Military ranks of Turkey

The Military ranks of Turkey are the military insignia used by the Turkish Armed Forces.

Turkish Land Forces

NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
Turkey Turkey
(Edit)
Turkey-army-OF-10.svg Turkey-army-OF-9.svg Turkey-army-OF-9a.svg Turkey-army-OF-8.svg Turkey-army-OF-7.svg Turkey-army-OF-6.svg Turkey-army-OF-5.svg Turkey-army-OF-4.svg Turkey-army-OF-3.svg Turkey-army-OF-2.svg Turkey-army-OF-1.svg Turkey-army-OF-1b.svg Turkey-army-OF-0.svg Various
[note 1]
Mareşal[note 2] Genelkurmay
Başkanlığı
[note 3]
Orgeneral Korgeneral Tümgeneral Tuğgeneral Albay Yarbay Binbaşı Yüzbaşı Üsteğmen Teğmen Asteğmen Harbiyeli
NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Turkey Turkey
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Army-TUR-OR-09 Army-TUR-OR-08 Army-TUR-OR-07a Army-TUR-OR-07b Army-TUR-OR-06a Army-TUR-OR-06b TR-Army-OR5a Army-TUR-OR-05 TR-Army-OR4a Army-TUR-OR-04 No insignia
Astsubay Kıdemli
Başçavuş
Astsubay
Başçavuş
Astsubay Kıdemli
Üstçavuş
Astsubay
Üstçavuş
Astsubay Kıdemli
Çavuş
Astsubay
Çavuş
Uzman
Çavuş
Çavuş Uzman
Onbaşı
Onbaşı Er

Turkish Air Force

NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
Turkey Turkey
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Turkey-army-OF-10.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-9a.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-8.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-7.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-6.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-5.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-4.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-3.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-2.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-1b.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-1a.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-(D).svg Various [note 4]
Mareşal Orgeneral Korgeneral Tümgeneral Tuğgeneral Albay Yarbay Binbaşı Yüzbaşı Üsteğmen Teğmen Asteğmen Harbiyeli
NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Turkey Turkey
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Turkey-air-force-OR-9 Turkey-air-force-OR-8 Turkey-air-force-OR-7b Turkey-air-force-OR-7a Turkey-air-force-OR-6b Turkey-air-force-OR-6a Turkey-air-force-OR-5 Turkey-air-force-OR-4 Turkey-air-force-OR-3 Turkey-air-force-OR-2 No insignia
Astsubay Kıdemli Başçavuş Astsubay Başçavuş Astsubay Kıdemli Üstçavuş Astsubay Üstçavuş Astsubay Kıdemli Çavuş Astsubay Çavuş Uzman Çavuş Çavuş Uzman Onbaşı Onbaşı Er

Turkish Naval Forces

Officers

NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
Turkey Turkey
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Generic-Navy-O12.svg Generic-Navy-O11.svg Turkish-Navy-OF8.svg Generic-Navy-O10.svg Generic-Navy-O9.svg Generic-Navy-O7.svg Generic-Navy-O6.svg Generic-Navy-O5.svg Generic-Navy-O3.svg Generic-Navy-O2.svg Generic-Navy-O1.svg POR-Navy-OFD.svg Various [note 5]
Büyükamiral Oramiral Koramiral Tümamiral Tuğamiral Albay Yarbay Binbaşı Yüzbaşı Üsteğmen Teğmen Asteğmen Bahriyeli

Note : Commodores in the Turkish navy are not given special ranks or insignia. In the Turkish navy a commodore is not a rank but a position (usually group commander). Commodores almost always have the rank of Captain (Albay), but can fly their special pennants and wear special ribbons.[1]

  • Tuğamiral (Rear Admiral/Lower Half) is the lowest admiral's rank. Their shoulderboards are covered in gold lace, and have a silver garland with swords crossed in the middle (General's mark) and a silver five pointed star above that. All admirals also wear two rows of leaves on their caps.
  • Tümamiral (Rear Admiral/Upper Half) wears the same shoulderboards as Tuğamiral s, but with two silver stars.
  • Koramiral (Vice Admiral): There are usually six Koramiral s in the whole navy. Koramiral s wear three silver stars on the usual shoulder boards.
  • Oramiral (Admiral): There are two oramirals, one of them is the Commander of the Naval Forces (Deniz Kuvvetleri Komutanı ), while the other is Commander of the Turkish Fleet (Donanma Komutanı). Oramiral s wear shoulder boards with four silver stars, and three normal stripes (the top one with the curl) above the broad stripe.
  • Genelkurmay Başkanı (Chief of the Turkish General Staff) assumes command of the Turkish Armed Forces, and although he is commonly appointed from the Turkish Army, he is entitled to wear all uniforms in the Turkish Armed Forces, including the Navy's. When he wears the Navy's uniform, he wears the oramiral's shoulder boards with specially embroidered lace as the base, and he wears the oramiral's sleeve stripes with the broad stripe also embroidered and decorated with leaves.
  • Büyük Amiral (Admiral of the Fleet): This is a wartime-only rank and has never been awarded to any member of the Turkish Navy. Its army equivalent, Mareşal (Field Marshal), has had only two bearers in the republic's history: Marshal Fevzi Çakmak and Mustafa Kemal Atatürk himself. A Büyük Amiral would wear shoulder boards with special gold handwork on red velvet, decorated with golden leaves, and with a general's garland on top of that.

Rank pennants and flags (ensigns)

Pennants are only flown for officers who assume command of an independent unit. Staff officers who work in headquarters do not fly pennants.

  • Flandra (Masthead Pennant) : The Flandra is flown when the ship's commanding officer boards the ship. It is quite like a very long red stripe with a crescent moon and star close to the mast.
  • Group Commander : For group commanders, a red triangular pennant with one bomb (twenty pointed white star) is flown.
  • Regiment Commanders : For regiment commanders, a square red flag with an anchor in the middle is flown.
  • Commodores : A swallow-tailed red pennant with two bombs (one on the upper left corner, the other one below that) is flown.
Flag of Turkish Rear Admiral (LH)

Rear Admiral (Lower half)

Flag of Turkish Rear Admiral (UH)

Rear Admiral (Upper half)

Flag of Turkish Vice Admiral

Vice Admiral

Flag of Turkish Admiral

Admiral

Flag of Turkish Naval Forces Command

Commander of the Naval Forces

Flag of Turkish Fleet Admiral

Admiral of the Fleet

Enlisted

NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Turkey Turkey
(Edit)
Navy-TUR-OR-09 Navy-TUR-OR-08 Navy-TUR-OR-07a Navy-TUR-OR-07b Navy-TUR-OR-06a Navy-TUR-OR-06b TR-Navy-OR5a TR-Armed Forces-OR5b Navy-TUR-OR-05 TR-Navy-OR4a TR-Armed Forces-OR4b Navy-TUR-OR-04 No insignia
Astsubay Kıdemli
Başçavuş
Astsubay
Başçavuş
Astsubay Kıdemli
Üstçavuş
Astsubay
Üstçavuş
Astsubay Kıdemli
Çavuş
Astsubay
Çavuş
Kıdemli Uzman
Çavuş
Uzman
Çavuş
Çavuş Kıdemli Uzman
Onbaşı
Uzman
Onbaşı
Onbaşı Er

Rates (insignia of category)

There are several major categories in the Navy for different professions. Insignia of category are worn right above the circle in the topmost stripe, both on the sleeve and the shoulder board. It is a small round patch with gold-coloured needlework. Line officers and admirals do not wear these patches. (Admirals with special circumstances (doctors and engineers) may wear them on their sleeves, but not shoulders)

  • Naval Infantry (Marines) : In the Turkish armed forces, marines are subordinates to the navy and wear the Navy's uniforms. Their patch consists of an anchor and two rifles crossing it.
  • Combat Engineer (Civil Engineer) : A combat engineer wears a patch with the portrayal of what seems to be a fortress, beyond the sea.
  • Supply : Supply officers wear a branch with three gold-coloured leaves.
  • Hydrography/Oceanography : These officers wear a patch which portrays a lighthouse, with two beams of light heading away from each other.
  • Medical Corps (Medical Doctors) : Doctors bear the Staff of Asclepius, a staff with a single snake entangled around it.
  • Pharmacists : Pharmacists wear the image of a cup, with a snake around it and a branch surrounding both.
  • Dentists : Dentists wear a staff with a branch around it.
  • Engineers : An engineer wears the image of a protractor and a pair of compasses beneath that.
  • Legal (Prosecutors/Judges) : Officers of this category wear a patch that includes a book laying open and a pair of scales behind that.
  • Instructors : Instructors wear a patch with a book laying open with a torch behind.
  • Band Musician : A band musician wears a patch with a musical harp.
  • Nurse : Officers from the Nurses’ Corps wear a single golden crescent with the corners pointed upwards.
  • Intelligence : The Intelligence patch consists of a golden circle with a cross in between; embroidered with arrows at each point the cross cuts the circle. Portrayed as if this Wheel was turning around its own axis.
  • Staff Officers : Staff officers, are the officers who assume command or important positions in other headquarters, with a specialty in military personnel and supplies management. They wear a single golden five-point star as their patch of category.

War Academies

The War Academies officer students wear generally the uniform and ranks of their respective service branch.

Gendarmerie General Command

NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
Turkey Turkey
(Edit)
Turkey-army-OF-10.svg Turkey-army-OF-9.svg Turkey-army-OF-9a.svg Turkey-army-OF-8.svg Turkey-army-OF-7.svg Turkey-army-OF-6.svg Turkey-army-OF-5.svg Turkey-army-OF-4.svg Turkey-army-OF-3.svg Turkey-army-OF-2.svg Turkey-army-OF-1.svg Turkey-army-OF-1b.svg Turkey-army-OF-0.svg Various
[note 6]
Mareşal[note 2] Genelkurmay
Başkanlığı
[note 7]
Orgeneral Korgeneral Tümgeneral Tuğgeneral Albay Yarbay Binbaşı Yüzbaşı Üsteğmen Teğmen Asteğmen Harbiyeli
NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Turkey Turkey
(Edit)
Army-TUR-OR-09 Army-TUR-OR-08 Army-TUR-OR-07a Army-TUR-OR-07b Army-TUR-OR-06a Army-TUR-OR-06b TR-Army-OR5a Army-TUR-OR-05 TR-Army-OR4a Army-TUR-OR-04 No insignia
Astsubay Kıdemli
Başçavuş
Astsubay
Başçavuş
Astsubay Kıdemli
Üstçavuş
Astsubay
Üstçavuş
Astsubay Kıdemli
Çavuş
Astsubay
Çavuş
Uzman
Çavuş
Çavuş Uzman
Onbaşı
Onbaşı Er

Coast Guard Command

NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
Turkey Turkey
(Edit)
Generic-Navy-O12.svg Generic-Navy-O11.svg Turkish-Navy-OF8.svg Generic-Navy-O10.svg Generic-Navy-O9.svg Generic-Navy-O7.svg Generic-Navy-O6.svg Generic-Navy-O5.svg Generic-Navy-O3.svg Generic-Navy-O2.svg Generic-Navy-O1.svg POR-Navy-OFD.svg Various [note 8]
Büyükamiral Oramiral Koramiral Tümamiral Tuğamiral Albay Yarbay Binbaşı Yüzbaşı Üsteğmen Teğmen Asteğmen Bahriyeli
NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Turkey Turkey
(Edit)
Navy-TUR-OR-09 Navy-TUR-OR-08 Navy-TUR-OR-07a Navy-TUR-OR-07b Navy-TUR-OR-06a Navy-TUR-OR-06b TR-Navy-OR5a TR-Armed Forces-OR5b Navy-TUR-OR-05 TR-Navy-OR4a TR-Armed Forces-OR4b Navy-TUR-OR-04 No insignia
Astsubay Kıdemli
Başçavuş
Astsubay
Başçavuş
Astsubay Kıdemli
Üstçavuş
Astsubay
Üstçavuş
Astsubay Kıdemli
Çavuş
Astsubay
Çavuş
Kıdemli Uzman
Çavuş
Uzman
Çavuş
Çavuş Kıdemli Uzman
Onbaşı
Uzman
Onbaşı
Onbaşı Er

Coast Guard ranks

The Turkish Coast Guard are an independent branch of the Navy which acts under the command of the Interior Ministry. The Force's highest-ranking officer is a R.Adm. UH (Tümamiral). The coast guards wear the same rank and rate insignia as ordinary navy officers but with an orange thin arc-shaped stripe, with the words "Sahil Güvenlik" (Coast Guards) embroidered in black, worn on their upper right arm, close to the shoulder. Also, special pennants are flown for the senior officers of the Coast Guard.

  • Commander of the Coast Guard : For the Commander of the Coast Guard, a square orange coloured flag with a black stripe connecting the lower mast side and upper right corner of the flag, also bearing two bombs (one on the upper mast side, the other on the opposite corner) is flown.
  • Coast Guard Commander (Rank of Captain) : For these officers, a swallow tailed pennant with a horizontal black stripe across the flag, dividing it in two, also bearing a bomb on each side of the stripe, is flown.
  • Coast Guard School Commander : The Coast Guard School Commander has a square orange flag, with a white anchor in the center and a vertical black stripe just near the mast.
  • Coast Guard Group Commander : The Group Commander has a triangular orange pennant, with a black anchor in the middle.

Notes

  1. ^ Student officer insignia designates school grade rather than military seniority.
  2. ^ a b Title; Honorary or posthumous rank; war time rank; ceremonial rank
  3. ^ Chief of the Army General Staff. The background color may be different if he is not from air forces or navy. If he has been promoted to Mareşal on duty, he wears OF-10 insignia only.
  4. ^ Student officer insignia denotes school grade rather than military seniority.
  5. ^ Student officer insignia denotes school grade rather than military seniority.
  6. ^ Student officer insignia designates school grade rather than military seniority.
  7. ^ Chief of the Army General Staff. The background color may be different if he is not from air forces or navy. If he has been promoted to Mareşal on duty, he wears OF-10 insignia only.
  8. ^ Student officer insignia denotes school grade rather than military seniority.

References

  1. ^ http://www.dzkk.tsk.tr/english/HOMEPAGE.php
Binbashi

A binbashi, alternatively bimbashi, (from Turkish: Binbaşı, "chief of a thousand", "chiliarch") is a major in the Turkish army, of which term originated in the Ottoman army. The title was also used for a major in the Khedivial Egyptian army as Bimbashi (1805–1953). It was also used by the Serbian revolutionaries as Bimbaša (Serbian Cyrillic: Бимбаша) in 1804-1817.

Since the restructuring of the modern Turkish Army in 1934, Binbaşı means major; but in the Ottoman Army (and in the pre-1934 Turkish Army, during the early years of the Turkish Republic) the more correct equivalent of the Western rank "major" was Kolağası (senior captain), which ranked above Yüzbaşı (captain) and below Binbaşı.

When the rank Kolağası was removed from the Turkish Army in 1934, the rank Binbaşı was relegated to major (before 1934, the rank Binbaşı was also considered an equivalent of lieutenant colonel.) Until 1934, it was the duty of a Binbaşı to command a battalion (tabur) in the Ottoman (and pre-1934 Turkish) armies; but since 1934, it is the duty of a Yarbay (lieutenant colonel) to command a battalion.The collar mark (later shoulder mark) and cap of a Binbaşı had two stripes and one star during the early years of the Turkish Republic.

List of comparative military ranks

This article is a list of various states' armed forces ranking designations. Comparisons are made between the different systems used by nations to categorize the hierarchy of an armed force compared to another. Several of these lists mention NATO reference codes. These are the NATO rank reference codes, used for easy comparison among NATO countries. Links to comparison charts can be found below.

Mareşal (Turkey)

Mareşal/Büyükamiral (Marshal) is the highest rank in the Army of Turkey, the Turkish Armed Forces. It is the equivalent of a Field Marshal in other countries.

The rank of Mareşal/Büyükamiral can trace its origins to the Ottoman Empire and to the military of Persia, where the rank was bestowed upon senior commanders upon order of the ruling Sultan.

The word mariscalcus in Latin, had parts from the old-German words meaning horse and servant.

The rank of Mareşal/Büyükamiral can only be bestowed by the National Assembly, and only given to a General/Admiral who leads an army, navy and/or air force with an extraordinary success in battle gaining a victory over the enemy.The corresponding rank in the Turkish Navy is known as Büyükamiral.

Marshals of Turkey:

Only two persons were bestowed the rank Mareşal to date: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (on 21 September 1921) and chief of staff Fevzi Çakmak (on 31 August 1922), both for their successes in the Turkish War of Independence.

Reis (military rank)

Reis (sometimes spelled rais) was a Turkish military rank, akin to that of a naval captain, that was commonly added to the officer's name as an epithet during the Ottoman Empire. Examples include:

Piri "Reis"

Turgut "Reis"

Uluç Ali "Reis"

Seydi Ali "Reis"The rank Reis Pasha referred to an Admiral, while the Kapudan Pasha (akin to Grand Admiral; literally "Captain Pasha") title referred to the commander-in-chief of the Ottoman Navy fleet.

Turkish Armed Forces

The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF; Turkish: Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri, TSK) are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey. They consist of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. The Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard, both of which have law enforcement and military functions, operate as components of the internal security forces in peacetime, and are subordinate to the Ministry of Interior. In wartime, they are subordinate to the Army and Navy. The President of Turkey is the military's overall head.

The current Chief of the General staff is General Yaşar Güler. The Chief of the General Staff is the Commander of the Armed Forces. In wartime, he acts as the Commander in Chief on behalf of the President of Turkey, who represents the Supreme Military Command of the TAF on behalf of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. Commanding the Armed Forces and establishing the policies and programs related with the preparation for combat of personnel, intelligence, operations, organization, training and logistic services are the responsibilities of the General Staff. Furthermore, the General Staff coordinates the military relations of the TAF with other NATO member states and other friendly states.

The modern history of the army began with its formation after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. The Turkish military perceived itself as the guardian of Kemalist ideology, the official state ideology, especially of the secular aspects of Kemalism. After becoming a member of NATO on 18 February 1952, Turkey initiated a comprehensive modernization program for its armed forces. The Turkish Army sent troops to fight in the Korean War. Towards the end of the 1980s, a second restructuring process was initiated. The Turkish Armed Forces participate in EU Battlegroups]] under the control of the European Council, namely the Italian-Romanian-Turkish Battlegroup. The TAF also contributes operational staff to the Eurocorps multinational army corps initiative of the EU and NATO.

The Turkish Armed Forces is the second largest standing military force in NATO, after the U.S. Armed Forces, with an estimated strength in 2015 of 639,551 military, civilian and paramilitary personnel. Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the nuclear sharing policy of the alliance, together with Belgium, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. A total of 90 B61 nuclear bombs are hosted at the Incirlik Air Base. 40 of these are allocated for use by the Turkish Air Force in case of a nuclear conflict, but their use requires the approval of NATO.

Yarbay

Yarbay is the Turkish military rank of lieutenant colonel.

In normal circumstance they serve 3 years (shorter than others) because of preparation rank. In the Turkish Army (Kara Kuvvetleri) and Turkish Gendarmerie (Jandarma) they serve as battalion commanding officer, in Turkish Navy battleship executive officer and in Turkish Air Force serve as squadron commander. In the normal circumstances, they have to wait a short period of time to be colonel.

Çavuş

Çavuş, also anglicized Chaush and Chiaus (from Turkish: çavuş / چاوش, "messenger") was an Ottoman title used for two separate soldier professions, both acting as messengers although differing in levels. It was a rank below agha and kethüda in units such as the Janissaries and Sipahi, and was also a term for members of the specialized unit of çavuşān (چاوشان, also çavuşiyye, çavuş(an)-i divan(i)) consisting of combined cavalry and infantry serving the Imperial Council (as in Ottoman Egypt). The leaders of the council's çavuş were titled çavuşbaşı / چاوش باشی (or başçavuş / باش چاوش). The çavuşbaşı was an assistant (or deputy) to the Grand Vizier, dealing with security matters, accompanying ambassadors visiting the Grand Vizier, and also carried out the first examination of petitions submitted to the Council, and led council meetings when the Grand Vizier was not present. The title has its origin in Uyghur use, where it was the title of ambassadors, and then entered Seljuq use for Byzantine imperial messengers, and Persian and Arabic use for various court attendants.The word gave rise to surnames, such as Çavuş (Turkish), Çavuşoğlu (Turkish), Čaušević (Serbo-Croatian), Čaušić (Serbo-Croatian), Baščaušević (Serbo-Croatian), Çaushaj (Albanian), Ceaușu (Romanian), Ceaușescu (Romanian), and others. It is also the stem of place names, such as Çavuş (in Turkey), Çavuşlu (in Turkey), Çavuşlar (in Turkey), Çavuşköy (in Turkey), Çavuşbayırı (in Turkey), Čauševac (in Bosnia), Čauševići (in Bosnia and Serbia), Čaušev Do (in Bosnia), Čauševina (in Bosnia), Čaušlije (in Bosnia), Čaušlija (in Macedonia), Chavusy (in Belarus), Çaushi (in Albania), and others. In the past in former Yugoslavia, the word čauš was also sometimes applied to the wedding-planner.

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