Military tribune

A military tribune (Latin tribunus militum, "tribune of the soldiers", Greek chiliarchos, χιλίαρχος) was an officer of the Roman army who ranked below the legate and above the centurion. Young men of Equestrian rank often served as military tribune as a stepping stone to the Senate.[1] The tribunus militum should not be confused with the elected political office of tribune of the people (tribunus plebis) nor with that of tribunus militum consulari potestate.

Early Rome

The word tribunus derives from tribus, "tribe."[2] In Rome's earliest history, each of the three tribes (Ramnes, Luceres, and Tities) sent one commander when an army was mustered,[3] since there was no standing army. The tribunes were commanders of the original legion of 3,000. By the time of the Greek historian Polybius (d. 118 BC), the tribunes numbered six, and they were appointed by the consuls.[4] However, the process by which tribunes were chosen and assigned is complex and varies at different times.

Republican period

In the Republican period, there were six appointed to each legion. Authority was given to two at a time, and command rotated among the six. Tribunes were men of Senatorial status appointed by the Senate. To attain the position of tribune, one only needed to be a member of the ruling class. By 311 BC the people acquired the right to elect sixteen tribunes of the soldiers, that is, four out of the six tribunes assigned to each of the four legions that formed the Roman Army. Previously these places had been for the most part in the gift of consuls or dictators.[5]

Additionally, in the early Republic, another type of military tribunes were sometimes chosen in place of the annually elected consuls to be the heads of the Roman State. These are known in Latin as tribuni militum consulari potestate, "Military Tribunes with Consular Authority." At the time only Patricians could be chosen as Consuls, but both Patricians and Plebeians could be elected as tribunes with consular authority. Instead of the usual two consuls, between four and six military tribunes were elected for the year. The reasons for this choice are obscure, though Livy often cast the decision according to the class struggles he saw as endemic during this period, with patricians generally favoring consuls and plebs the military tribunes. The office of "consular tribune" eventually fell out of use after 366 BC.

After the Marian reforms

After the Marian reforms of 107 BC (subsequently further formalised by the emperor Claudius) created a professionalized military system, legions were commanded by a legionary legate (legatus). Six tribunes were still posted to a legion, but their duties and responsibilities had changed, becoming more a political position than a military rank. The second-in-command to the legate was the tribunus laticlavius or 'broad-stripe' tribune (named after the width of the stripe used to demarcate him on his tunic and toga),[6] usually a young man of Senatorial rank. He was given this position to learn and watch the actions of the legate. They often found themselves leading their unit in the absence of a legate, and some legions were permanently commanded by a broad-stripe tribune, such as those stationed in Egypt, as an Augustan law required that no member of the Senatorial Order ever enter Egypt.[7]

In contrast to the broad-stripe tribune, the other five 'thin stripe' tribunes were lower in rank, and were called the tribuni angusticlavii. These 'officer cadets'[6] were men of equestrian rank who had military experience, and yet had no authority: they were allowed to sit on a court martial but they held no power in battle. Most thin-stripe tribunes served the legionary legate, yet a lucky few (such as Agricola) were selected to serve on the staff of the provincial governor.[8] According to Tacitus, they did not always take their appointment as seriously as they might, contrasting Agricola's tribuneship to his peers by saying "[Agricola did not], like many young men who convert military service into wanton pastime, avail himself licentiously or slothfully of his tribunitial title, or use his inexperience to spend his time in pleasures and absences from duty".[8]

Principate

Under Augustus, the five equestrian tribunes were sometimes promoted from the rank of centurion, and might advance to a command in the auxiliary cavalry or Praetorian Guard.

See also

References

  1. ^ Dio, LXVII, 2.
  2. ^ Entry on tribunus, Oxford Latin Dictionary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982, 1985 reprinting), p. 1972.
  3. ^ Varro, De lingua latina 5.80.
  4. ^ Polybius, 6.12.6.
  5. ^ Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita Libri IX, 29, with translation and notes by B. O. Foster, Loeb Classical Library, ISBN 0-674-99210-5
  6. ^ a b Dando-Collins 2010, p. 42.
  7. ^ Dando-Collins 2010, p. 40.
  8. ^ a b Agricola, Tacitus, 5

Sources

  • Dando-Collins, Stephen (December 2010). The Legions of Rome.
Aulus Manlius Capitolinus

Aulus Manlius Capitolinus was a politician of the Roman Republic and the brother of Marcus Manlius Capitolinus. In 389, 385, 383, and 370 BC, he was a Military Tribune with Consular power.

Cursus honorum

The cursus honorum (Latin: lit. "course of honor", or more colloquially "ladder of offices") was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire. It was designed for men of senatorial rank. The cursus honorum comprised a mixture of military and political administration posts. Each office had a minimum age for election. There were minimum intervals between holding successive offices and laws forbade repeating an office.These rules were altered and flagrantly ignored in the course of the last century of the Republic. For example, Gaius Marius held consulships for five years in a row between 104 BC and 100 BC. He was consul seven times in all, also serving in 107 and 86. Officially presented as opportunities for public service, the offices often became mere opportunities for self-aggrandizement. The reforms of Sulla required a ten-year interval before holding the same office again for another term.To have held each office at the youngest possible age (suo anno, "in his own year") was considered a great political success. For instance, to miss out on a praetorship at 39 meant that one could not become consul at 42. Cicero expressed extreme pride not only in being a novus homo ("new man"; comparable to a "self-made man") who became consul even though none of his ancestors had ever served as a consul, but also in having become consul "in his year".

Fabius Ambustus

Fabius Ambustus was a name used by ancient Roman men from a branch of the gens Fabia, including:

Quintus Fabius Ambustus, consul 412 BC; son of Quintus, grandson of Marcus

Caeso Fabius Ambustus, quaestor 409 BC, four-time military tribune with consular powers (404, 401, 395 390), legate 398 and 39; son of Marcus, grandson of Quintus

Numerius Fabius Ambustus (praenomen possibly Gnaeus instead), military tribune with consular powers in 406 and 390, legatus in 398 and 391; son of Marcus, grandson of Quintus

Quintus Fabius Ambustus, legate 391, military tribune with consular powers 390; son of Marcus, grandson of Quintus

Marcus Fabius Ambustus, military tribune with consular powers 381 and 369, censor in 363; son of the four-time consular tribune

Gaius Fabius Ambustus, consul 358 BC, interrex 355; son of Numerius, and grandson of Marcus

Quintus Fabius Ambustus, magister equitum 344, dictator 321

Marcus Fabius Ambustus, three-time consul (360, 356, 354 BC,) interrex 356 and 351 (possibly again in 340), dictator 351, possibly one of the tres viri ad col. deduc. in 334, princeps senatus at an unknown date; son of Numerius, grandson of Marcus

Marcus Fabius Ambustus, Magister Equitum 322, but possibly to be identified with the three-time consul

Gaius Fabius Ambustus, suffect Magister Equitum 315, son of Marcus, and grandson of Numerius

Gaius Julius Caesar (proconsul)

Gaius Julius Caesar (ca. 140 BC – 85 BC) was a Roman senator, a supporter of his brother-in-law, Gaius Marius, and the father of Gaius Julius Caesar.

Caesar was married to Aurelia Cotta, a member of the Aurelii and Rutilii families. They had two daughters, known as Julia Major and Julia Minor, and a son, Gaius, who was born in 100 BC. He was the brother of Sextus Julius Caesar (consul in 91 BC) and the son of Gaius Julius Caesar.

Caesar's progress through the cursus honorum is well known, although the specific dates associated with his offices are controversial. According to two elogia erected in Rome long after his death, Caesar was a commissioner in the colony at Cercina, military tribune, quaestor, praetor, and proconsul of Asia. The dates of these offices are unclear. The colony is probably one of Marius' of 103 BC. Broughton dated the praetorship to 92 BC, with the quaestorship falling towards the beginning of the 90s BC. Brennan has dated the praetorship to the beginning of the decade.Caesar died suddenly in 85 BC, in Rome, while putting on his shoes one morning. Another Caesar, possibly his father, had died similarly in Pisa. His father had seen to his education by one of the best orators of Rome, Marcus Antonius Gnipho. In his will, he left Caesar the bulk of his estate, but after Marius's faction had been defeated in the civil war of the 80s BC, this inheritance was confiscated by the dictator Sulla.

Gaius Octavius

Gaius Octavius was a name used for men among the gens Octavia. Gaius was one of the four chief praenomina used by the Octavii, the other three being Gnaeus, Marcus and Lucius. The most celebrated member was the dictator Gaius Julius Caesar's great-nephew and adoptive son, who later became the first Roman emperor, famously known as Augustus.

Gaius Octavius also refers to men from several families of the gens Octavia:

Relatives of Augustus, member of the so-called Octavii Rufi:

Gaius Octavius (tribune 216 BC) (fl. 216 BC), military tribune in 216 BC, son of Gaius Octavius who was of the equestrian order and son of Gnaeus Octavius Rufus, and great-grandfather of Augustus;

Gaius Octavius (proconsul) (c. 100–59 BC), grandson of the previous, praetor in 61 BC, governorpraefectus pro praetor of Roman Macedonia, conqueror of Thurii, father of Augustus and first husband of Atia, niece of Julius Caesar;

Augustus (Gaius Octavius Thurinus, 63 BC–AD 14), son of the previous, first Roman Emperor, great-nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar as Gaius Julius Caesar OctavianusMembers of other families:

Gaius Octavius Laenas, curator of the aqueducts in Rome (AD 34–38) during the reigns of Tiberius and Caligula

Gaius Octavius Lampadio, a grammarian who divided the poem of Naevius on the First Punic War into seven books

Gaius Octavius Appius Suetrius Sabinus, senator and twice consul (214 and 240)

Gaius Octavius (proconsul)

Gaius Octavius (about 100 – 59 BC) was a Roman politician.

He was an ancestor to the Roman Emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He was the father of the Emperor Augustus, step-grandfather of the Emperor Tiberius, great-grandfather of the Emperor Claudius, great-great grandfather of the Emperors Caligula and Nero. Hailing from Velitrae, he was a descendant of an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the gens Octavia. Despite being from a wealthy family, his family was plebeian, rather than patrician. As a novus homo ("new man"), he was not of a senatorial family. His grandfather, Gaius Octavius, fought as a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War. His father, Gaius Octavius, was a municipal magistrate who lived to an advanced age.

List of Roman army unit types

This is a list of Roman army unit types.

Actarius – A military or camp clerk.

Adiutor – A camp or headquarters adjutant or assistant

Aeneator – Military musician such as a bugler.

Agrimensor – A surveyor (a type of immunes).

Aquilifer – Bearer of the legionary eagle.

Alaris – A cavalryman serving in an ala.

Architecti – An engineer or artillery constructor.

Armicustos – A soldier tasked with the administration and supply of weapons and equipment. A quartermaster.

Ballistarius – An artillery operator (a type of immunes).

Beneficiarius – A soldier performing an extraordinary task such as military policing or a special assignment.

Bucinator – A trumpeter or bugler.

Cacula – Servant or slave of a soldier.

Capsarior – A medical orderly.

Causarius – A soldier discharged for wounds or other medical reasons.

Centurion – Officer rank, generally one per 80 soldiers, in charge of a centuria.

Clinicus – A medic.

Cornicen – Bugler.

Doctor – A trainer, subdivisions for everything from weapons to horn blowing.

Draconarius – Bearer of a cavalry standard.

Decurion – Leader of a troop of cavalry (14-30 men). Often confused with decanus.

Decanus – Leader of a contubernium (a legionary tent group of 8 men).

Discens – Miles in training for an immunis position.

Dux – A general in charge of two or more legions. In the Third Century AD, an officer with a regional command transcending provincial boundaries, responsible directly to the emperor alone, usually appointed on a temporary basis in a grave emergency. In the fourth century AD, an officer in charge of a section of the frontier answering to the Magister Militum.

Equites singulares Augusti – Elite cavalry unit tasked to guard the Roman Emperors. Usually commanded by a tribunus of praetorian rank.

Evocatus – A soldier who had served out his time and obtained his discharge (missio), but had voluntarily enlisted again at the invitation of the consul or other commander.

Frumentarii – Officials of the Roman Empire during the 2nd and 3rd era. Often used as a Secret Service, mostly operating in uniform.

Hastatus – The youngest of the heavy infantry in the pre-Marian armies, who were less well-equipped than the older Principes and Triarii. These formed the first line of battle in front of the Principes.

Hastatus Prior – A centurion commanding a manipulus or centuria of hastati. A high-ranking officer within a manipulus or centuria.

Hastatus Posterior – A deputy to the hastatus prior

Hastiliarius – a weapons instructor.

Imaginifer – A standard-bearer carrying the imago – the standard which bore a likeness of the emperor, and, at later dates, his family.

Immunes – Soldiers who were "immune" from combat duty and fatigues through having a more specialist role within the army.

Legatus legionis – A legion commander of senatorial rank; literally the "deputy" of the emperor, who was the titular commander-in-chief.

Legatus pro praetore – Provincial governor of senatorial rank with multiple legions under his command.

Legionary – The heavy infantry that was the basic military force of the ancient Roman army in the period of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.

Magister militum - High ranked commander in the late Roman Empire. Equivalent of general.

Medicus – Physician or combat medic. Specializations included surgery (medicus vulnerarius), ophthalmology (medicus ocularius), and also veterinary (medicus veterinarius). At least some held rank equivalent to a centurion.

Miles or Miles Gregarius – The basic private level foot soldier.

Numerus – A unit of barbarian allies not integrated into the regular army structure. Later, a unit of border forces.

Optio – One per century as second-in-command to the centurion. Could also fill several other specialized roles on an ad hoc basis.

Pedites – The infantry of the early army of the Roman kingdom. The majority of the army in this period.

Peditatus – A term referring to any infantryman in the Roman Empire.

Pilus Prior – Senior centurion of a cohort.

Pilus Posterior – Deputy to the pilus prior.

Praefectus Castrorum – Camp prefect, third-in-command of the legion, also responsible for maintaining the camp, equipment, and supplies. Usually a former primus pilus.

Praefectus Cohortis - Commander of a cohort.

Praefectus legionis agens vice legati – Equestrian officer given the command of a legion in the absence of a senatorial legatus. After the removal of senators from military command, the title of a legionary commander. ("...agens vice legati, dropped in later Third Century")

Praetorians – A special force of bodyguards used by Roman Emperors.

Primus Ordinis – The commanding officer of each centuria in the first cohort with the exception of the first centuria of the cohort.

Primus Pilus (literally 'first file', not spear) – The centurion commanding the first cohort and the senior centurion of the entire Legion.

Princeps – Pre-Marian soldier, initially equipped with the Hasta spear, but later with the pilum, these men formed the second line of battle behind the Hastati in the pre-Marian armies. They were also chieftains in Briton like Dumnorix of the Regneses (he was killed by Gaius Salvius Liberalis' soldiers).

Princeps Prior – A centurion commanding a century of principes.

Princeps Posterior – A deputy to the princeps prior.

Principales – A group of ranks, including aquilifer, signifer, optio, and tesserarius. Similar to modern NCOs (Non-commissioned officers).

Protectores Augusti Nostri (a.k.a. Protectores Divini Lateris) – honorific title for senior officers singled out for their loyalty to the Emperor and soldierly qualities. The protectores were an order of honor rather than a military unit. The order first appeared in the mid-200s AD.

Quaestionarius – An interrogator or torturer.

Retentus – A soldier kept in service after serving required term.

Rorarii – The final line, or reserve, in the ancient pre-Marius Roman army. These were removed even before the Marian reforms, as the Triarii provided a very sturdy anchor.

Sagittarii – Archers, including horse-riding auxiliary archers recruited mainly in North Africa, Balkans, and later the Eastern Empire.

Salararius – A soldier enjoying special service conditions or hired as a mercenary.

Scholae Palatinae – An elite troop of soldiers created by the Emperor Constantine the Great to provide personal protection of the Emperor and his immediate family.

Scorpionarius – An artilleryman operating a scorpio artillery piece.

Signifer – Standard bearer of the Roman Legion.

Socii – Troops from allied states in the pre-Marian army before the Social War (91–88 BC)

Speculatores and Exploratores – The scouts and reconnaissance element of the Roman army.

Supernumerarii – Supernumerary soldiers who served to fill the places of those who were killed or disabled by their wounds.

Strategos - General and military governor of Theme in the Byzantine Empire.

Tablifer – A guard cavalry standard-bearer

Tesserarius – Guard commander, one per centuria.

Tirones – A basic trainee.

Triarii – Spearmen of the pre-Marian armies, equipped with the Hasta, who formed the third line of battle behind the Principes.

Tribunus Militum - Officer in the Roman army who ranked below the legate and above the centurion.

Tribuni militum angusticlavii or military tribune – Military tribune of equestrian rank, five of whom were assigned to each legion.

Tribunus militum laticlavius – Military tribune of senatorial rank. Second in command of a legion. Appointments to this rank seem to have ceased during the sole reign of Gallienus as part of a policy of excluding senators from military commands.

Tubicen – A trumpeter.

Urbanae – A special police force of Rome, created to counterbalance the Praetorians.

Velites – A class of light infantry in the army of the Roman Republic.

Venator – A hunter (a type of immunes).

Vexillarius – Bearer of a vexillum (standard).

Lucius Antistius Burrus

Lucius Antistius Burrus Adventus (c. 149–188) of the gens Antistia was a Roman Senator that lived in the 2nd century. He was one of the sons-in-law of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Faustina the Younger.

Burrus originally came from a senatorial family from Thibilis, a town near Hippo Regius in the Africa Province. Although Burrus was born and raised in Thibilis, his family was not of very ancient lineage. He was the son of Quintus Antistius Adventus Aquilinus Postumus and Novia Crispina. His mother is known from an honorific inscription dedicated to her, dating from her husband's governorship of Arabia Petraea.

Quintus Antistius Adventus (born around mid-120s), during the rule of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty, served as a successful military tribune, legatus, quaestor, public construction official and governor in various provinces throughout the Roman Empire.Sometime before the death of Marcus Aurelius, Burrus married the Emperor's youngest daughter, Vibia Aurelia Sabina, after which, they returned and settled in Thibilis. When Marcus Aurelius died in 180, Aurelia Sabina's brother Commodus succeeded her father as Emperor. In 181, Burrus served as an ordinary consul.

In 188, Antistius Burrus was involved in a conspiracy against Commodus. When this conspiracy was uncovered, Antistius Burrus was put to death. His widow later remarried; it appears she had no children by Burrus.

Lucius Furius Purpureo

Lucius Furius Purpureo was a Roman politician and general, becoming consul in the year 196 BC. Lucius Furius was from the Furia (gens) patrician family in Rome.

Lucius Sergius Fidenas

Lucius Sergius Fidenas was a Roman politician during the 5th century BC, and was elected consul in 437 and 429 BC. In 433, 424, and 418 BC he was military tribune with consular power.

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 32

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 32 (P. Oxy. 32) is a letter to a tribunus militum, written in Latin. It was discovered by Grenfell and Hunt in 1897 in Oxyrhynchus. The fragment is dated to the second century. It is housed in the Bodleian Library. The text was published by Grenfell and Hunt in 1898.The letter was written to Julius Domitius, military tribune of the legion, by Aurelius Archelaus.

The manuscript was written on papyrus in the form of a sheet. The measurements of the fragment are 196 by 105 mm. The text is written in a cursive hand. The writing is very clear and easy to decipher.

Quintus Laberius Durus

Quintus Laberius Durus (died August 54 BC) was a Roman military tribune who died during Julius Caesar's second expedition to Britain. Caesar describes how soon after landing in Kent, the Romans were attacked whilst building a camp by the native Britons. Before re-inforcements could arrive, Laberius was killed. His burial site is traditionally the earthworks of Julliberrie's Grave near Chilham (which is in fact a Neolithic long barrow).

Orosius, in his Seven Books of History Against the Pagans, calls him Labienus, confusing him with Caesar's legate Titus Labienus, who lived to fight against Caesar in the Civil War. The error was perpetuated by Bede and Geoffrey of Monmouth, both of whom refer to a tribune called Labienus being killed in Britain. The latter says he was killed by Nennius.

Despite his status as a footnote in history, a long modern poem by American poet Gabriel Gudding is dedicated to Laberius ("For Quintus Laberius Durus, Who, Because of a Javelin in His Lungs, Died Near Kent, in Early August, 54 B.C") and appears in his book, A Defense of Poetry (University of Pittsburgh Press, 2002). An historical novel, Caesar (Harper, 1999), by Australian writer Colleen McCullough, also involves him.

Sextus Julius Caesar

Sextus Julius Caesar was the name of several Roman men of the Julii Caesares. Sextus was one of three praenomina used by the Julii Caesares, the others being Lucius and Gaius, the latter being the praenomen of the most famous Julius Caesar.

The Robe (film)

The Robe is a 1953 American Biblical epic film that tells the story of a Roman military tribune who commands the unit that is responsible for the Crucifixion of Jesus. The film was released by 20th Century Fox and was the first film released in the widescreen process CinemaScope. Like other early CinemaScope films, The Robe was shot with Henri Chrétien's original Hypergonar anamorphic lenses.

The film was directed by Henry Koster and produced by Frank Ross. The screenplay was adapted by Gina Kaus, Albert Maltz, and Philip Dunne from Lloyd C. Douglas' eponymous 1942 novel. The score was composed by Alfred Newman, and the cinematography was by Leon Shamroy.

The film stars Richard Burton, Jean Simmons, Victor Mature, and Michael Rennie and co-stars Dean Jagger, Jay Robinson, Richard Boone, and Jeff Morrow. The Robe had a 1954 sequel Demetrius and the Gladiators.

Titus Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus

Titus Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus was a famous politician and general of the Roman Republic. He had an outstanding career, being consul three times in 347, 344, and 340 BC, and dictator three times 353, 349, and 320 BC. He was one of the early heroes of the Republic, alongside Cincinnatus, Cornelius Cossus, Furius Camillus, or Valerius Corvus. As a young military tribune, he defeated a giant Gaul in single combat in one of the most famous duels of the Republic, which earned him the cognomen Torquatus after the torque he took from the Gaul's body. He was also known for his moral virtues, especially his severity as he killed his own son after he had disobeyed his orders in a battle. His life was seen as a model for his descendants, who tried to emulate his heroic deeds, even centuries after his death.

Titus Quinctius Flamininus

Titus Quinctius Flamininus ( FLAM-i-NY-nəs; c. 229–174 BC) was a Roman politician and general instrumental in the Roman conquest of Greece.A member of the patrician gens Quinctia, and brother to Lucius Quinctius Flamininus, he served as a military tribune in the Second Punic war and in 205 BC he was appointed propraetor in Tarentum. He was a quaestor in 199 BC. He became consul in 198 BC, despite being only about thirty years old, younger than the constitutional age required to serve in that position. As Livy records, two tribunes, Marcus Fulvius and Manius Curius, publicly opposed his candidacy for consulship, as he was just a quaestor, but the Senate overrode the opposition and he was elected along with Sextus Aelius Paetus.After his election to the consulship he was chosen to replace Publius Sulpicius Galba who was consul with Gaius Aurelius in 200 BC, according to Livy, as general during the Second Macedonian War. He chased Philip V of Macedon out of most of Greece, except for a few fortresses, defeating him at the Battle of the Aous, but as his term as consul was coming to an end he attempted to establish a peace with the Macedonian king. During the negotiations, Flamininus was made proconsul, giving him the authority to continue the war rather than finishing the negotiations. In 197 BC he defeated Philip at the Battle of Cynoscephalae in Thessaly, the Roman legions making the Macedonian phalanx obsolete in the process. Philip was forced to surrender, give up all the Greek cities he had conquered, and pay Rome 1,000 talents, but his kingdom was left intact to serve as a buffer state between Greece and Illyria. This displeased the Achaean League, Rome's allies in Greece, who wanted Macedon to be dismantled completely.In 198 BC he occupied Anticyra in Phocis and made it his naval yard and his main provisioning port. During the period from 197 to 194 BC, from his seat in Elateia, Flamininus directed the political affairs of the Greek states. In 196 BC Flamininus appeared at the Isthmian Games in Corinth and proclaimed the freedom of the Greek states. He was fluent in Greek and was a great admirer of Greek culture, and the Greeks hailed him as their liberator; they minted coins with his portrait, and in some cities he was deified. According to Livy, this was the act of an unselfish Philhellene, although it seems more likely that Flamininus understood freedom as liberty for the aristocracy of Greece, who would then become clients of Rome, as opposed to being subjected to Macedonian hegemony. With his Greek allies, Flamininus plundered Sparta, before returning to Rome in triumph along with thousands of freed slaves, 1,200 of whom were freed from Achaea, having been taken captive and sold in Greece during the Second Punic War.Meanwhile, Eumenes II of Pergamum appealed to Rome for help against the Seleucid king Antiochus III. Flamininus was sent to negotiate with him in 192 BC, and warned him not to interfere with the Greek states. Antiochus did not believe Flamininus had the authority to speak for the Greeks, and promised to leave Greece alone only if the Romans did the same. These negotiations came to nothing and Rome was soon at war with Antiochus. Flamininus was present at the Battle of Thermopylae in 191 BC, in which Antiochus was defeated.In 189 BC he was elected censor along with Marcus Claudius Marcellus, defeating among others Cato the Elder.In 183 BC he was sent to negotiate with Prusias I of Bithynia in an attempt to capture Hannibal, who had been exiled there from Carthage, but Hannibal committed suicide to avoid being taken prisoner. According to Plutarch, many senators reproached Flamininus for having cruelly caused the death of an enemy who had now become harmless. Although nothing is known of him after this, Flamininus seems to have died around 174.

Tres militiae

The tres militiae ("three military posts") was a career progression of the Roman Imperial army for men of the equestrian order. It developed as an alternative to the cursus honorum of the senatorial order for enabling the social mobility of equestrians and identifying those with the aptitude for administration. The three posts, typically held over a period of two to four years, were prefect of a cohort (Praefectus cohortis), military tribune (Tribunus angusticlavius), and prefect of an ala (wing).Men who passed through the tres militiae often became prefect of the food supply (Praefectus annonae), prefect of Egypt, or praetorian prefects, the highest prefectures available to equestrians.The emperor Trajan played a major role in establishing a regular career track for equestrians. The first of the tres militiae was command as a prefect of a cohors quingenaria, one of approximately 150 auxiliary units of 500 men from the provinces. Promotion required a transfer to a legion with the rank of tribunus angusticlavus, "military tribune of the narrow stripe," referring to the narrower width of the clavus (reddish-purple stripe) that distinguished the toga of an equestrian from that of a senator. Each legion had five angusticlavi, but even with about 30 legions, there were probably only 20 or so vacancies each year. An alternative post for the second militia was as auxiliary tribune with a cohors milliaria, one of 30 regiments of a thousand men each. The third militia was prefect of an ala, one of 70 cavalry wings of 500 men each. In some exceptional cases, a man might receive a fourth promotion as prefect of a thousand-man ala, though fewer than ten such alae existed.A man would be in his mid-thirties or older at the conclusion of his tres militiae, which could boost his career in politics or business at home. Some men instead moved on to posts in Imperial administration, especially as procurator.

Tribuni militum consulari potestate

The tribuni militum consulari potestate ("military tribunes with consular power"), in English commonly also Consular Tribunes, were tribunes elected with consular power during the so-called "Conflict of the Orders" in the Roman Republic, starting in 444 BC and then continuously from 408 BC to 394 BC and again from 391 BC to 367 BC.

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