Mille Miglia

The Mille Miglia (Italian pronunciation: [ˈmille ˈmiʎʎa], Thousand Miles) was an open-road, motorsport endurance race established in 1927 by the young Counts Aymo Maggi and Franco Mazzotti, which took place in Italy twenty-four times from 1927 to 1957 (thirteen before the war, eleven from 1947).[1]

Like the older Targa Florio and later the Carrera Panamericana, the MM made grand tourers like Alfa Romeo, BMW, Ferrari, Maserati, Mercedes Benz and Porsche famous. The race brought out an estimated five million spectators.[2]

From 1953 until 1957, the Mille Miglia was also a round of the World Sports Car Championship.

Since 1977, the "Mille Miglia" has been reborn as a regularity race for classic and vintage cars. Participation is limited to cars, produced no later than 1957, which had attended (or were registered) to the original race. The route (Brescia–Rome round trip) is similar to that of the original race, maintaining the point of departure/arrival in Viale Venezia in Brescia.

Mille Miglia
VenueItaly
First race1927
Last race1957
Distance1,000 miles (approximately)
LapsOne
Most wins (driver)Clemente Biondetti
Most wins (manufacturer)Alfa Romeo
Mille-Miglia-Arrow
Mille Miglia road sign

Car numbering

Unlike modern day rallying, where cars are released at one-minute intervals with larger professional-class cars going before slower cars, in the Mille Miglia the smaller, slower, lower displacement cars started first. This made organisation simpler as marshals did not have to be on duty for as long a period and it minimised the period that roads had to be closed. From 1949, cars were assigned numbers according to their start time. For example, the 1955 Moss/Jenkinson car, #722, left Brescia at 07:22 (see below), while the first cars had started at 21:00 the previous day. In the early days of the race, even winners needed 16 hours or more, so most competitors had to start before midnight and arrived after dusk - if at all.

Before World War II

1938 Alfa Romeo 6C 2300B Mille Miglia Spyder 186635948
Alfa Romeo 6C 2300B Mille Miglia Spider, 1938

The race was established by the young Counts Aymo Maggi and Franco Mazzotti, sports manager Renzo Castagneto and motoring journalist Giovanni Canestrini, apparently in response to the Italian Grand Prix being moved from their home town of Brescia to Monza. Together with a group of wealthy associates, they chose a race from Brescia to Rome and back, a figure-eight shaped course of roughly 1500 km — or a thousand Roman miles. Later races followed twelve other routes of varying total lengths.

The first race started on 26 March 1927 with seventy-seven starters[3] — all Italian — of which fifty-one had reached the finishing post at Brescia by the end of the race.[3] The first Mille Miglia covered 1,618 km, corresponding to just over 1,005 modern miles.[3] Entry was strictly restricted to unmodified production cars, and the entrance fee was set at a nominal 1 lira.[3] The winner, Giuseppe Morandi,[3] completed the course in just under 21 hours 5 minutes, averaging nearly 78 km/h (48 mph) in his 2-litre OM;[3] Brescia based OM swept the top three places.

Tazio Nuvolari won the 1930 Mille Miglia in an Alfa Romeo 6C. Having started after his teammate and rival Achille Varzi, Nuvolari was leading the race, but was still behind Varzi (holder of provisional second position) on the road. In the dim half-light of early dawn, Nuvolari tailed Varzi with his headlights off, thereby not being visible in the latter's rear-view mirrors. He then overtook Varzi on the straight roads approaching the finish at Brescia, by pulling alongside and flicking his headlights on.

Alfa2900B
The Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B MM that won the 1938 Mille Miglia driven by Clemente Biondetti. Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum, Philadelphia, USA.

The event was usually dominated by local Italian drivers and marques, but three races were won by foreign cars. The first one was in 1931, when German driver Rudolf Caracciola (famous in Grand Prix racing) and riding mechanic Wilhelm Sebastian won with their big supercharged Mercedes-Benz SSKL, averaging for the first time more than 100 km/h (63 mph)[3] in a Mille Miglia. Caracciola had received very little support from the factory due to the economic crisis at that time. He did not have enough mechanics to man all necessary service points. After performing a pit stop, they had to hurry across Italy, cutting the triangle-shaped course short in order to arrive in time before the race car.

The race was briefly stopped by Italian leader Benito Mussolini after an accident in 1938 killed a number of spectators. When it resumed in April 1940 shortly before Italy entered World War II, it was dubbed the Grand Prix of Brescia, and held on a 100 km (62 mi) short course in the plains of northern Italy that was lapped nine times.

This event saw the debut of the first Enzo Ferrari-owned marque AAC (Auto Avio Costruzioni) (with the Tipo 815). Despite being populated (due to the circumstances even more than usual) mainly by Italian makers, it was the aerodynamically improved BMW 328 driven by Germans Huschke von Hanstein/Walter Bäumer that won the high-speed race with an all-time high average of 166 km/h (103 mph).

After World War II

Biondetti-navone-ferrari-166-mille-miglia-1948
Clemente Biondetti and Giuseppe Navone winning the 1948 Mille Miglia in a Ferrari 166 S.

The Italians continued to dominate their race after the war, now again on a single big lap through Italy. Mercedes made another good effort in 1952 with the underpowered Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Gullwing, scoring second with the German crew Karl Kling/Hans Klenk that later in the year would win the Carrera Panamericana. Caracciola, in a comeback attempt, was fourth.

Few other non-Italians managed podium finishes in the 1950s, among them Juan Manuel Fangio, Peter Collins and Wolfgang von Trips.

Stirling Moss at the Mille Miglia

In 1955, Mercedes made another attempt at winning the MM, this time with careful preparation and a more powerful car, the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR which was based on the Formula One car (Mercedes-Benz W196), entirely different from their sports cars carrying the 300 SL name.

Both young German Hans Herrmann (who had had remarkable previous efforts with Porsche) and Briton Stirling Moss relied on the support of navigators while Juan Manuel Fangio (car #658) preferred to drive alone as usual, as he considered road races dangerous since his co-pilot was killed in South America. Karl Kling also drove alone, in the fourth Mercedes, #701.

Similar to his teammates, Moss and his navigator, motor race journalist Denis Jenkinson, ran a total of six reconnaissance laps beforehand, enabling "Jenks" to make course notes (pace notes) on a scroll of paper 18 ft (540 cm) long that he read from and gave directions to Moss during the race by a coded system of 15 hand signals. Although this undoubtedly helped them, Moss's innate ability was clearly the predominant factor. Moss was competing against drivers with a large amount of local knowledge of the route, so the reconnaissance laps were considered an equaliser, rather than an advantage.

Car #704 with Hans Herrmann and Hermann Eger was said to be fastest in the early stages, though. Herrmann had already had a remarkable race in 1954, when the gate on a railroad crossing was lowered in the last moment before the fast train to Rome passed. Driving a very low Porsche 550 Spyder, Herrmann decided it was too late for a brake attempt anyway, knocked on the back of the helmet of his navigator Herbert Linge to make him duck, and they barely passed below the gates and before the train, to the surprise of the spectators. Herrmann was less lucky in 1955, having to abandon the race after a brake failure. Kling crashed also.

After 10 hours, 7 minutes and 48 seconds, Moss/Jenkinson arrived in Brescia in their Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR with the now famous #722, setting the event record at an average of 157.650 km/h (97.96 mph) which was fastest ever on this 1,597 km (992 mi) variant of the course, not to be beaten in the remaining two years. Fangio arrived a few minutes later in the #658 car, but having started 24 min earlier, it actually took him about 30 minutes longer, having engine problems at Pescara, through Rome and by the time Fangio reached Florence, a fuel injection pipe had broken and he was running on 7 cylinders.[4]

The end

Memorial MM
Memorial to victims of Mille Miglia where the fatal crash happened

The race was forever banned after two fatal crashes in 1957. The first was the crash of a 4.0-litre Ferrari 335 S that took the lives of the Spanish driver Alfonso de Portago, his co-driver/navigator Edmund Nelson, and nine spectators, at the village of Guidizzolo.[3] Five of the spectators killed were children, all of whom were standing along the race course. Portago, already unsettled by doing a race he felt was too dangerous, waited too long to make a tyre change. The crash was caused by a worn tyre. The manufacturer was sued for this, as was the Ferrari team.

The second car crash, in Brescia, took the life of Joseph Göttgens. He was driving a Triumph TR3.

From 1958 to 1961, the event resumed as a rallying-like round trip at legal speeds with a few special stages driven at full speed, but this was discontinued also.

Since 1977, the name was revived as the Mille Miglia Storica, a parade for pre-1957 cars that takes several days, which also spawned the 2007 documentary film Mille Miglia – The Spirit of a Legend.

From 1927 to 1957, the race took the lives of a total of 56 people.[5]

Mille Miglia winners

Year Drivers Car
1927 Italy Ferdinando Minoia
Italy Giuseppe Morandi
OM 665 S
1928 Italy Giuseppe Campari
Italy Giulio Ramponi
Alfa Romeo 6C 1500 Super Sport Spider Zagato
1929 Italy Giuseppe Campari
Italy Giulio Ramponi
Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 Super Sport Spider Zagato
1930 Italy Tazio Nuvolari
Italy Battista Guidotti
Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 Gran Sport Spider Zagato
1931 Germany Rudolf Caracciola
Germany Wilhelm Sebastian
Mercedes-Benz SSKL
1932 Italy Baconin Borzacchini
Italy Amedeo Bignami
Alfa Romeo 8C 2300 Spider Touring
1933 Italy Tazio Nuvolari
Italy Decimo Compagnoni
Alfa Romeo 8C 2300 Spider Zagato
1934 Italy Achille Varzi
Italy Amedeo Bignami
Alfa Romeo 8C 2600 Monza Spider Brianza
1935 Italy Carlo Maria Pintacuda
Italy Alessandro Della Stufa
Alfa Romeo Tipo B
1936 Italy Antonio Brivio
Italy Carlo Ongaro
Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 A
1937 Italy Carlo Maria Pintacuda
Italy Paride Mambelli
Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 A
1938 Italy Clemente Biondetti
Italy Aldo Stefani
Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 B Spider MM Touring
1939 no race held
1940 Germany Huschke von Hanstein
Germany Walter Baumer
BMW 328 Berlinetta Touring
1941–46 no races held
1947 Italy Clemente Biondetti
Italy Emilio Romano
Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 B Berlinetta Touring
1948 Italy Clemente Biondetti
Italy Giuseppe Navone
Ferrari 166 S Coupé Allemano
1949 Italy Clemente Biondetti
Italy Ettore Salani
Ferrari 166 MM Barchetta Touring
1950 Italy Giannino Marzotto
Italy Marco Crosara
Ferrari 195 S Berlinetta Touring
1951 Italy Luigi Villoresi
Italy Pasquale Cassani
Ferrari 340 America Berlinetta Vignale
1952 Italy Giovanni Bracco
Italy Alfonso Rolfo
Ferrari 250 S Berlinetta Vignale
1953 Italy Giannino Marzotto
Italy Marco Crosara
Ferrari 340 MM Spyder Vignale
1954 Italy Alberto Ascari Lancia D24 Spider
1955 United Kingdom Stirling Moss
United Kingdom Denis Jenkinson
Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR
1956 Italy Eugenio Castellotti Ferrari 290 MM Spyder Scaglietti
1957 Italy Piero Taruffi Ferrari 315 S

Name usage

Owner of trademark logo of Mille Miglia is the Automobile Club Brescia.

Mille Miglia is also the name of Alitalia's frequent flyer program.

Mille Miglia is also the name of a jacket, named after the race, inspired by the 1920s racewear and designed by Massimo Osti for his CP Company clothing label. The garment features goggles built into the hood and originally had a small circular window in the sleeve enabling the wearer to see their watch. The jackets have been produced for a long period and are still popular with British football casuals.

As a sponsor and timekeeper of the Storica event, the event has lent its name and its trademark logo to Chopard for a series of sport watches. For promotions Chopard uses photographs from the event by photographer Giacomo Bretzel.

Mille Miglia Red is the name for a color used by Chevrolet on its Corvette models. The color was offered between 1972 and 1975.[6]

In 1982 the Mille Miglia endurance race was revived as a road rally event.

Mille Miglia Storica results

Millemiglia2006
Bandini 750 sport siluro in Mille Miglia 2006
ALFA ROMEO 6C 1750 GS
Marx/Donà with Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 Gran Sport in 2008 Mille Miglia.
Mika Häkkinen 1
Mika Häkkinen and Juan Manuel Fangio II in 2011 Mille Miglia.
Ferrari 212 Inter Vignale
A Ferrari 212 Inter Vignale at the Mille Miglia Storica sealing ceremony.
Mille Miglia Museum
The Mille Miglia Museum in San Eufemia, near Brescia Italy
  • 1977: Hepp / Bauer – Alfa Romeo RLSS – 1927
  • 1982: Bacchi / Montanari – O.S.C.A MT 4 – 1956
  • 1984: Palazzani / Campana – Stanguellini 1100 S – 1947
  • 1986: Schildbach / Netzer – Mercedes-Benz SSK – 1929
  • 1987: Nannini / Marin – Maserati 200 SI – 1957
  • 1988: Rollino / Gaslini – Fiat 1100 S MM – 1948
  • 1989: Valseriati / Favero – Mercedes-Benz 300 SL – 1955
  • 1990: Agnelli / Cavallari – Cisitalia 202 SC – 1950
  • 1991: Panizza / Pisanelli – Renault 750 Sport – 1954
  • 1992: Italy Canè / Galliani – BMW 507 – 1957
  • 1993: Vesco / Bocelli – Cisitalia 202 SC – 1948
  • 1994: Italy Canè / Galliani – Lancia Aurelia B 20 – 1957
  • 1995: Ferrari / Salza – Abarth 750 Zagato – 1957
  • 1996: Italy Canè / Galliani – BMW 328 MM – 1937
  • 1997: Valseriati / Sabbadini – Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Pr – 1952
  • 1998: Italy Canè / Galliani – BMW 328 MM – 1937
  • 1999: Italy Canè / Auteri – Ferrari 340 MM – 1953
  • 2000: Italy Canè / Galliani – BMW 328 MM – 1937
  • 2001: Sisti / Bernini – Healey Silverstone – 1950
  • 2002: Italy Canè / Galliani – BMW 328 Touring – 1940
  • 2003: Argentina Sielecki / Hervas – Bugatti T 23 Brescia – 1923
  • 2004: Italy Canè / Galliani – BMW 328 MM Coupé – 1939
  • 2005: Italy Viaro / De Marco – Alfa Romeo 6C 1500 S – 1928
  • 2006: Italy Canè / Galliani – BMW 328 MM Coupé – 1939
  • 2007: Italy Viaro / Bergamaschi – Alfa Romeo 6C 1500 Super Sport – 1928
  • 2008: Italy Luciano and Antonio Viaro – Alfa Romeo 6C 1500 Super Sport – 1928
  • 2009: Italy Ferrari / Ferrari – Bugatti Type 37 – 1927
  • 2010: Italy Canè / Galliani – BMW 328 MM Coupé – 1939
  • 2011: Italy Giordano Mozzi / Stefania Biacca – Aston Martin Le Mans -1933
  • 2012: Argentina Scalise Claudio / Claramunt Daniel – Alfa Romeo 6C 1500 Gran Sport "Testa Fissa" – 1933
  • 2013: Argentina Juan Tonconogy / Guillermo Berisso – Bugatti T40 – 1927[7]
  • 2014: Italy Giordano Mozzi / Stefania Biacca – Lancia Lambda tipo 221 spider Ca.Sa.Ro – 1928
  • 2015: Argentina Juan Tonconogy / Guillermo Berisso – Bugatti T40 – 1927
  • 2016: Italy Andrea Vesco / Andrea Guerini – Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 GS ZAGATO – 1931
  • 2017: Italy Andrea Vesco / Andrea Guerini – Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 GS – 1931
  • 2018: Argentina Juan Tonconogy / Barbara Ruffini – Alfa Romeo 6C 1500 GS – 1933
  • 2019: Italy Giovanni Moceri / Daniele Bonetti – Alfa Romeo 6C 1500 SS – 1928

Mille Miglia Museum

Since November 2004, the former Monastery of S. Eufemia at Brescia houses the Mille Miglia Museum, which illustrates the history of this car race with films, memorabilia, dresses, posters, and a number of classic cars that are periodically replaced by other in case of participation in events.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Mille Miglia". grandprixhistory.org. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  2. ^ MacKenzie, Angus (February 2013). "The Most Epic Drive. Ever". Motor Trend. 65 (2): 88. With an estimated 5 million Italians out watching the race, crowd control was another cause for concern.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Tausen Meilen Nostalgie". Auto Motor u. Sport. Heft 16 1977: Seite 18–19. 3 August 1977.
  4. ^ fp46racing. "Juan Manuel Fangio - Tribute by Stirling Moss pt 2". YouTube. Retrieved 2011-12-03.
  5. ^ The Motorsport Memorial Team, info@motorsportmemorial.org. "Car and truck fatalities by circuit". Motorsport Memorial. Retrieved 2011-12-03.
  6. ^ Binnie Langley. "Corvette C3 Colors and Paint Color Codes for Corvettes". Corvettec3.ca. Retrieved 2011-12-03.
  7. ^ Garrett, Jerry. "Argentines Win the 2013 Mille Miglia".

External links

1954 Mille Miglia

The 1954 Mille Miglia (officially XXI Mille Miglia ), was a motor race open to Sports Cars, GT cars and Touring Cars. It was the 21st Mille Miglia and the third race of the 1954 World Sportscar Championship. The race was held on the public roads of Italy on 2 May 1954 using a route based on a round trip between Brescia and Rome, with the start and finish in Brescia. It was won by Alberto Ascari driving a Lancia D24.

As in previous year, the event this not strictly a race against each other, this is race against the clock, as the cars are released at one-minute intervals with the larger professional class cars going before the slower cars, in the Mille Miglia, however the smaller displacement slower cars started first. Each car number related to their allocated start time. For example, Giuseppe Farina’s car had the number 606, he left Brescia at 6:06am, while the first cars had started late in the evening on the previous day.The previous August, Italian racing legend Tazio Nuvolari died. As a mark of respect, the route of this race, near it finish would pass through Mantua, where he was a resident.

1956 Mille Miglia

The 23. edizione Mille Miglia was an auto race held on a 992.332 mile (1597 km) course made up entirely of public roads around Italy, mostly on the outer parts of the country on 28–29 April 1956. The route was based on a round trip between Brescia and Rome, with start/finish, in Brescia. It was the 3rd round of the 1956 World Sportscar Championship.As in previous years, the event this not strictly a race against each other, this is race against the clock, as the cars are released at one-minute intervals with the larger professional class cars going before the slower cars, in the Mille Miglia, however the smaller displacement slower cars started first. Each car number related to their allocated start time. For example Peter Collins’s car had the number 551, he left Brescia at 5:51am, while the first cars had started late in the evening on the previous day. Some drivers went with navigators, others didn't; a number of local Italian drivers had knowledge of the routes being used and felt confident enough that they wouldn't need one.This race was won by Scuderia Ferrari driver Eugenio Castellotti without the aid of a navigator. He completed the 992-mile distance in 11 hours, 37 minutes and 10 seconds- an average speed of 85.403 mph (137.442 km/h). The Italian finished 12 minutes in front of their second-placed team-mates, the English pairing of Collins and Louis Klementaski. Luigi Musso and Juan Manuel Fangio were next ensuring Ferrari finished 1-2-3-4.

Achille Varzi

This article is on the Italian racecar driver. For the Columbia University philosopher see Achille Varzi (philosopher).

Achille Varzi (8 August 1904 – 1 July 1948) was an Italian Grand Prix driver.

Alfa Romeo 8C

The Alfa Romeo 8C was originally a range of Alfa Romeo road, race and sports cars of the 1930s. In 2004 Alfa Romeo revived the 8C name for a V8-engined concept car which made it into production for 2007, the 8C Competizione.

The 8C designates 8 cylinders, and originally a straight 8-cylinder engine. The Vittorio Jano designed 8C was Alfa Romeo's primary racing engine from its introduction in 1931 to its retirement in 1939. In addition to the two-seater sports cars it was used in the world's first genuine single-seat Grand Prix racing car, the Monoposto 'Tipo B' - P3 from 1932 onwards. In its later development it powered such vehicles as the twin-engined 1935 6.3-litre Bimotore, the 1935 3.8-litre Monoposto 8C 35 Type C, and the Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Mille Miglia Roadster. It also powered top-of-the-range coach-built production models, including a Touring Spider and Touring Berlinetta.

BMW 328

The BMW 328 is a sports car made by BMW between 1936 and 1940, with the body design credited to Peter Szymanowski, who became BMW chief of design after World War II (although technically the car was designed by Fritz Fiedler).

Baconin Borzacchini

Baconin Borzacchini (28 September 1898 – 10 September 1933) was an Italian Grand Prix motor racing driver often referred to as Mario Umberto Borzacchini.

Felice Bonetto

Felice Bonetto (9 June 1903 in Manerbio, near Brescia, Italy – 21 November 1953 in Silao, Mexico) was a courageous racing driver who earned the nickname Il Pirata (The Pirate).

He was a road racing legend, who started racing in the 1930s, and enjoyed a brief Formula One career, including a win in the non-Championship Grande Premio do Jubileu in 1953. During his Formula One career, he raced Italian cars, starting with a privateer Maserati for Scuderia Milano, then the works Alfa Romeo, and finally the works Maserati, achieving two shared podiums finishes in the World Championship. His greatest successes were in sport cars, winner of the 1952 Targa Florio, but his career and life were cut short when he fatally crashed into a lamp post in the 1953 Carrera Panamericana whilst leading.

Ferrari 166 S

See also the 166 Inter GT car

See also the 166 MM Berlinetta Le Mans

See also the Ferrari-Abarth 166 MM/53The Ferrari 166 S was an evolution of Ferrari's 125 S sports race car that became a sports car for the street in the form of the 166 Inter. Only 12 Ferrari 166 S were produced, nine of them with cycle-fenders as Spyder Corsa, soon followed by the production of the Ferrari 166 MM (Mille Miglia) which was made in much larger numbers (47) from 1948 to 1953. The 166 MM was an updated 166 S and went on to score many of Ferrari’s early international victories, making the manufacturer a serious competitor in the racing industry. Both were later replaced by the 2.3 L 195 S.

Ferrari 195 S

See also the 195 Inter grand tourerThe 195 S was a racing sports car produced by Ferrari in 1950. Introduced at the Giro di Sicilia on April 2, 1950, it was similar to the 166 MM also run at that race. The two cars, one open and one closed coupé, shared that car's 2,250 mm (89 in) wheelbase but sported an enlarged 2.3 L (2341 cc/142 in³) version of the Colombo V12. These two initial cars were forced to retire, but three came to the Mille Miglia of that year, with the event won by the 195 S Touring berlinetta of Giannino Marzotto with Serafini's Touring barchetta in second place.

Ferrari 290 MM

The Ferrari 290 MM was a Ferrari race car produced in 1956. It was developed to compete in the 1956 edition of Mille Miglia, hence the acronym "MM", and four cars were built.The 290 MM was powered by a new 3.5 litre, 60° Jano V12. Displacement was 3,490 cc (213 cu in) with a maximum power of 320 HP at 7200 rpm, and a top speed of 280 kilometres per hour (170 mph).The car won the 1956 Mille Miglia, raced by Eugenio Castellotti, while another 290 MM, driven by Juan Manuel Fangio, finished fourth. Phil Hill and Maurice Trintignant also won the Swedish Grand Prix of that year, granting Ferrari the overall victory in the 1956 World Sportscar Championship. The following year a 290 MM won the 1000 km Buenos Aires.

On December 10, 2015, RM Sotheby's sold the 290 MM driven by Juan Manuel Fangio in the 1956 Mille Miglia at auction for $25,050,000 — the highest price for a car sold in 2015; the highest price ever paid for a racing car and the third most expensive ever.

Ferrari 315 S

The Ferrari 315 S is an Italian sports-racing car produced by Ferrari in 1957.

The model was intended to succeed the Ferrari 290 MM, which had won the 1956 Mille Miglia. The 315 S mounted a frontal V12 engine at 60°, with two valves per cylinder and four chain-driven overhead camshafts, for a total displacement of 3,783.40 cc (230.877 cu in). Maximum power was 360 hp (268 kW) at 7800 rpm, for a maximum speed of 290 km/h.The Ferrari 315 S drivers took the first two positions in the 1957 Mille Miglia, Piero Taruffi being the winner in his last race, followed by Wolfgang von Trips. A 315 S finished third at the Nürburgring and fifth at Le Mans but was then largely replaced by the 335 S. The victory of a Ferrari 335 S in Venezuela and the retirement of the Maseratis granted Ferrari the World Sports Car Championship.

The change in regulations for the World Sports Car championship to a 3-litre engine limit for 1958 meant the 315 S was replaced by the 250 Testa Rossa.

Ferrari 335 S

The Ferrari 335 S was a sports racing car produced by Italian manufacturer Ferrari in 1957. Four cars were produced in total. An evolution of the 315 S, it had a V12 engine with a greater 4,023.32 cc (245.518 cu in) displacement and a maximum power of 390 hp (291 kW) at 7400 rpm; the maximum speed was around 300 kilometres per hour (190 mph). The car was a direct response to the Maserati 450S which with its 4.5-litre engine was threatening to overpower the 3.8-litre 315 S and 3.5-litre 290 MM.

This model was the protagonist of the accident in the 1957 Mille Miglia, which led to the cancellation of the race starting from the following year. In its World Championship debut in the third round of the 1957 season, a 335 S (#531), driven by Spanish driver Alfonso de Portago (who had replaced an ill Luigi Musso) was in third position, running on a long straight road sector between the Lombard hamlets of Cerlongo and Guidizzolo. When one of the tyres exploded, de Portago's car slipped to the right and crashed against a large crowd, killing nine people, as well as de Portago himself and American co-driver Edmund Nelson. The other 335 S in the hands of Peter Collins and Louis Klementaski had broken down whilst in the lead giving victory to a 315 S driven by Piero Taruffi.

Due to the accident only a single 335 S in the hands of Collins and Olivier Gendebien was entered in the next round at the Nürburgring 1000km and came second behind an Aston Martin DBR1 and although both 335 S models failed at Le Mans, Collins and Phil Hill obtained another second place at the Swedish GP behind a Maserati 450S with Mike Hawthorn and Luigi Musso finishing fourth in the sister car. In the final round of the World Sports Car Championship at the Venezuelan Grand Prix, a 335 S raced by Collins and Phil Hill won with Hawthorn and Musso finishing second. These results added to the earlier Mille Miglia victory by a 315 S and the win in the Buenos Aires 1000 Km by a 290 MM gave the World title to Ferrari. The change in regulations for the World Championship to a 3-litre engine limit which was a reaction to the Mille Miglia crash and earlier tragedies rendered the 335 S ineligible for the 1958 season onwards and Ferrari replaced the model with its 250 TR.

In 2016, a 1957 Ferrari 335 S Spider Scaglietti sold for €32.1 million in an auction in Paris. In 315 S guise the car had finished sixth in the 12 Hours of Sebring in 1957 driven by Peter Collins and Maurice Trintignant and later driven by Wolfgang von Trips, to a second place finish at the 1957 Mile Miglia. After having its engine upgraded to a 4.1-litre model, it then set the lap record at Le Mans, finished fourth in the Swedish GP and second in the Venezuelan GP. Finally it won the 1958 Cuban Grand Prix driven by Stirling Moss.

Ferrari 340

See also the 340 F1, a Formula One racer, and 340 America, a GT car

The Ferrari 340 Mexico was a Ferrari race car which was intended for the 1952 Carrera Panamericana. It used 4.1 L Lampredi V12 engine producing around 280 PS (206 kW) at 6600 rpm, for a maximum speed of 280 km/h. Just 4 were made in 1952, 3 Vignale Berlinettas and 1 Vignale Spyder; all designed by Giovanni Michelotti. Mexico used a 2,600 mm (102.4 in) wheelbase. Chinetti and Lucas finished the race at third place in berlinetta.The Ferrari 340 MM was an evolution of the 340 Mexico with shorter, 2,500 mm (98.4 in), wheelbase. MM used the same 4.1 L Lampredi V12 with similar three Weber 40DCF carburettors that helped the 340 achieve 280 PS (206 kW) at 6600 rpm and a maximum speed of 282 km/h. 10 examples were made, 4 Pinin Farina Berlinettas, 2 Touring Spyders and 4 Vignale Spyders (designed by Giovanni Michelotti). A total of four were converted to 375 MM spec. Giannino Marzotto won Mille Miglia 1953 edition in Vignale spider, setting a new average speed record for the race; with other 340 MM finishing fourth. Two more 340 MMs were entered that year in Touring barchetta guise but did not finish.

Ferrari 375 MM

See Ferrari 375 F1 for the 375 used in Formula 1 racing, and 375 America, a GT carFerrari 375 MM, was a race car produced by Ferrari in 1953 and 1954. It was named "375" for the per-cylinder displacement in the 4.5 L V12 engine, and the "MM" stood for the Mille Miglia race. The engine was based on its Ferrari 375 F1 counterpart, but with shorter stroke and bigger bore. The first prototype was a Vignale Spyder and three next cars were Pinin Farina Berlinettas, all converted from Ferrari 340 MM. Perhaps the most known 375 MM is the "Ingrid Bergman" version, commissioned in 1954 by director Roberto Rossellini for his wife, actress Ingrid Bergman. The Bergman 375 MM was subsequently bought and restored by the Microsoft executive Jon Shirley and the restoration specialist Butch Dennison. It later became the first postwar Ferrari to win Best of Show at the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance. Although intended for Mille Miglia, 375 MM was also raced with limited success in Carrera Panamericana, scoring fourth place in 1953 and finishing second in 1954. In total 26 units were made, including four converted from 340 MM.

Fiat 1100 (1937)

The Fiat 1100 is a small family car produced from 1937 to 1953 by the Italian car manufacturer Fiat. It was introduced in 1937 as Fiat 508 C or Balilla 1100, as a replacement for the Fiat 508 Balilla. Under the new body the 508 C had more modern and refined mechanicals compared to the 508, including independent front suspension and an enlarged overhead valve engine.

In 1939 it was updated and renamed simply Fiat 1100. The 1100 was produced in three consecutive series—1100, 1100 B and 1100 E—until 1953, when it was replaced by the all-new, unibody Fiat 1100/103.

Franco Cortese

Franco Cortese (10 February 1903 in Oggebbio, Piedmont – 13 November 1986 in Milano) was an Italian racing driver. He entered 156 races between 1927 and 1958, of which one was a Formula 1 Grand Prix and three were Formula 2 Grands Prix. Cortese holds the record of most finishes in a Mille Miglia race: fourteen.

Besides having entered many races in an Alfa Romeo, Cortese became most famous for his affiliation with Ferrari between 1947 and 1949, driving the first race car built by Ferrari in 1947, the Ferrari 125 S, which brought victories at four races in 1947. In 1950 he co-founded the Formula One team Scuderia Ambrosiana with Giovanni Lurani, Luigi Villoresi and Eugenio Minetti.

Gianni Marzotto

Count Giannino Marzotto (13 April 1928 in Valdagno, Italy – 14 July 2012) was an Italian racing driver and entrepreneur. Marzotto served as President of the Mille Miglia Club, and twice winner of race in 1950 and 1953.

Grand tourer

A grand tourer (GT) is a car that is designed for high speed and long-distance driving, due to a combination of performance and luxury attributes. The most common format is a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement.

The term derives from the Italian language phrase gran turismo which became popular in the English language from the 1950s, evolving from fast touring cars and streamlined closed sports cars during the 1930s.

Mercedes-Benz SSK

The Mercedes-Benz SSK (W06) is a roadster built by German automobile manufacturer Mercedes-Benz between 1928 and 1932. The name is an abbreviation of Super Sport Kurz, German for "Super Sport Short", as it was a short wheelbase development of the Mercedes-Benz Modell S. The SSK's extreme performance and numerous competitive successes made it one of the most highly regarded sports cars of its era.

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