Mill Basin is a residential neighborhood in the southeastern part of Brooklyn, New York City. It is located on a peninsula abutting Jamaica Bay and is bordered by Avenue U on the northwest and the Mill Basin/Mill Island Inlet on its remaining sides. Mill Basin is adjacent to the neighborhood of Bergen Beach to the northeast, Flatlands to the northwest, Marine Park to the southwest, and Floyd Bennett Field and the former Barren Island to the southeast.
Mill Basin was originally Mill Island, located in Jamaica Bay. In the 17th century, a mill was built on Mill, Bergen, and Barren Islands. The archipelago was then occupied by the Schenck and Crooke families through the late 19th century, and remained a mostly rural area with oyster fishing. After Robert Crooke developed a smelting plant on Mill Island in 1890, industrial customers started developing the island and connected it to the rest of Brooklyn. In an effort to develop Mill Basin as a seaport district, ports and dry docks were built in the early 20th century, though a lack of railroad connections hindered the area's further growth. Residential development began in the 1950s, along with much of the rest of southeast Brooklyn, though some of the former industrial buildings remain.
Mill Basin has some of the most luxurious houses in New York City. Although Mill Basin is a mostly residential neighborhood with one- and two-story houses, it also contains commercial and industrial tenants, as well as the Kings Plaza shopping mall in the western part of the neighborhood. Mill Basin also contains a subsection called Old Mill Basin, north of Avenue U.
The area around Mill Basin consists of a mostly white population as of the 2010 United States Census. Nearby recreational areas include Floyd Bennett Field, the first municipal airport in New York City, which is part of the Gateway National Recreation Area and is located just southeast of Mill Basin. The neighborhood is sparsely served by public transportation.
The neighborhood and waterway of Mill Basin, seen from the Belt Parkway drawbridge
|Etymology: A grist mill built by Dutch settlers in the 17th century|
Location in New York City
|City||New York City|
|Community District||Brooklyn 18|
|Neighborhood tabulation area; includes Mill Basin, Bergen Beach, Marine Park, and Flatlands|
|Area codes||718, 347, 929, and 917|
Originally, Mill Basin was an island in Jamaica Bay off the coast of Canarsie, called Mill Island. Most of the island was composed of low-lying meadows located near sea level, but a very small portion of the island was arable uplands, or hilly areas located above sea level.:10–11 The original geography of the area was vastly different from the modern geography.:37
A bulkhead was built along Mill Island's shore in the late 1890s. It was later connected to the uplands of nearby Bergen Beach, creating the continuous embankment between Mill and Paerdegat basins later used for the construction of the Belt Parkway.:77 Most of the earliest filling operations along the island were private, although the city government later took over.:73 Some parts of Mill Basin remained a wetland until the late 20th century. A stream ran where Avenue U is today, dividing Mill Island from the mainland. Maps show that Mill Island was connected to the mainland by 1926.:40–41 However, modern city maps still allude to "Mill Island".
The New York Times described the neighborhood as a "mitten-shaped peninsula" enclosed to the south, west, and east by the eponymous waterway. Mill Basin is zoned as a predominantly residential neighborhood with one- or two-family residences. Small commercial overlays and recreational waterfront uses also exist, and the area between Avenue U and the Mill Basin waterway is zoned for heavy industry. Old Mill Basin is located north of Avenue U. According to a map published by The New York Times in 2009, Old Mill Basin can be considered to reach as far north as Avenue N.
The local Lenape Native Americans originally inhabited the area. They referred to the surrounding area, including Mill and Barren Islands, as "Equendito" or "Equindito", a name that probably means "Broken Lands".:257 In 1624, the Dutch Republic incorporated much of the current New York City area into the colony of New Netherland.:4 In 1636, as the Dutch were expanding outward from present-day Manhattan, Dutch settlers founded the town of Achtervelt (later Amersfoort, then Flatlands) and purchased 15,000 acres (6,100 ha) around Jamaica Bay. Amersfoort was centered around the present-day intersection of Flatbush Avenue and Flatlands Avenue.:9 Canarsie Indian leaders had signed three land agreements with Dutch settlers between 1636 and 1667, handing ownership of much of their historic land, including Mill Island, to the Dutch.:7 Mill Island, as well as the nearby Barren Island, was sold to John Tilton Jr. and Samuel Spicer in 1664. At some point in the 1660s or 1670s, a settler named Elbert Elbertse leased Mill Island, along with Bergen and Barren Islands.:11
The land was owned from 1675 by Jans Martense Schenck,:12 who built a house on the land:22 believed to be one of the oldest houses in New York City. Schenck also built a pier so he could load and unload cargo to or from the Netherlands. A tide mill had been built on the land by that time, but the exact date of the mill's construction is not known; sources give dates between 1660 and 1675.:12 One of Schenck's relatives, a ship captain named Hendrick, allegedly formed an alliance with the pirate William Kidd and allowed Kidd to bury treasure on Mill Island.
When Schenck died in 1689, his son Martin received ownership of the estate;:14 the mill was later inherited by Nicholas Schenck.:14 In 1784, the property was sold to Joris Martense of Flatbush. Martense also received "66 acres [27 ha] of uplands, 6 acres [2.4 ha] of woodlands, and a parcel of salt-meadows" in the transaction, as noted in a 1909 history of Brooklyn.:19 By 1794, John Schenck was renting the property from Joris's widow. At the time, the mill was called "the mill of Martensen".:14
The property, which included the mill, farm, and house, was later conveyed to Susan Caton, the daughter of Joris Martense.:20 Caton named Robert L. Crooke as the trustee for Caton's daughter, Margaret Crooke, who was married to General Philip S. Crooke.:20 In 1818, Margaret Crooke inherited the land. After this conveyance, the mill was called "Crooke's Mill".:14 General Crooke was the trustee for the Crooke children, and upon Margaret's death, had the power to pass the property down to their children.:20 In 1870, after Margaret died, General Crooke conveyed the property to Robert, who gave the property back in 1873. For the next thirty years, there would be a dozen more land conveyances, and by 1906, Robert Crooke ended up owning the property again.:21
The name "Mill Island" is believed to have been first used in the late 19th century. Before then, settlers called it "the mill" because of the gristmill there.:12
Up to the late 19th century, the area retained its rural character, and the only structures on the island were a house and "three stable" buildings.:37 The chief resources were the abundant crabs, oysters, and clams in Jamaica Bay. However, in 1890, Robert Crooke built a lead-smelting plant on Mill Island. The Crooke Smelting Company was bought out by the National Lead Company, and Robert sold the remainder of the land to the firm of McNulty and Fitzgerald, which erected bulkheads and filled in the marshes.:37 By 1906, Mill Island reportedly received 4,000 short tons (3,600 t) of ore annually. The island's factories had a combined annual output of 3,800 short tons (3,400 t) of metals whose aggregate value was $1.25 million ($26.9 million in modern dollars). Boats delivered and received shipments via the nearby waterways.:37
Robert Crook sold the former mill to Florence C. Smith in January 1906. The day after the sale, Smith deeded it to the real estate company Flatbush East, who transferred the land's ownership to Flatbush Improvement Company at the end of the year.:21 The Flatbush Improvement Company brought marshland and engaged the firm of Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific to dredge creeks and fill in meadows.:37 After the filling project was completed, the parcel had an area of 332 acres (134 ha) and was fit for industrial development.:68 As compensation, Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific acquired ownership of the eastern portion of Mill Island,:37 which comprised about 800 acres (320 ha) of land. Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific built factories and worker housing on its half of the island, and in 1916, began laying sidewalks and utilities. The expanded island attracted companies such as National Lead, Gulf Refining, and other leading firms engaged in heavy industry, which were operating plants along the Mill Island shoreline. Additionally, construction of an extension of Flatbush Avenue to the Rockaway Inlet started in 1913.:37
In 1910, developers began dredging ports within Jamaica Bay in an effort to develop a seaport district there. Work on dredging a 500-foot-wide (150 m), 18-foot-deep (5.5 m) main ship channel started in 1912 and was completed the next year, but lawsuits delayed progress until the 1920s. The channel ran along the western and northern shores of Jamaica Bay.:73 The first improvements to Mill Island itself started in 1915, when a wooden pier was installed along Flatbush Avenue. In 1916, 12,000 feet (3,700 m) of shoreline along Mill Island was incorporated into the proposed port. At the time, a 2-mile-long (3.2 km), 50-foot-wide (15 m) channel was to be excavated within Mill Basin, the waterway. This new channel would allow a proposed extension of the Flatbush Avenue Streetcar from Avenue N to the Mill Basin shoreline. The New York City Department of Docks awarded a contract to dredge the Mill Basin channel, along the southern and western sides of the island, to the federal government in 1917. Mill Basin would eventually be 1,000 feet (300 m) wide and 15 feet (4.6 m) deep.:73 Work on the main ship channel restarted in 1923. After the entire main channel was dredged to 500 feet wide by 18 feet deep, it was re-dredged to 1,000 feet wide by 30 feet (9.1 m) deep. This project was completed by the late 1930s, eliminating many small islands in the bay and causing the expansion of another island, Canarsie Pol.:73 The eastern branch of Mill Basin had been created by the 1930s.:73
In 1918, the city allowed several large piers to be constructed within the bay, though only one was built.:72 The pier, which was built in order to receive landfill for the other proposed piers, stretched 1 mile (1.6 km) northeast of Barren Island, south of Mill Island, and was 700 feet (210 m) wide.:77–79 A total of six such piers were planned for this area. In June of that year, a 447-foot-long (136 m) municipally owned pier was opened at Mill Basin. At the time, there were proposals to fill in 8,000 acres (3,200 ha) between Mill and Barren Islands so 14 more piers could be built.
By 1919, Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific was building three large dry docks on Mill Island. It was also constructing seven barges for the United States Navy. The fill for the docks came from as far away as Europe. As of that year, Mill Island was the site of at least six manufacturing and commercial concerns.:37 One observer attributed the presence of several of these factories to the proposed improvements at Jamaica Bay. A contract for building concrete piers was awarded in 1921 and completed the next year. In 1925, the Flatbush Avenue extension to Rockaway Inlet opened, providing an additional 2,700 feet (820 m) of dock facilities and a strip of land for a road across the marshes.:37 However, construction of the actual docks did not start until 1927. During the late 1920s and 1930s, the New York City Department of Docks rented the docks to a number of small industrial firms.:38
The development of the proposed docklands at Jamaica Bay spurred large increases in property values in Mill Basin, since the docklands was expected to gain a connection to the Long Island Rail Road. Planners wanted to create a spur of the Bay Ridge Branch south to Flatlands, with two branches to Canarsie and Mill Basin.:71 A connection to Staten Island would be built via the planned Staten Island Tunnel, which would in turn allow freight to be delivered and shipped to the rest of the continental United States. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey offered to build the new railroad link for $2 million and lease it to the city. However, Mill Basin's further development was hindered when plans for rail service to the rest of Brooklyn went unrealized.:38 Industrial activity continued through the 1960s.
In 1927, United States Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover's "Fact-Finding Committee on Suitable Airport Facilities for the New York Metropolitan District" suggested Southeast Brooklyn as a possible site for a new municipal airport in New York City. The New York City Chamber of Commerce approved the 800-acre (320 ha) site in September of that year. Originally, real-estate developers suggested that 300 acres (120 ha) in Mill Basin could be used for the new airport, which would allow the airfield to open before the end of 1928. Ultimately, New York City's aeronautical engineer Clarence Chamberlin selected nearby Barren Island as the site for the new airport, which later became Floyd Bennett Field.
The Belt Parkway was built through the neighborhood in the 1930s, and it opened in 1940. The construction of a drawbridge along the parkway, traversing Mill Basin, was approved in 1939 and completed the next year.
Old Mill Basin, to the north of the Mill Basin peninsula, was developed beginning in the 1920s. However, the 1939 WPA Guide to New York City mentions that the area comprising present-day Mill Basin and Bergen Beach was the residence of "pathetic communities of squatters, who live in makeshift houses, and eke out a living by fishing and scouring the near-by city dumps for odd necessities". At the time, the southern shore was still marshland. Residential development on the peninsula began after World War II, when Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific sold a large plot of land to the firm of Flatbush Park Homes. The land was bounded to the north by Avenue U, to the east by East 68th Street and East Mill Basin/Mill Island, to the south by Basset Avenue, and to the west by Strickland Avenue and Mill Avenue. Over a hundred brick bungalows were built in the late 1940s and early 1950s, many of which were later replaced by large, custom-built, detached one-family houses on lots measuring 50 by 100 feet (15 by 30 m). The Crooke-Schenck House, which stood at East 63rd Street, was dismantled in 1952 and later reassembled as an exhibit at the Brooklyn Museum. Starting in the 1950s, a series of suburban waterfront communities were being rapidly developed in Southeast Brooklyn, including present-day Bergen Beach and Canarsie as well as Mill Basin. In 1956, builders announced the construction of 1,500 houses on the Mill Basin peninsula. However, as late as the 1960s, parts of the area were still a swamp.
During the 1950s, private developers laid their own streets while constructing houses in the neighborhood, resulting in the creation of a patchwork of private roads. Some of these streets were poorly maintained: a newspaper article from 1954 described houses that flooded after heavy rains because there were no sewage pipes. In 1963, the city government asked the developers to fix these streets, which were already breaking down. The city argued that these streets would remain private roads until the streets were upgraded to city standards, but the developers took the opposite argument, saying that the streets were not up to city standards because they were private roads. After a controversy over the paving of the streets, the city ultimately dropped their requests for private builders to pave these streets, instead deciding that the city's Department of Highways would perform the paving. The New York City Department of Buildings agreed not to grant any certificates of occupancy to any new building unless the street in front of it was paved. In 1964, a federal judge signed an order that transferred these private streets to city ownership, allowing the city to pave these streets.
The area gained residential popularity by the end of the 1960s. By 1963, the South Shore High School in Canarsie was being constructed to accommodate the growing population. Due to a large number of new residents moving in, temporary classrooms were built on the playground of P.S. 236. A training school for sailors was also constructed in Mill Basin. The neighborhood had some of the most expensive houses in Brooklyn by 1972.
Several controversies arose during the development of Mill Basin as a residential neighborhood. In 1954, the city indefinitely postponed the construction of a garbage incinerator that had been planned for the area. Another controversy in 1966 surrounded a "boatel", or motel with boating docks, that had been planned for the site of a marsh south of the Mill Basin waterway. The boatel site, which was located at the intersection of Belt Parkway and Flatbush Avenue, was supposed to contain a shopping mall with docks for up to 300 boats. Residents continued to oppose plans for the shopping center since it would have been located on a wildlife sanctuary. Plans for the shopping mall were scrapped the next year after the city denied a rezoning plan for Mill Basin that would have allowed the shopping mall's construction. Another shopping mall, Kings Plaza, had been dedicated in 1968 at a site further north, on Avenue U.
Mill Basin has been characterized by The New York Times as a suburban community with a nearly-360-degree shoreline. It is adjoined by the waterway of the same name to the south and west. Many residents own boats. Mill Basin is are part of Brooklyn Community Board 18, which also includes Canarsie, Brooklyn, Bergen Beach, Brooklyn, Georgetown, Brooklyn, Marine Park, and the southern portion of Flatlands.
The neighborhood has evolved to include some of New York City's most luxurious houses. Most of the housing stock was developed starting in the late 20th century, and many waterfront houses include docks, water views, or high ceilings. Prices of houses often range in the millions. As of 2017, an unrenovated house on a 40-by-100-foot (12 by 30 m) lot along a main street had a minimum price of about $850,000. Housing prices rose based on the width of the lot, extent of renovations, and proximity to the water: the cheapest waterfront house is $1.6 million. A few houses also had elevators inside them, and several residences had features such as six-car garages and all-glass facades.
In Georgetown, north of Mill Basin, there are two-family brick townhouses with overhanging balconies and awnings. Old Mill Basin, to the northeast, mostly has detached frame houses. It is defined as the portion of the neighborhood north of Avenue U. In Mill Island, the peninsular part of Mill Basin, houses are more expensive than the rest of the neighborhood; by contrast, the cheapest houses are on the northwest corner. The former Mill Island and Old Mill Basin are divided by Avenue U, at the Mill Basin waterway's innermost reaches.
Some lead factories, built in the 20th century by Dutch businessmen, remain standing, but many are derelict. Commercial activities, mainly family-owned shops and restaurants, are primarily located along Strickland Avenue and Avenue U. The Kings Plaza shopping mall, located on a 23-acre (9.3 ha) plot at Avenue U and Flatbush Avenue, is the largest indoor shopping center in Brooklyn. The neighborhood also contains Mill Plaza Mall, a strip mall at the northwest corner of Mill and Strickland Avenues.
From the 1950s through the 1980s, the area was mainly Italian, but the predominant communities today are Russians and Israelis. By the end of the 20th century, the vast majority of Mill Basin residents were white, as were most residents of adjacent neighborhoods such as Bergen Beach and Marine Park. The 1990 United States Census counted 10 African-Americans living in Mill Basin; by the 2000 United States Census, there were 26 black residents. However, by 2011, the number of black residents in Southeast Brooklyn had risen 241%, the steepest such increase of any area in the city. As of that year, the African American population in these neighborhoods represented 10.9% of the total population.
Mill Basin is located in ZIP Code 11234, which also includes Georgetown, Marine Park, Bergen Beach, and the southern portion of Flatlands. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the combined population of Georgetown, Marine Park, Bergen Beach, and Mill Basin was 45,231, an increase of 2,291 (5.3%) from the 42,940 counted in the 2000 United States Census. Covering an area of 1,662.88 acres (672.94 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 27.2 inhabitants per acre (17,400/sq mi; 6,700/km2).
As of the 2010 Census, the racial makeup of Southeast Brooklyn was 73.8% (33,399) White, 10.9% (4,952) African American, 0.1% (47) Native American, 5.6% (2,521) Asian, 0.0% (7) Pacific Islander, 0.3% (144) from other races, and 1.3% (578) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.9% (3,583) of the population.
Mill Basin is patrolled by the New York City Police Department's 63rd Precinct. The precinct also covers Bergen Beach, Marine Park, and part of Flatlands. The 63rd Precinct ranked 31st safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010.
The 63rd Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 85.9% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct saw 5 murders, 14 rapes, 88 robberies, 131 felony assaults, 92 burglaries, 495 grand larcenies, and 62 grand larcenies auto in 2018.
There are several parks in Mill Basin. The only park on the peninsula proper is Lindower Park, a 6.7-acre (2.7 ha) park at the southwest corner of Mill and Strickland Avenues. The park is named after Alex Lindower, a lawyer and community activist who lived in Mill Basin. The city bought the land in 1959 and made it into a public park in 1963, the year before Lindower died. It contains baseball fields, basketball and handball courts, and a children's playground.
There are two smaller parks in Old Mill Basin. The James Marshall Power Playground, located at Avenue N and Utica Avenue, is a frequent gathering point for softball teams. The Monsignor Crawford Athletic Field, located on Avenue U between East 58th and East 60th Streets, contains two baseball fields. It is named after Monsignor Thomas J. Crawford, the first pastor of the Mary Queen of Heaven Church, located four blocks north of the ballfields. Mill Basin is also adjacent to Floyd Bennett Field, located to the immediate south of Mill Basin, across the Belt Parkway and Mill Basin Inlet. Named after aviator Floyd Bennett, the field was formerly the city's first municipal airport, and is now part of the Gateway National Recreation Area.
The bowler Lou Seda purchased the Gil Hodges Lanes, a bowling alley in Mill Basin, in 2009. It was then rebranded into a new bowling alley called Strike 10 Lanes, which as of 2012 was one of the few remaining bowling alleys in Brooklyn.
The New York City Department of Education operates several schools in the neighborhood. They include P.S. 312, P.S. 236, and P.S. 203, all of which have historically ranked among the top public schools in the city. The only private school within the boundaries of Mill Basin and Old Mill Basin is the Yeshivah of Crown Heights, though there are other private schools just outside of Mill Basin, including the Mary Queen of Catholic Academy and St. Bernard Catholic Academy.
Brooklyn Public Library operates the Mill Basin Library at 2385 Ralph Avenue, near Avenue N. The Mill Basin Library first opened in 1940, and it has been located in its current building since 1975.
Mill Basin is served by the B3, B41, B47, B100, and BM1 bus routes, operated by MTA Regional Bus Operations. There are no New York City Subway stations in the neighborhood; the closest stop is Kings Highway in Midwood, along the B and Q trains. BM1 express bus service to Manhattan started in 1973, mainly as a result of the area's isolation from the subway.
The original Mill Basin Bridge was a double-leaf bascule bridge supporting the Belt Parkway over Mill Basin. The span formerly carried six lanes of traffic, three in each direction, but as of September 2017, only the eastbound lanes used the drawbridge. There was a sidewalk on each side of the leaf; the eastern or downstream one, the only one still extant, is part of the Shore Parkway Greenway. Construction of the span was approved in 1939, and the bridge was opened in 1940. It is the only drawbridge on the Belt Parkway. The New York City Department of Transportation renovated the Belt Parkway Bridge over Mill Basin in late 2006 because of severe deterioration, but began planning for a replacement span.
In 2013, the city proposed a 60-foot (18 m)-high fixed bridge to replace the aging span. The new bridge will also feature shoulders and wider lanes, which the drawbridge was not built with. The new bridge started construction in 2015, with an expected completion date of 2021, four years after its original completion date of 2017. The westbound lanes were shifted to the newer bridge in August 2017.
NYPD 63rd Precinctwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
Ascher Lawrence Mestel (born 17 September 1926) is a pediatric surgeon who lives in Brooklyn, New York. He is one of the pioneers in the field of pediatric surgery and is widely published. He is especially well known for the groundbreaking first successful separation of Ischiopagus Tripus conjoined twins.From 1944-1946 Mestel served in the United States Navy. After the Navy he graduated from New York University in 1947. He then attended SUNY Downstate Medical Center, where he was elected to the medical honor society Alpha Omega Alpha and graduated in 1952. He went on to complete his internship and residency in General Surgery at Beth El Hospital (1952-1957) and a fellowship in Pediatric Surgery in the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada (1957-1958). In addition, he obtained a Masters in Surgery at New York Medical College in 1958.
Mestel has served as President of the Alumni, Medical Staff, and Medical Board at Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, and currently serves on the Board of Trustees. He has also served as Chairman of the Alumni association and Chairman of the Board of Trustees Alumnae at SUNY Downstate Medical Center. In addition to his work in the United States, Mestel has worked with Project HOPE (USA) in Jamaica.
In 1997, Mestel was awarded the Clarence and Mary Dennis Award for outstanding contributions and significant commitments to the SUNY Downstate Medical Center and to the Brooklyn community. In 1998, he was awarded the Alumni Service Award for providing exceptional service and leadership to the Alumni Association-College of Medicine of SUNY Downstate Medical Center.
Mestel is also an accomplished sculptor and stained glass artist. His art has won awards and has been on exhibit at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum, Staten Island Cultural Center, and Lever House. He is also active in the Jewish community, and has served as Chairman of the Board and President of Flatbush Park Jewish Center in Brooklyn. He is retired from practice and lives with his wife Beverly in Mill Basin, Brooklyn.Carmine Lombardozzi
Carmine Lombardozzi (February 2, 1913 – September 5, 1992) was a high-ranking member of the Gambino crime family in New York. He was known as "Alberto", "The Doctor", the "King of Wall Street" and "The Italian Meyer Lansky". By the end of his criminal career, Lombardozzi was the biggest earner for the Gambino family.Carmine Lupertazzi
Carmine Lupertazzi, Sr., played by Tony Lip, is the fictional boss of the Brooklyn-based Lupertazzi crime family on the HBO TV series The Sopranos.Demographics of New York City
New York City's demographics show that it is a large and ethnically diverse metropolis. It is the largest city in the United States with a long history of international immigration. New York City was home to nearly 8.5 million people in 2014, accounting for over 40% of the population of New York State and a slightly lower percentage of the New York metropolitan area, home to approximately 23.6 million. Over the last decade the city has been growing faster than the region. The New York region continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States.Throughout its history, New York City has been a major point of entry for immigrants; the term "melting pot" was coined to describe densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. English remains the most widely spoken language, although there are areas in the outer boroughs in which up to 25% of people speak English as an alternate language, and/or have limited or no English language fluency. English is least spoken in neighborhoods such as Flushing, Sunset Park, and Corona.Frank Bisignano
Frank J. Bisignano (born August 9, 1959) is an American businessman, and the Chairman and CEO of First Data. Based in New York City, Bisignano started his career as VP of both Shearson Lehman Brothers and First Fidelity Bank. Starting in 1994 he held a number of executive positions at Citigroup, with American Banker writing that "he got his payments industry bona fides at Citi by running its massive global transaction services unit." In 2004 the publication Treasury and Risk named him one of the "100 most influential people in finance."Hired as CAO of JPMorgan Chase in 2005, CEO Jamie Dimon "trusted him with integrating the bank’s purchases of a foundering Bear Stearns Cos. and bankrupt Washington Mutual Inc. during the crisis." Bisignano was also a primary negotiator in JPMorgan's acquisition of the Canary Wharf property in London, and CEO for several of JPMorgan's mortgage banking divisions. In 2012 he was promoted to co-COO, and the Financial Times called him "one of [JPMorgan]s most influential, yet least visible, executives."In 2013 Bisignano became CEO of First Data Corporation, and his tenure has attracted a fair amount of coverage in the press. He has overseen a technological push at the company, and in 2014 First Data collaborated with Apple Inc. on Apple Pay. Bisignano is also on the boards of organizations such as Continuum Health Partners and the Metro Atlanta Chamber of Commerce.Italian Americans in New York City
New York City has the largest population of Italian Americans in the United States of America as well as North America, many of whom inhabit ethnic enclaves in Brooklyn, the Bronx, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. New York City is home to the third largest Italian population outside of Italy, behind São Paulo, Brazil and Buenos Aires, Argentina, respectively.
The first Italian to reside in New York was Pietro Cesare Alberti, a Venetian seaman who, in 1635, settled in the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam that would eventually become New York City. A small wave of Protestants, known as Waldensians, who were of French and northern Italian heritage (specifically Piedmontese), occurred during the 17th century, with the majority coming between 1654 and 1663. A 1671 Dutch record indicates that, in 1656 alone, the Duchy of Savoy near Turin, Italy, had exiled 300 Waldensians due to their Protestant faith.
The largest wave of Italian immigration to the United States took place in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Between 1820 and 1978, 5.3 million Italians immigrated to the United States, including over two million between 1900 and 1910. Only the Irish and Germans immigrated in larger numbers.
The first New York City neighborhood to be settled by large numbers of Italian immigrants – primarily from Southern Italy (mostly from Sicily) – was East Harlem, which became the first part of the city to be known as "Little Italy". The area, which lies east of Lexington Avenue between 96th and 116th Streets and east of Madison Avenue between 116th and 125th Streets, featured people from different regions of Italy on each cross street, as immigrants from each area chose to live in close proximity to each other."Italian Harlem" approached its peak in the 1930s, with over 100,000 Italian-Americans living in its crowded, run-down apartment buildings. The 1930 census showed that 81 percent of the population of Italian Harlem consisted of first- or second- generation Italian Americans. This was somewhat less than the concentration of Italian Americans in the Lower East Side’s Little Italy with 88 percent; Italian Harlem’s total population, however, was three times that of Little Italy. Remnants of the neighborhood's Italian heritage are kept alive by the Giglio Society of East Harlem. Every year on the second weekend of August, the Feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel is celebrated and the "Dancing of the Giglio" is performed for thousands of visitors.
The best-known "Little Italy" in Manhattan is the area currently called that, which centers around Mulberry Street. This settlement, however, is rapidly becoming part of the adjacent Chinatown as the older Italian residents die and their children move elsewhere. As of the 2000 census, 692,739 New Yorkers reported Italian ancestry, making them the largest European ethnic group in the city. In 2011, the American Community Survey found there were 49,075 persons of Italian birth in New York City.Jans Martense Schenck house
Jan Martense Schenck (1631 in Amersfoort, Utrecht, Netherlands - Aug, 27 1687) arrived in New Netherlands on June 28, 1650, on the ship De Valckenier (the Falconer) with his sister Annetje and brother Roelof. He bought a parcel of land on Molen Eylandt (Mill Island) in the Dutch town of Nieuw Amersfoort in what is now the Mill Basin section of Brooklyn, New York. He purchased the land with a grist mill on it from Elbert Elbertse Stoothoff who had arrived in Nieuw Amsterdam in 1637 aboard the Vrede (Peace). The land was half of a tract Stoothoff purchased from Englishmen John Tilton Jr. and Samuel Spicer. John Tilton Jr. formerly resided in Lynn, Massachusetts, due to his Anabaptist beliefs he along with his wife were among the founding colonists of Gravesend, with Lady Deborah Moody. Tilton and Spicer had bought the land from the Canarsie Indians on May 13, 1664.
Dutch efforts to establish the colony of New Netherland brought significant population change to the area we today call Brooklyn. When the Dutch arrived in the early 1600s, the area was inhabited by the Canarsie, one of thirteen Algonquin tribes. The Canarsie had resided here for thousands of years and called the area where Jan Martense Schenck settled Keskateuw.
Between the 1630s and the 1680s, conflict and disease decimated the local Canarsie population, and after trading their land to the Dutch, only a few remained. By the time Jan Martense Schenck built his house, the area that is now Brooklyn was populated mostly by Europeans, the majority of whom were Dutch, with significant numbers of English and smaller numbers of people of other European backgrounds, including Italians (see the tea set displayed nearby). The Dutch had also begun importing enslaved Africans to New Netherland in the 1620s, and by 1698 approximately fifteen percent of the population of what is now Brooklyn was of African descent, nearly all of them enslaved.Jimmy Kimmel
James Christian Kimmel (born November 13, 1967) is an American television host, comedian, writer, and producer. He is the host and executive producer of Jimmy Kimmel Live!, a late-night talk show that premiered on ABC on January 26, 2003 at Hollywood Masonic Temple in Hollywood, California; and on April 1, 2019, at a secondary home, the Zappos Theater on the Las Vegas Strip. Kimmel hosted the Primetime Emmy Awards in 2012 and 2016, and the Academy Awards in 2017 and 2018.
Before hosting Jimmy Kimmel Live!, he was known as the co-host of Comedy Central's The Man Show and Win Ben Stein's Money. Kimmel has also produced such shows as Crank Yankers, Sports Show with Norm Macdonald, and The Andy Milonakis Show. In 2018, Time named him as one of "The World's 100 Most Influential People".Joseph N. Gallo
Joseph Nicholas Gallo (January 8, 1912 – September 1, 1995) was a New York mobster who served as consigliere of the Gambino crime family under three different bosses.
Joseph N. Gallo was not related to Joe Gallo of the Colombo crime family.Kings Plaza
Kings Plaza is a shopping center within the Mill Basin section of Brooklyn, New York City, United States. Opened in September 1970, it is located at the southeast corner of Flatbush Avenue and Avenue U, just north of Floyd Bennett Field. The mall's anchor tenants include Best Buy, Burlington, JCPenney, Lowe's, Macy's, Primark, and Zara. Previous anchors of the mall include Alexander's and Sears. The mall was originally owned by a joint venture between Macy's and Alexander's, and is currently owned and managed by Macerich. With approximately 4,200 jobs in retail services and over 120 individual stores, Kings Plaza is the largest indoor shopping center within the borough of Brooklyn.List of Hatzolah chapters
This is a list of Hatzalah chapters. Hatzalah is an all volunteer Emergency medical services organization staffed by Jewish Orthodox Emergency medical technicians and Paramedics. Locations where chapters are situated are listed alphabetically by geography.
Each neighborhood or city in Hatzalah operates independently. There are some exceptions, where there is a tight affiliation with neighboring Hatzalahs, a loose affiliation of neighboring Hatzalahs, or some other basic level of cooperation.List of The Sopranos characters in the Lupertazzi crime family
The Lupertazzi crime family is a fictional Mafia family from the HBO series The Sopranos. It is thought to be loosely based on the real Lucchese and Gambino crime families.
The Lupertazzi crime family consists of an administration and various crews, eight of which are depicted over the course of the series.
The following is a listing of fictional characters from The Sopranos that are associated with the Lupertazzi crime family.Matthew J. Blit
Matthew J. Blit (born March 9, 1975) is an American employment discrimination attorney best known for representing clients in high-profile matters involving celebrities and other notable parties. Blit is often referred to as a "high powered attorney" by the media, and has represented clients in cases involving celebrities such as Mariah Carey and James Franco. Blit also represented David Kuchinsky in his suit against New York Knicks center Eddy Curry; Ian Bernardo against American Idol; model Ashley Chontos in her sexual harassment suit against her former employer; and former actress and Binibining Pilipinas contestant Joanna "Dindi" Gallardo-Mills in her workplace-abuse suit against the companion of comic-book artist Frank Miller. In addition, Blit has represented a number of exotic dancers in sexual harassment and wage and hour claims against gentleman's clubs.Mill Island (disambiguation)
Mill Island may refer to
Mill Island, Antarctica
Mill Basin, Brooklyn, United States, formerly known as "Mill Island"
Mill Island (Nunavut), Canada
Mill Island (Moorefield, West Virginia), United States
Ray Mill Island, England
Temple Mill Island, EnglandNorman Finkelstein
Norman Gary Finkelstein (; born December 8, 1953) is an American political scientist, activist, professor, and author. His primary fields of research are the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and the politics of the Holocaust. He is a graduate of Binghamton University and received his Ph.D. in political science at Princeton University. He has held faculty positions at Brooklyn College, Rutgers University, Hunter College, New York University, and DePaul University, where he was an assistant professor from 2001 to 2007.
In 2007, after a highly publicized feud between Finkelstein and Alan Dershowitz, an academic opponent, Finkelstein was denied tenure at DePaul. He was placed on administrative leave for the 2007–08 academic year, and on September 5, 2007, he announced his resignation after coming to a settlement with the university on largely undisclosed terms. An official statement from DePaul strongly defended the decision to deny Finkelstein tenure and said that outside influence played no role in the decision. In 2008 he was banned from entering Israel for 10 years for criticizing Israeli policies.Finkelstein taught at Sakarya University Middle East Institute in Turkey in 2014–15.Robert Moses Causeway
The Robert Moses Causeway is an 8.10-mile (13.04 km)-long parkway in Suffolk County, New York, in the United States. The parkway, originally known as the Captree Causeway, connects West Islip on Long Island to the barrier beach islands, such as Captree Island, Jones Beach Island, and the western tip of Fire Island, to the south. It is designated New York State Route 908J (NY 908J), an unsigned reference route. Except south of NY 27A, the road, like most parkways in New York State, is limited to non-commercial traffic.Sephardic Center of Mill Basin
The Sephardic Center of Mill Basin, is a Sephardic Jewish Orthodox Sephardi synagogue located at 6208 Strickland Avenue in Brooklyn, New York. It is primarily used by Jews residing in the Mill Basin, Georgetown and Bergen Beach neighborhoods of Brooklyn.
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Former islands shown in italics