The military ranks of the Soviet Union were those introduced after the October Revolution of 1917. At that time the Imperial Russian Table of Ranks was abolished, as were the privileges of the pre-Soviet Russian nobility.
Immediately after the Revolution, personal military ranks were abandoned in favour of a system of positional ranks, which were acronyms of the full position names. For example, KomKor was an acronym of Corps Commander, KomDiv was an acronym of Division Commander, KomBrig stood for Brigade Commander, KomBat stood for Battalion Commander, and so forth. These acronyms have survived as informal position names to the present day.
Personal ranks were reintroduced in 1935, and general officer ranks were restored in May 1940. The ranks were based on those of the Russian Empire, although they underwent some modifications. Modified Imperial-style rank insignia were reintroduced in 1943.
The Soviet ranks ceased to be used after the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, although the military ranks and insignia of the modern Russian Federation and Ukraine have been largely adopted from the Soviet system.
The early Red Army abandoned the institution of a professional officer corps as a "heritage of tsarism" in the course of the Revolution. In particular, the Bolsheviks condemned the use of the word "officer" and used the word "commander" instead. The Red Army abandoned epaulettes and ranks, using purely functional titles such as "Division Commander", "Corps Commander", and similar titles. In 1924 it supplemented this system with "service categories", from K-1 (lowest) to K-14 (highest). The service categories essentially operated as ranks in disguise: they indicated the experience and qualifications of a commander. The insignia now denoted the category, not the position of a commander. However, one still had to use functional titles to address commanders, which could become as awkward as "comrade deputy head-of-staff of corps". If one did not know a commander's position, one used one of the possible positions - for example: "Regiment Commander" for K-9. This rank system stayed on for a decade.
On September 22, 1935, the Red Army abandoned service categories and introduced personal ranks. These ranks, however, used a unique mix of functional titles and traditional ranks. For example, the ranks included "Lieutenant" and "Comdiv" (Комдив, Division Commander). Further complications ensued from the functional and categorical ranks for political officers (e.g., "Brigade Commissar", "Army Commissar 2nd Rank"), for technical corps (e.g., "Engineer 3rd Rank", "Division Engineer"), for administrative, medical and other non-combatant branches. Rank insignia then used both upside down chevrons on the sleeve and collar marks. The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union was also introduced.
On May 7, 1940 further modifications to the system took place. The ranks of "General" or "Admiral" replaced the senior functional ranks of Combrig, Comdiv, Comcor, Comandarm; the other senior functional ranks ("Division Commissar", "Division Engineer", etc.) remained unaffected. The Arm or Service distinctions remained (e.g. General of Cavalry, Marshal of Armoured Troops). On November 2, 1940, the system underwent further modification with the abolition of functional ranks for NCOs and the reintroduction of the Podpolkovnik (sub-colonel) rank. For the most part the new system restored that used by the Imperial Russian Army at the conclusion of its participation in World War I.
In early 1942 all the functional ranks in technical and administrative corps became regularized ranks (e.g., "Engineer Major", "Engineer Colonel", "Captain Intendant Service", etc.). On October 9, 1942, the authorities abolished the system of military commissars, together with the commissar ranks, and they were completely integrated into the regular officer corps. The functional ranks remained only in medical, veterinary and legislative corps and Private became the basic rank for the enlisted and NCOs.
In early 1943 a unification of the system saw the abolition of all the remaining functional ranks. The word "officer" became officially endorsed, together with the epaulettes that superseded the previous rank insignia, styled like the Imperial Russian Army before, and Marshal and Chief Marshal ranks created for the various arms and branch commands of the Red Army and the Red Army Air Forces save for the infantry (even through the Artillery branch was the first to have one in 1942) with all Marshal and Chief Marshal ranks being equal to General of the Army.
The ranks and insignia of 1943 did not change much until the last days of the USSR; the contemporary Russian Ground Forces uses largely the same system. The old functional ranks of Combat (Battalion or Battery Commander), Combrig (Brigade Commander) and Comdiv (Division Commander) continue in informal use.
After the war, the new rank of Generalissimus of the Soviet Union was created for Joseph Stalin in his role as the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, however, he refused the proposal of the rank several times. The rank insignia featured the USSR arms above a large Marshal's Star surrounded by a wreath. The rank inspired similar ranks in North Korea (Dae Wonsu) and the People's Republic of China (Da Yuan Shuai).
1963 saw all Starshina insignia in the Army and Air Force change to their final design.
In 1970 all Starshinas became full-time senior NCOs and enlisted personnel and the new NCO rank of Praporshchik became a Warrant Officer rank, with a new rank of Senior Praporshchik created for senior rank holders later in 1981. And in 1974, Generals of the Army had one star on their shoulder epaulettes rather than four with surrounding wreaths. The final rank structure from these reforms stayed well until the Union's dissoution and are the basis for the current ranks of the Russian Ground Forces.
These ranks also became the basic ranks for the Soviet Air Forces in 1918 and the Soviet Air Defense Forces (from 1932 to 1949 component part of the Soviet Air Force and the Red Army, 1949 independent branch, and from 1954 a full-service arm of the Soviet Armed Forces), and from 1991 onward became the basis for the present ranks of the Russian Air Force (including the Air Defense Forces from 1998 onward) and from 2001, the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces (Formerly the Space Forces). The only exceptions were the use of the ranks of Marshal of Aviation and Chief Marshal of Aviation, which replaced the rank of General of the Army until the latter became the highest officer rank in 1993.
In 1918, the Soviet Navy was raised from the pro-Bolshevik sailors and officers of the Imperial Russian Navy as the Workers' and Peasants' Red Fleet by virtue of a decree by the Soviet Council of People's Commissars. The ranks and rates were, just like in their counterparts in the Army, personal positions for officers, Petty Officers and seaman rates. The former officers of the IRN who joined the ranks of this new navy retained their ranks with the abbreviation "b." meaning "former" while the new officers where addressed by their positional ranks. They stayed that way until 1925, when new ranks and rates were created. The rank insignia for the 1918-25 ranks were on the sleeve and cuff.
Most of the officer ranks were revived in 1935, save for the high-ranking officers, and the new PO rank of Squad Commander. The PO rank of Starshina was retained, however.
In 1939 all flag officer ranks were reinstated and Midshipman became the highest enlisted rating in the Navy, and in the course of the Great Patriotic War, all Redfleetmen became Seamen in another rank change. In 1943 all naval rank insignia became uniform in the fleet and ground forces. In a unique way, the ranks of the Soviet Naval Infantry, Soviet Naval Aviation and the other ground services remained absolutely army-styled similar to their Red Army counterparts but the rank insignia became uniform. The Admiral of the Fleet rank was also created by then. The rank insignia were now also seen on epaulettes: black on duty dresses and dark blue and gold on all full and ceremonial dresses for the fleet forces, with air force blue borders for the aviation branch and red borders for the coastal defense and naval infantry branch. In 1952 the senior enlisted rating's insignia (until 1972, Midshipman and from then on, Chief Ship Petty Officer) changed to its final design.
1955 saw the renaming of the Admiral of the Fleet rank into that of Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union, and was now equivalent to that of a Marshal of the Soviet Union. The shoulder insignia for fleet admirals and all officers' sleeve insignia changed in the following decade as the Admiral of the Fleet rank was revived, by now between Admirals and Admirals of the Fleet of the Soviet Union.
1972 saw Midshipmen's status raised to warrant officers with Chief Ship Petty Officers replacing their former roles as the highest enlisted ratings.
The Red Army abolished all personal officer and general ranks, retaining only personal positions. Thus, a komvzvoda (platoon commander) was a position for an officer who would typically hold a lieutenant or senior lieutenant rank, kombat (battalion commander) was an equivalent of captain or major, and kompolka was an equivalent of lieutenant colonel or colonel.
Even though traditional personal ranks for Red Army officers were re-established in 1935, general ranks were not introduced until 1940, probably because they were associated with the White Army movement. So, in 1935-1940 the personal rank system in the Red Army consisted of the following General-grade ranks:
When the Marshal of the Soviet Union was introduced later in 1935, it became the highest rank in the Red Army, extending an already complex rank system.
However, when personal General ranks were introduced in 1940, the updated rank system did not feature a Brigadier-grade rank, mirroring a situation in the Russian Imperial Russian army where the Brigadier rank ceased to exist in the early 19th century. Most of the officers holding the kombrig rank were demoted to Colonels, and only a few were promoted to major general.
Another peculiarity of this new system was the absence of a full General rank, which until the 19th century was called General-en-Chef in the Russian Imperial army, and then was renamed General of the Infantry, Cavalry and Artillery. Curiously, the initial draft of the new rank system submitted by People's Commissar of Defence Marshal Voroshilov was more in line with Russian military tradition. In a memorandum submitted on 17 March 1940 to the Politburo and Sovnarkom, Voroshilov made the following proposal:
After discussing this question with my deputies, we conclude that our army needs to have the same number of General ranks as it was in the Tsarist army and as it exists in other European armies such as German, French and British. At present we have five General-grade ranks (kombrig, komdiv, komcor, komandarm 2nd rank and komandarm 1st rank). We find it necessary to join the military ranks of komdiv and komcor into a single Lieutenant General rank, and to similarly join the military ranks of komandarm 2nd rank and komandarm 1st rank into a single rank of General of the Infantry (artillery, cavalry, aviation, armoured troops etc.). To follow [them] is the highest military rank in the Red Army, the Marshal of the Soviet Union, which corresponds to similar ranks in foreign capitalist armies. We believe there is no need for additional military ranks above Marshal.
However, in the final document the two komandarm ranks were replaced with Colonel General and General of the Army, with the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union on top of them. In the end, the number of General-grade ranks did not reduce at all even with the abolition of Brigadier-grade kobmbrig rank, contrary to the initial proposal by Voroshilov.
After the introduction of this new system, most existing kombrigs were ranked as colonel, although some were ranked as general; existing komdivs were mostly ranked as major general, komcors and Army Commanders 2nd rank were mostly ranked Lieutenant General, and Army Commanders 1st rank were ranked as Colonel General or General of the Army (a notable exception is Georgy Zhukov who was promoted to General of the Army directly from komcor rank). Later in 1943, the ranks of Marshal and Chief Marshal of a service branch were introduced in aviation, artillery, communications troops, and armoured troops; both equivalent to General of the Army.
The final personal rank structure (for the Army and the Air Force) was thus as follows:
Eventually, the Soviet system of general ranks included commonplace Major General, Lieutenant General, however the position in between Lieutenant General and General of the Army was occupied by the Colonel General, which in the Soviet system is the equivalent of a full General rank in other nations.
This unusual rank structure makes rank comparisons difficult; Marshal of the Soviet Union is arguably not the equivalent to NATO five-star general ranks such as British Field Marshal or American General of the Army, but is instead an honorary rank analogous to the Marshal of France, although without associated state functions.
In the Soviet Navy before 1935 the ranks were personal positions. Since that year the general officer rank structure became as follows:
From 1940, the rank structure for high officers of the Navy became:
In 1943, the rank structure slightly changed into the final rank formation which remained until the dissolution of the Navy in 1991 with more changes in 1955 and 1962:
Ranks in the shore services mirrored the changes in the Red Army save that Colonel General became the highest rank for troops in those services.
The Russian Navy still uses this, except that Marshal of the Russian Federation is the highest rank of precedence, and the rank below that, Admiral of the Fleet, is the highest deck rank for officers.
This table shows the rank structure and epaulettes used from 1958 to 1991.
|Category||Soviet All-forces ground troop ranks
(Army Infantry and educational institutions, MVD Militsiya and Internal Troops, Civil Defense Forces of the USSR)
|Soviet Air Forces, Soviet Air Defense Forces and other Soviet military branches troop ranks
(Space Troops of the Defence Ministry, Artillery, Tank and Armored Forces, Airborne Landing Troops, Engineer Forces and Signal and Communications Forces, Medical Service, Military Bands Service, Military Judicial Service, other Special and Technical Services)
|Soviet Navy Ranks and Rates (Soviet Deck Ranks and Rates)|
Generalissimus of the Soviet Union
(Генерали́ссимус Сове́тского Сою́за)
Marshal of the Soviet Union
(Ма́ршал Совéтского Сою́за)
Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union
(Адмира́л Фло́та Совéтского Сою́за)
General of the Army
(Генера́л а́рмии) since 1974
General of the Army
(Генера́л а́рмии) before 1974
Chief Marshal of Aviation of the Soviet Union
(Гла́вный Ма́ршал Авиа́ции Совéтского Сою́за)
Chief Marshal of Artillery of the Soviet Union
(Гла́вный Ма́ршал Aртилерии Совéтского Сою́за)
Chief Marshal of Armoured Troops of the Soviet Union
(Гла́вный Ма́ршал Бронетанковых Войск Совéтского Сою́за)
Chief Marshal of Engineer Troops of the Soviet Union
(Гла́вный Ма́ршал Инженерных Войск Совéтского Сою́за)
Chief Marshal of Signals Troops of the Soviet Union
(Гла́вный Ма́ршал Войск Связи Совéтского Сою́за)
Admiral of the Fleet
(адмира́л фло́та) 1962–1994
Admiral of the Fleet
(адмира́л фло́та) 1943-1955
Marshal of Aviation
Marshal of Artillery
Marshal of Armoured Troop
(Ма́ршал Бронетанковых Войск)
Marshal of Engineer Troops
(Ма́ршал Инженерных Войск)
Marshal of Signals Troops
(Ма́ршал Войск Связи)
Colonel general or
Colonel general or
General-polkovnik of aviation
Colonel general or
General-polkovnik of branches
(генера́л-полко́вник ро́да во́йск)
Lieutenant general of aviation
Lieutenant general of branches
(генера́л-лейтена́нт ро́да во́йск)
Major general of aviation
Major general of branches
(генера́л-майо́р ро́да во́йск)
Field Grade Officers
Colonel or Polkovnik
Colonel or Polkovnik of aviation
Colonel or Polkovnik of branches
(полко́вник ро́да во́йск)
Captain, 1st rank
(капита́н 1-го ра́нга)
Lieutenant colonel or
Lieutenant colonel or
Podpolkovnik of aviation
Lieutenant Colonel or
Podpolkovnik of branches
(подполко́вник ро́да во́йск)
Captain, 2nd rank
(капита́н 2-го р́анга)
Major of aviation
Major of branches
(майо́р ро́да во́йск)
Captain, 3rd rank
(капита́н 3-го р́анга)
Company Grade Officers
Captain of aviation
Captain of branches
(капита́н ро́да во́йск)
Senior Lieutenant of aviation
(ста́рший лейтена́нт авиа́ции)
Senior Lieutenant of branches
(ста́рший лейтена́нт ро́да во́йск)
Lieutenant of aviation
Lieutenant of branches
(лейтена́нт ро́да во́йск)
Junior Lieutenant of aviation
(мла́дший лейтена́нт авиа́ции)
Junior Lieutenant of branches
(мла́дший лейтена́нт ро́да во́йск)
Master non-commissioned officers
Senior Warrant Officer or Senior-praporshchik
(ста́рший пра́порщик) since 1980
Senior Warrant Officer or
Senior-praporshchik of aviation
(ста́рший пра́порщик авиа́ции)
Senior Warrant Officer or
Senior-praporshchik of branches
(ста́рший пра́порщик ро́да во́йск)
all since 1980
(ста́рший ми́чман) since 1980
Warrant Officer or Praporshchik
(пра́порщик) since 1972
Warrant Officer or Praporshchik of aviation
Warrant Officer or Praporshchik of branches
(пра́порщик ро́да во́йск)
all since 1972
(ми́чман) since 1972
Sergeant Major or Starshina
(старшина́) since 1963
Sergeant Major or Starshina
(старшина́) before 1963
Sergeant Major or Starshina of aviation
Sergeant Major or Starshina of branches
(старшина́ ро́да во́йск)
all before 1963
Chief Ship Starshina
(гла́вный корабе́льный старшина́)
since 1952 (formerly Midshipman/Michman)
Chief Ship Starshina
(гла́вный корабе́льный старшина́)
Senior Sergeant of aviation
(ста́рший сержа́нт авиа́ции)
Staff Sergeant of branches
(ста́рший сержа́нт ро́да во́йск)
Sergeant of aviation
Sergeant of branches
(сержа́нт ро́да во́йск)
Starshina, 1st class
(старшина́ 1-й статьи́)
Junior Sergeant of aviation
(мла́дший сержа́нт авиа́ции)
Junior Sergeant of branches
(мла́дший сержа́нт ро́да во́йск)
Starshina, 2nd class
(старшина́ 2-й статьи́)
Efreitor of aviation
Efreitor of branches
(ефре́йтор ро́да во́йск)
or Seaman, Sailor
(ста́рший матро́с) или (ста́рший моря́к)
Private or Soldier
(рядово́й) или (солдáт)
Private of aviation
Private of branches
(рядово́й ро́да во́йск)
Matrose or Seaman, Sailor
(матро́с) или (моря́к)
From 1919 to 1922 colour of collar patch indicating the corps:
From 1922 to 1923 the rank insignia have four colours:
From 1924 to 1934 the rank insignia have two colors. Color of collar patch and color of collar patch's edge indicating the corps:
From 1935 to 1942 the rank insignia have two colours. Colour of collar patch and colour of collar patch's edge indicating the corps:
From 1943 to 1955 the rank insignia have two colours. Colour of shoulder board and edge colour indicating the corps:
From December 1955 to 1970 the colours were changed to:
From 1970 to 1991(93):
In March 1956 general officers' stars became gold coloured.
This rank was created for Joseph Stalin on June 27, 1945, and he refused to accept it. It is sometimes regarded as an equivalent to the rank of General of the Armies of the United States, the North Korean Dae Wonsu or the now defunct Chinese rank of Da Yuan Shuai.
The ranks of Marshal of an army and Chief Marshal of an army were used in five Soviet military branches (the Air Force, Artillery, Tank Forces, Engineer Forces, and Signal Forces). These ranks were established in 1943. Marshal of an army was equivalent to General of the Army.
Beside the official rank system in the armed forces, there was another system that was developed and established within the military culture. The military culture of the Soviet Union was driven by a "seniorship" (Russian: Дедовщина, Dyedovshchina). The concept of "Dyedovshchina" is usually pertains to soldiers in their first two-year obligatory tour in the armed forces, particularly in the Army.
An Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union (Russian: Адмирал Флота Cоветского Cоюза, romanized: admiral flota Sovietskogo Soyuza), was the highest naval rank of the Soviet Union. It was comparable to NATO five-star rank (OF-10 level).Army General (Soviet rank)
Army general (Russian: генерал армии, general armii) was a rank of the Soviet Union which was first established in June 1940 as a high rank for Red Army generals, inferior only to the marshal of the Soviet Union. In the following 51 years the Soviet Union created 133 generals of the army, 32 of whom were later promoted to the rank of marshal of the Soviet Union. It is a direct counterpart of the Russian Federation's "Army general" rank.Captain 1st rank
This article is about the OF-5 rank Kapitan 1st rank in Russia and some other post-Soviet states. For the equivalent rank in Anglophone naval forces see Captain (naval); in Germany see Kapitän zur See or Kommodore. It should not be mixed up to the Commodore (rank), often regarded as a one-star rank with a NATO code of OF-6. Kapitan 1st rank (Russian: капитан 1-го ранга; literal: captain of the 1st rank) is in the Navy of the Russian Federation the designation to the most senior rank in the staff officer´s career group. The rank is equivalent to Polkovnik in Army and Air Force. The rank might be comparable to Captain (naval) (OF-5) in Anglophone/NATO naval forces.The rank was introduced in Russia by Peter the Great in 1713. By decision of the so-called military navy commission (ru: Воинская морскaя комиссия) in 1732 the sequence of Kapitan ranks was abolished. However, until 1752 the grade rank Kapitan 1st rank was corresponding to Fleet kapitan (ru: флота капитан). Finally, the Kapitan ranks were reintroduced September 5 (16), 1751. The Red Army introduced the Kapitan 1st rank rank in 1935, together with a number of other former Russian ranks, and it has been used in many ex-USSR countries, including Russia, to the present day.Captain lieutenant
Captain lieutenant or captain-lieutenant is a military rank, used in a number of navies worldwide and formerly in the British Army.
It is generally equivalent to the Commonwealth or US naval rank of lieutenant, and has the NATO rank code of OF-2, though this can vary.Generalissimus of the Soviet Union
Generalissimus of the Soviet Union (Russian: Генералиссимус Советского Союза; Generalissimus Sovyétskovo Soyuza) was a proposed military rank created on 27 June 1945, following the tradition of the Imperial Russian Army (the rank in question was held 4 times. The first was held by the Russian Statesman Aleksei Shein and the last was held by Count Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Suvorov ). It was granted to Joseph Stalin following World War II; however, Stalin refused to officially approve the rank and died with the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union. It would have been the highest military rank in the Soviet Union.Komandarm
Komandarm is the abbreviation to Commanding of the Army (Russian: Командующий армией; literal: Commander of the Army / Army commander), and was a military rank in the Soviet Armed Forces of the USSR in the period from 1935 to 1940. It was also the designation to military personnel appointed to command an army group or front sized formation (XXXXX).
There were two ranks of Komandarm, approximately corresponding to "General" / "General of the Army", or NATO ranks OF-9.
Komandarm 2nd rank, with the insignia of four diamonds OF-9b.Komandarm 1st rank, with the insignia of four diamonds and a star OF-9a.Kombat (military rank)
Kombat (Russian: комбат, "kombat"), abbreviated from Командир батальона ("Commander of a battalion") was a military rank in the Red Army from 1918 to 1935. At that time it was roughly equivalent to the rank of Captain.It is also an informal Russian language abbreviation for the military commander's position for a officer in command of a battalion or an artillery battery.Kombrig
Kombrig is the abbreviation to Commanding officer of the brigade (Russian: Комбриг / Командир бригады; literal: Commander of the brigade / Brigade commander), and was a military rank in the Soviet Armed Forces of the USSR from 1935 to 1940. It was also the designation to military personnel appointed to command a brigade sized formation (X).
Until 1940 it was the fourth highest military rank of the Red Army. It was equivalent to Brigade comissar (ru: Дивизионный комиссар) of the political staff in all military branches, Kapitan 1st rank (ru: Капита́н 1-го ранга) in the Soviet navy, or to Major of state security (ru: Майор государственной безопасности). With the reintroduction of regular general ranks, the designation Kombrig was abolished, and replaced by Major general (OF-6).Komdiv
Komdiv is the abbreviation to Commanding officer of the Division (Russian: Комдив / Командир дивизии; literal: Commander of the division / Division commander), and was a military rank in the Soviet Armed Forces of the USSR in the period from 1935 to 1940. It was also the designation to military personnel appointed to command a division sized formation (XX).
Until 1940 it was the fourth highest military rank of the Red Army, and might have been rated OF-7 in NATO (Two-star rank). It was equivalent to Division comissar (ru: Дивизионный комиссар) of the political staff in all military branches, Flag Officer 2nd rank (ru: Флагман 2-го ранга) in the Soviet navy, or to Senior major of state security (ru: Старший майор государственной безопасности). With the reintroduction of regular general ranks, the designation Komdiv was abolished, and replaced by Lieutenant general (OF-7).Marshal of the Soviet Union
Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Маршал Советского Союза; Russian pronunciation: [ˈmarʂəɫ sɐˈvʲɛtskəvə sɐˈjuzə]) was the highest military rank of the Soviet Union.
The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union was created in 1935 and abolished in 1991, and forty-one people held this rank. The equivalent naval rank was until 1955 Admiral of the fleet and from 1955 Admiral of the fleet of the Soviet Union. Both ranks were comparable to NATO rank codes OF-10, and to the five-star rank in anglophone armed forces.
While the supreme rank of Generalissimus of the Soviet Union, which would have been senior to Marshal of the Soviet Union, was proposed for Joseph Stalin after the Second World War, it was never officially approved.Michman
Michman (Russian: мичман, IPA: [ˈmʲit͡ɕmən]) is a Russian and Soviet Navy rank. It is also used in a number of other countries. The rank is equivalent to praporshchik in the Russian and Soviet army and air force. According to NATO rank system the rank might be comparable to OR-9b in NATO armed forces. In the Russian Navy there are two grades of michman: michman and starshy michman.
While the rank michman is etymologically borrowed from the English rank midshipman, michman is a very senior and experienced enlisted rank, equivalent to a master chief petty officer or warrant officer, while midshipman is a cadet in training or a very junior officer rank (OF-1 in NATO naval forces), which, being an officer, is technically higher in rank than any enlisted rank, despite a midshipman's very junior status.Podpolkovnik
Podpolkovnik (Russian: подполко́вник, lit. 'sub –, junior – , or lower regimentary') is a military rank in Slavic countries which corresponds to the lieutenant colonel in the English-speaking states and military.In different languages the exact name of this rank maintains a variety of spellings. The transliteration is also in common usage for the sake of tradition dating back to the Old Slavonic word "polk" (literally: regiment sized unit), and include the following names in alphabetical order:
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia — potpukovnik (Serbo-Croatian: [pôtpukoːʋniːk])
Bulgaria — подполковник
Czech Republic — podplukovník (Czech: [ˈpotplukovɲiːk])
Georgia — ვიცე-პოლკოვნიკი (Georgian: [vitsɛ pʼɔlkʼɔvnikʼi])
Lithuania — papulkininkis
North Macedonia — потполковник
Poland — podpułkownik (Polish: [pɔtpuwˈkɔvɲik])
Russia — подполко́вник (podpolkovnik) (Russian: [pətpɐlˈkovnʲɪk])
Slovenia — podpolkovnik
Slovakia — podplukovník
Ukraine — підполковник (pidpolkovnyk)Podporuchik
Podporuchik (Serbo-Croatian: potporučnik, потпоручник, Czech: poručík, Polish: podporucznik, Russian: подпору́чик, Bulgarian: подпоручик, п, Slovak: poručík) is an Officer's rank out of the Lieutenants rank group in Slavophone armed forces.
According to the modern day's NATO rank system Podporuchik might be comparable to the OF-1b ranks Second lieutenant / Pilot officer, Ensign, Leutnant / Leutnant zur See. With the exception of the more junior "podporuchik" OF-1c of the Czech Army until 2011, it should not be confused with Mladshy leytenant or Unterleutnant, OF-1c as well.Polkovnik
Polkovnik (Russian: полковник, lit. 'regimentary') is a military rank used mostly in Slavic-speaking countries which corresponds to a colonel in English-speaking states and oberst in several German-speaking and Scandinavian countries. The term originates from an ancient Slavic word for a group of soldiers and folk. However, in Cossack Hetmanate and Sloboda Ukraine, polkovnyk was an administrative rank similar to a governor. Usually this word is translated as colonel, however the transliteration is also in common usage, for the sake of the historical and social context. Polkovnik began as a commander of a distinct group of troops (polk), arranged for battle.The exact name of this rank maintains a variety of spellings in different languages, but all descend from the Old Slavonic word polk (literally: regiment sized unit), and include the following in alphabetical order:
Belarus — палкоўнік
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia — pukovnik (Serbo-Croatian: [pǔkoːʋniːk])
Bulgaria, Macedonia, Russia and Ukraine — полковник (Russian: [pɐlˈkovnʲɪk], Ukrainian: [polˈkɔvnɪk])
Czech Republic and Slovakia — plukovník
Georgia — პოლკოვნიკი (Georgian: [pʼɔlkʼɔvnikʼi])
Latvia — pulkvedis
Lithuania — pulkininkas
Poland — pułkownik (Polish: [puwˈkɔvɲik])
Slovenia — polkovnikAlthough Georgia, Latvia, and Lithuania are not Slavic countries linguistically, they have been influenced by Russian terminology due to having been part of both the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. Latvian and Lithuanian were also influenced by Polish terminology, due to those countries having been part of the Polish Commonwealth. The rank of polkovnik was also used in the Estonian army until 1924.Poruchik
Poruchik (Croatian: poručnik, Czech: poručík, Polish: porucznik, Russian: пору́чик, Serbian: поручник, Slovak: poručík, Ukrainian: пору́чник) is an officer rank in the lieutenant's rank group in Slavophone armed forces. The correspondent naval rank is Starshy leytenant.Praporshchik
Praporshchik (Russian: пра́порщик, IPA: [ˈprapərɕːɪk]) is a rank in the Russian military, also used in other uniformed services of the Russian government such as the police. It was a junior officer rank (comparable to NATO OF-1c) in Imperial Russia.
However, in the 1970s Praporshchik was restored as a separate career group between non-commissioned officers and officers (comparable to OR-9).Ranks and insignia of the Soviet Armed Forces 1955–1991
The ranks and rank insignia of the Soviet Armed Forces between 1955 and 1991 were distinguished by the reorganisation of the Soviet armed forces after the death of Stalin, resulting in changes to ranks, insignia, and uniforms.Red Army man
Red Army man (Russian: Красноармеец, romanized: Krasnoarmeyets) was the lowest military rank in the Red Army of the Soviet Union from 1935 to 1946, roughly equivalent to NATO OR-1. Before 1935, it also referred to the position held by Red Army enlisted personnel.On 30 November 1917, after the October Revolution, the Military Revolutionary Committee cancelled all "officer and class ranks" in keeping with the egalitarian spirit of the revolution. Henceforth, the term Red Army man was used to refer to all ordinary soldiers.In September 1935, the Red Army introduced a system of personal military ranks, in which Red Army man was the lowest rank. It was replaced by the rank of Ryadovoy in July 1946.Its naval equivalent was Red Fleet man.Starshina
Starshina (Russian: старшина, IPA: [stərʂɨˈna] (listen)) is a senior non-commissioned rank or designation in the military forces of some Slavic states. In army terminology, a Starshina is either an appointment roughly equivalent to "Company Sergeant Major" or a rank equal to a NATO OR-8. In naval terminology, Starshina is a general term for junior and middle-ranking non-commissioned officers, similar in usage to "Petty Officer".
The word originates from the Slavic word старший, starshij ("STAR-shee"), (lit. "older, more senior", from старый staryj "old")
Military ranks and insignia by country
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