Militia (China)

The Militia (Chinese: 民兵; pinyin: Mínbīng)[1] or China Militia (Chinese: 中国民兵; pinyin: Zhōngguó Mínbīng) is the militia part of the armed forces of China, other two parts being the People's Liberation Army (PLA) and the People's Armed Police (PAP).[1] The Militia is under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC)[2] and serves as an auxiliary and reserve force for the PLA.[4] It is one of the largest militias in the world.

People's militia old
People's militia new

History

The role of the militia has varied over the years. During the 1940s the militia served as a support force for PLA. After 1949 the party consolidated control over the country and used the militia to maintain Law and order in the country and for defense of the borders and coast. In the mid-1950s, Peng Dehuai attempted to build the militia as a reserve force. However, his efforts were thwarted, when the party expanded the militia, assigning it duties as an internal security force during the Great Leap Forward. Lin Biao reduced the size of the militia and reemphasized military training in the early 1960s. The militia was fragmented during the early years of the Cultural Revolution, but in the 1970s it was rebuilt to support the PLA. The Gang of Four also attempted to build up the urban militia as an alternative to the PLA, but the urban militia failed to support the Gang of Four, when Hua Guofeng and other moderate military leaders deposed them. The militia's logistical support of the PLA was essential during the Sino-Vietnamese War. In the 1980s, Chinese leaders improved the militia's capabilities by reducing its size and economic works.

Roles and tasks

According to Article 22 of the Law of the People's Republic of China on National Defence, the Militia, under the command of military organs, shoulders the tasks of preparations against war and defence operations, and assists in maintaining public order.[1]

According to Article 36 of the Military Service Law of the People's Republic of China, the Militia's tasks are:[4]

  1. take an active part in the socialist modernization drive and be exemplary in completing the tasks in production and other fields;
  2. undertake the duties related to preparations against war, defend the frontiers and maintain public order; and
  3. be always ready to join the armed forces to take part in war, resist aggression and defend the motherland.

The militia is organized into regional militia corps in every theater command of the PLA, which in turn oversee militia divisions and subordinate formations, and is subdivided into specialty militia units. It is overseen by the National Defense Mobilization Commission, which can order the deployment of its personnel during peacetime and wartime contingencies as may be ordered by the President of the PRC, who, as General Secretary of the Party and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, is overall supreme commander of the PLA.

Maritime Militia

China Maritime Militia (CMM) is a subset of China’s national militia. The CMM trains with and supports the People's Liberation Army Navy and the China Coast Guard in tasks including[3]

In the South China Sea, the CMM plays a major role in maritime activities to achieve China’s political goals without fighting.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Law of the People's Republic of China on National Defence, Article 22: "The armed forces of the People’s Republic of China are composed of the active and reserve forces of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, the Chinese People's Armed Police Force and the Militia. ...... The Militia, under the command of military organs, shoulders the tasks of preparations against war and defence operations and assists in maintaining public order."
  2. ^ a b Regulation on Militia Work (2011 Revision), Article 2: "The militia is an armed organization composed of the people not released from their regular work under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC), is a part of the armed forces of the People's Republic of China and is an assistant and reserve force for the Chinese People's Liberation Army."
  3. ^ a b c d Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2017 by the Office of the Secretary of Defense, United States Department of Defense
  4. ^ a b Military Service Law of the People's Republic of China, Chapter VI The Militia, Article 36: "The militia is an armed organization of the masses not divorced from production and is an assisting and reserve force for the Chinese People's Liberation Army. The tasks of the militia are: ......"

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Official (People's Republic of China)
Other
Combat Groups of the Working Class

The Combat Groups of the Working Class (German: Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse, KdA) was a paramilitary organization in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from 1953 to 1989.

The KdA served as the de facto militia of the ruling Socialist Unity Party of Germany composed of party members and politically reliable working people, based on dictatorship of the proletariat principles, to be deployed locally to fight civil unrest or invasion. The KdA was a civil reserve force tied to the GDR's Ministry of the Interior and the Volkspolizei, reaching 211,000 personnel at its peak in 1980. The KdA was disbanded by the Volkskammer after the opening of the Berlin Wall in late 1989.

People's Liberation Army Ground Force

The People's Liberation Army Ground Force (PLAGF) (simplified Chinese: 中国人民解放军陆军; traditional Chinese: 中國人民解放軍陸軍; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Jiěfàngjūn Lùjūn) is the land-based service branch of the People's Liberation Army and it is the largest and oldest branch of the entire Chinese armed forces. The PLAGF can trace its lineage from 1927; however, it was not officially established until 1948.

People's Militia

People's Militia may refer to:

Donbass People's Militia

People's Liberation Army Militia (China)

People's Militia (Burkina Faso)

People's Militias (Czechoslovakia)

Peoples' Militia (Bulgaria)

People’s Militia (Libya)

People's Militia (Soviet Union)

Ukrainian People's MilitiaFor the law enforcement organization see Militsiya

Worker-Peasant Red Guards

The Worker-Peasant Red Guards (WPRG; Korean: 로농적위군), also translated as Workers and Peasants' Red Militia (WPRM), is a paramilitary force in North Korea. It is the largest civil defense force in North Korea. It was established on January 14, 1959 by Kim Il-sung and is not only under State Affairs Commission (until 2016 National Defense Commission) and Ministry of People's Armed Forces control, but is also attached to the Workers' Party of Korea under its Military Affairs Department.

The militia is organized on a provincial/City and town/village level, and structured on a brigade, battalion, company, and platoon basis. The militia maintains infantry small arms, with some mortars, field guns and anti-aircraft guns and even modernized older equipment such as multiple rocket launchers like the BM-13 and older Ural D-62 motorcycles, although some units are unarmed indicating status as logistics and medical units.Its strength is estimated at 5 million personnel.

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