Ph.D. from Texas Woman's University in 1972. She is widowed and has one daughter named Tori.

She is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Society for Gravitational Science and Biology, American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, American Society for Cell Biology, American Society of Hematology and the Association of Space Explorers.

Academic experience

Hughes-Fulford entered college at the age of 16 and earned her B.Sc. degree in chemistry and biology from Tarleton State University in 1968. In 1968, Dr. Hughes-Fulford began her graduate work studying plasma chemistry at Texas Woman's University as a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellow from 1968–1971. She was an American Association of University Women Fellow from 1970–1971, and a MacArthur Foundation Fellow from 1971-1972. Upon completing her doctorate degree at TWU in 1972, Dr. Hughes-Fulford joined the faculty of Southwestern Medical School, University of Texas at Dallas as a postdoctoral fellow with Marvin D. Siperstein where her research focused on regulation of cholesterol metabolism.

Dr. Hughes-Fulford has contributed over 120 papers and abstracts on bone and cancer growth regulation and on the effect of spaceflight on the immune system at the cell molecular and systems biology level. Since then, she was named the Federal Employee of the Year for the Western Region in 1985, International Zontian in 1992 and Marin County Woman of the Year in 1994. She was a major in the US Army Reserve Medical Corps until 1995.

Selected as a payload specialist by NASA in January 1983, Hughes-Fulford flew in June 1991 aboard STS-40 Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS 1), the first Spacelab mission dedicated to biomedical studies. The SLS-1 mission flew over 3.2 million miles in 146 orbits and its crew completed over 18 experiments during a 9-day period, bringing back more medical data than any previous NASA flight. Mission duration was 218 hours, 14 minutes and 20 seconds, or 9 days, 2 hours, 14 minutes, and 20 seconds .[1][2][3]

Hughes-Fulford is a Professor at the University of California Medical Center at San Francisco where she continues her research. As the Director of the Hughes-Fulford Laboratory [4]and Scientific Advisor to the Under Secretary of Veteran's Affairs, she studies the control of human prostate cancer growth with VA grants and the regulation of bone and lymphocyte activation with NASA grants.

She was the Principal Investigator (PI) on a series of SpaceHab/Biorack experiments, which examined the regulation of osteoblast (bone cell) growth. These experiments flew on STS-76, in March 1996, STS-81 in January 1997 and STS-84 in May 1997. These studies examined the root causes of osteoporosis that occurs in astronauts during spaceflight. She found changes in anabolic signal transduction in microgravity. Later, in collaboration with Dr. Augusto Cogoli of Zurich, Switzerland, she examined changes in T-cell gene induction in spaceflight in a joint NASA/ESA International Space Station experiment that launched on the Soyuz TMA-9. The previous Leukin experiment with Dr. Cogoli was lost on the STS-107 mission. This study (Leukin) examines the mechanism of action causing the decrease in T-cell activation in microgravity, a medical problem that was first found in returning Apollo astronauts. Isolated T-cells will be activated in spaceflight on Biopack hardware; the altered activation will be examined by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) analysis of induced genes. Further studies of gene regulation and signal transduction in spaceflight were approved in January 2002 for Shuttle/ISS experiments examining protein kinase C (PKC) signal activation. She flew her most recent experiments to ISS on SpaceX in collaboration with the ISS International Laboratory, the European Space Agency and the National Institutes of Health. In those studies she found one bases for changes in the immune system in spaceflight many of her publications are available at her lab website[4].

Awards and honors

  • 1995–2005 Organizing Committee for the International Conference on Eicosanoids and other active Bio-lipids
  • 1995–2001 Advisory Board for Marine Biological Library Sciences Writing Program, Woods Hole, Mass
  • 1994 Marin County Woman of the Year
  • 1991 NASA Space Flight Medal
  • 1987–1990 she was a member of the Committee on Space Biology and Space Medicine, National Research Council
  • 1986–1989 Board of Regents Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida
  • 1984 Presidential Award for Federal Employee for Western Region
  • 1971-1972 MacArthur Foundation Fellow
  • 1970-1971 American Association of University Women's Fellowship
  • 1968–1971 National Science Foundation Fellow (Graduate)
  • 1965 National Science Foundation Summer Research Fellow (Undergraduate).


  1. ^ "Payload Specialist Astronaut Bio: Millie Hughes-Fulford (03/2014)".
  2. ^ " - Medical Achievments in Cell Technology".
  3. ^ Becker, Joachim. "Astronaut Biography: Millie Hughes-Fulford".
  4. ^ a b "Hughes-Fulford Laboratory". Retrieved 2019-04-12.
Astronaut birthplaces by US state

This article lists the birthplaces of astronauts from the United States' space program and other space travelers born in the United States or holding American citizenship. Space travelers who did not work for NASA are indicated in italics.

Canceled Space Shuttle missions

During the Space Shuttle program, several missions were canceled. Many were canceled as a result of the Challenger and the Columbia disasters. Many early missions were canceled due to delays in the development of the shuttle. Others were canceled because of changes in payload and missions requirements.

Fulford (surname)

Fulford is a surname, and may refer to

Adrian Fulford, Lord Justice Fulford, British judge

Alicia Fulford-Wierzbicki, New Zealand actress

Benjamin Fulford, former Asian Bureau chief for Forbes magazine, conspirologist

Christopher Fulford, British actor

Francis Fulford (television personality), reality TV star of The F***ing Fulfords

George Taylor Fulford, Canadian politician

Henry English Fulford, aka Harry English Fulford, (1859–1929), British diplomat in China

James Fulford (1841–1922), Australian politician

Margaret Hannah Fulford (1904–1999), American botanist

Millie Hughes-Fulford, American astronaut

Robert Fulford (journalist), Canadian journalist

Robert Fulford (croquet player)

Robert C. Fulford, US osteopathic physician

John Fulford (died 1518), Anglican priest

John Fulford (captain) of HMS Ganges (1821) under Rear-Admiral BaynesFulford Harbour, British Columbia, named for Captain Fulford

List of astronauts by first flight

This is a list of astronauts by first flight, in chronological order. According to the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, spaceflight is achieved by exceeding an altitude higher than 100 km (62 mi; 330,000 ft), thereby crossing the Kármán line. The United States Air Force considers an altitude of 50 mi (80 km; 260,000 ft) as the limit of space; United States Air Force and NASA personnel exceeding that altitude can be awarded the astronaut badge.

List of astronauts by name

This is an alphabetical list of astronauts, people selected to train for a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.

For a list of everyone who has flown in space, see List of space travelers by name.

More than 560 people have been trained as astronauts. Until recently, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military or by civilian space agencies. However, with the advent of suborbital flight starting with privately funded SpaceShipOne in 2004, a new category of astronaut was created: the commercial astronaut.

While the term astronaut is sometimes applied to anyone who trains for travels into space—including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists—this article lists only professional astronauts, those who have been selected to train professionally. This includes national space programs, industry and commercial space programs which train and/or hire their own professional astronauts.

Names in italic are astronauts who have left Low Earth orbit, names in bold are astronauts who have walked on the moon. The flags indicate the astronaut's primary citizenship during his or her time as an astronaut. The symbol identifies female astronauts.

List of female spacefarers

The following is a list of women who have traveled into space, sorted by date of first flight. Although the first woman flew into space in 1963, very early in crewed space exploration, it would not be until almost twenty years later that another flew. Female astronauts went on to become commonplace in the 1980s. This list includes both cosmonauts and astronauts.

List of people from Texas

The following are notable people who were either born, raised or have lived for a significant period of time in the U.S. state of Texas.

List of space travelers by name

The criteria for determining who has achieved human spaceflight vary. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) defines spaceflight as any flight above 100 kilometres (62 mi), a definition recognized by every country. In the 1960s, the United States Department of Defense awarded the rating of astronaut to military and civilian pilots who flew aircraft higher than 50 miles (80 km). This list follows the FAI criterion.

From the Department of Defense, eight USAF and NASA pilots qualified for the Astronaut Badge by flying the sub-orbital X-15 rocket spaceplane. One of these, Joseph A. Walker, flew the X-15 above 100 km on two flights, becoming the first person to enter space twice. However, the other pilots did not reach the 100 km FAI limit.

All other men and women traveled to outer space in non-winged rockets, the orbital Space Shuttle, or the sub-orbital Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne rocket spaceplane.People who died training for space travel or died during missions that failed to reach the required altitude such as Christa McAuliffe can be found in the article on space disasters.

As of June 17, 2018, a total of 561 people have gone to space.

As of November 6, 2013, a total of 536 people from 38 countries have gone into space according to the FAI guideline (543 people have qualified when including the US Department of Defense classification). Of the 536, three people completed only a sub-orbital flight, 533 people reached Earth orbit, 24 traveled beyond low Earth orbit and 12 walked on the Moon.

Space travelers have spent over 29,000 man-days (or a cumulative total of over 77 years) in space including over 100 man-days of spacewalks.

Names in italic are space travelers who have left low Earth orbit.

National flags indicate the space traveler's citizenship at the time of flight(s).

A before a name denotes space travelers who have walked on the Moon.

A before a name denotes that the person died during spaceflight, or during an attempted spaceflight.

A before a name denotes a female space traveler.

A before a name denotes a male space traveler.

A before a name denotes that the person is currently in space.

List of space travelers by nationality

The criteria for determining who has achieved human spaceflight vary. The FAI defines spaceflight as any flight over 100 kilometres (62 mi). In the United States, professional, military, and commercial astronauts who travel above an altitude of 80 kilometres (50 mi) are awarded astronaut wings. The majority of people who have flown into space have done so by entering Earth orbit. This list includes persons meeting all three criteria, in separate subdivisions.

The flags indicate the space traveler's nationality at the time of their flight or flights. In cases of dual citizenship, the space traveler is listed under their primary residence. A secondary list appended to the entry for the Soviet Union shows the birth countries of space travelers not born in Russia. A similar list after the entry for the United States shows the birth countries of space travelers who are or were citizens of the U.S. but were born elsewhere. Flags shown in the secondary lists are those in use at the time of the space travelers' birth.Names in italic are space travelers who are not part of any national astronaut program or astronaut corps (Toyohiro Akiyama, Helen Sharman, the Space Adventures customers and the sub-orbital SpaceShipOne pilots).

Except for the SpaceShipOne pilots, all of the space travellers have been crew or participants aboard flights launched by China, the Soviet Union/Russia or the United States.

List of spaceflight records

This is a list of spaceflight records. Most of these records relate to human spaceflights, but some unmanned and animal records are listed as well.

Millie Hughes

Millie Hughes may refer to:

Millie Hughes-Fulford

Milly Hughes, a character in Village of the Damned

Mineral Wells, Texas

Mineral Wells is a city in Palo Pinto and Parker counties in the U.S. state of Texas. The population was 16,788 at the 2010 census (14,644 in Palo Pinto and 2144 in Parker). The city is named for mineral springs in the area, which were highly popular in the early 1900s. Mineral Wells is most famous for its Baker Hotel. Mineral Wells also hosts a variety of paranormal hauntings and ghost tours including the Baker Hotel, the Crazy Water Hotel, close by the Whispering Cottage built in 1926.

In 1919, Mineral Wells hosted the spring training camp for the Chicago White Sox, the year of the famous "Black Sox" scandal involving "Shoeless" Joe Jackson. Mineral Wells also hosted spring training for the Cincinnati Reds and St. Louis Cardinals in the 1910s and early 1920s. The baseball field was located in the center of town where a shopping center now sits.

In 1952, Mineral Wells was the host of the Republican state convention in which delegates divided between presidential candidates Dwight D. Eisenhower and Senator Robert A. Taft. Though state chairman Orville Bullington of Wichita Falls led the Taft forces, the convention vote ultimately went 33-5 in favor of Eisenhower, who was thereafter nominated and elected.

Also from Mineral Wells is Astronaut Millie Hughes-Fulford, who graduated from Mineral Wells High School in 1962. Dr. Hughes-Fulford flew aboard STS-40 Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS 1) in June 1991 as a Mission Specialist conducting medical experiments, logging over 3.2 million miles in 146 orbits.

Payload specialist

A payload specialist (PS) is an individual selected and trained by commercial or research organizations for flights of a specific payload on a NASA Space Shuttle mission. People assigned as payload specialists included individuals selected by the research community, a company or consortium flying a commercial payload aboard the spacecraft, and non-NASA astronauts designated by international partners.

The term refers to both the individual and to the position on the Shuttle crew.


STS-40, the eleventh launch of Space Shuttle Columbia, was a nine-day mission in June, 1991. It carried the Spacelab module for Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1), the fifth Spacelab mission and the first dedicated solely to biology. STS-40 was the first spaceflight that included three women crew members.

Space Shuttle

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle program. Its official program name was Space Transportation System (STS), taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development. The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982. In addition to the prototype whose completion was cancelled, five complete Shuttle systems were built and used on a total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. Operational missions launched numerous satellites, interplanetary probes, and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST); conducted science experiments in orbit; and participated in construction and servicing of the International Space Station. The Shuttle fleet's total mission time was 1322 days, 19 hours, 21 minutes and 23 seconds.Shuttle components included the Orbiter Vehicle (OV) with three clustered Rocketdyne RS-25 main engines, a pair of recoverable solid rocket boosters (SRBs), and the expendable external tank (ET) containing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. The Space Shuttle was launched vertically, like a conventional rocket, with the two SRBs operating in parallel with the OV's three main engines, which were fueled from the ET. The SRBs were jettisoned before the vehicle reached orbit, and the ET was jettisoned just before orbit insertion, which used the orbiter's two Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engines. At the conclusion of the mission, the orbiter fired its OMS to de-orbit and re-enter the atmosphere. The orbiter then glided as a spaceplane to a runway landing, usually to the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida or Rogers Dry Lake in Edwards Air Force Base, California. After landing at Edwards, the orbiter was flown back to the KSC on the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, a specially modified Boeing 747.

The first orbiter, Enterprise, was built in 1976, used in Approach and Landing Tests and had no orbital capability. Four fully operational orbiters were initially built: Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, and Atlantis. Of these, two were lost in mission accidents: Challenger in 1986 and Columbia in 2003, with a total of fourteen astronauts killed. A fifth operational (and sixth in total) orbiter, Endeavour, was built in 1991 to replace Challenger. The Space Shuttle was retired from service upon the conclusion of Atlantis's final flight on July 21, 2011. The U.S. has since relied on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft to transport astronauts to the International Space Station, pending the Commercial Crew Development and Space Launch System programs on schedule for first flights in 2019 and 2020.

Tarleton State University

Tarleton State University is a public, coeducational, state university located in Stephenville, Texas and is a member of the Texas A&M University System. Located just outside the Dallas/Fort Worth metroplex, Tarleton offers programs including agriculture, nursing, music, medical technology, mathematical data mining, and teacher education programs. The university's public school improvement programs are active in over 50 area school districts. In fall 2012, the university enrolled over 10,000 students for the first time.

Texas Woman's University

Texas Woman's University (historically the College of Industrial Arts and Texas State College for Women, commonly known as TWU) is a co-educational university in Denton, Texas, United States, with two health science center branches in Dallas and Houston. While TWU has been fully co-educational since 1994, it is the largest state-supported university primarily for women in the United States.

With a Carnegie classification as a comprehensive research and doctoral university, TWU remains one of four independent public universities in Texas not affiliated with one of the public university systems in the state. It currently offers undergraduate and graduate degree programs in 60 areas of study across six colleges.

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