Military ranks and insignia of the Japan Self-Defense Forces

Following the end of World War II in Asia, after the surrender of Japan, the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy were dissolved by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers during the occupation of Japan. The symbols below represent the ranks of the Japan Self-Defense Forces: the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, and the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force which have, since 1954, replaced the imperial military. The 1938–1945 Japanese military and naval ranks were phased out after World War II. The self-defense force breaks away from the Sino-centric tradition of non-branch-specified ranks, each JSDF rank with respect to each service carries a distinct Japanese title, although equivalent titles in different branches are still similar, differing only in the use of the morphemes riku (ground) for the army ranks, kai (maritime) for the naval ranks, and (air) for the aviation ranks.[1]

The pentagramic stars on the insignia represent cherry blossoms. Because Japanese soldiers take an oath to die to protect the lives and wealth of Japanese citizens, they have been compared to delicate cherry blossoms that break easily.

Remarks

  • An inauguration of the Chief of Staff of Joint Staff Office (統合幕僚長) wears Emblem of the Chief of Staff of Joint Staff Office (統合幕僚長章) on the left chest.
  • The published NATO code is of reference level. There is no legal provision of NATO code in the JSDF.
  • The classification of rank of general officers and flag officers listed is limited to Japan. For JSDF's general officer and flag officer, there is a rank classification that matches foreign armed forces such as United States Armed Forces, which is determined by the post.

Ground Self-Defense Force

Ranks are listed with the lower rank at right.

Officer(幹部)

NATO Code OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1
(OF-8)[2] (OF-7)[2] (OF-6)[2]
Rank 陸将
(統合幕僚長および陸上幕僚長
(Rikushō serve as Chief of Staff)
陸将
(Rikushō)
陸将補
(Rikushō-ho)
1等陸佐
(Ittō rikusa)
2等陸佐
(Nitō rikusa)
3等陸佐
(Santō rikusa)
1等陸尉
(Ittō rikui)
2等陸尉
(Nitō rikui)
3等陸尉
(Santō rikui)
Abbreviation - - 将補
(Shō-ho)
1佐
(Issa)
2佐
(Nisa)
3佐
(Sansa)
1尉
(Ichii)
2尉
(Nii)
3尉
(San-i)
English translation General
or
Army general[3][4]
Lieutenant
general

or
Divisional general[3]
Major
general

or
Brigade general[3]
Colonel
Lieutenant
colonel
Major Captain
First
lieutenant
Second
lieutenant
Insignia Type A
(甲階級章)
JGSDF General insignia (a) JGSDF Lieutenant General insignia (a) JGSDF Major General insignia (a) JGSDF Colonel insignia (a) JGSDF Lieutenant Colonel insignia (a) JGSDF Major insignia (a) JGSDF Captain insignia (a) JGSDF First Lieutenant insignia (a) JGSDF Second Lieutenant insignia (a)
Insignia Type B
(乙階級章)
JGSDF General insignia (b) JGSDF Lieutenant General insignia (b) JGSDF Major General insignia (b) JGSDF Colonel insignia (b) JGSDF Lieutenant Colonel insignia (b) JGSDF Major insignia (b) JGSDF Captain insignia (b) JGSDF First Lieutenant insignia (b) JGSDF Second Lieutenant insignia (b)
Insignia Miniature Type
(略章)
JGSDF General insignia (miniature) JGSDF Lieutenant General insignia (miniature) JGSDF Major General insignia (miniature) JGSDF Colonel insignia (miniature) JGSDF Lieutenant Colonel insignia (miniature) JGSDF Major insignia (miniature) JGSDF Captain insignia (miniature) JGSDF First Lieutenant insignia (miniature) JGSDF Second Lieutenant insignia (miniature)

Warrant Officer & Enlisted (准尉および曹士)

NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1 OR-D
Rank 准陸尉
(Jun rikui)
陸曹長
(Rikusōchō)
1等陸曹
(Ittō rikusō)
2等陸曹
(Nitō rikusō)
3等陸曹
(Santō rikusō)
陸士長
(Rikushichō)
1等陸士
(Ittō rikushi)
2等陸士
(Nitō rikushi)
自衛官候補生
(Jieikan kōhosei)
Abbreviation 准尉
(Jun-i)
曹長
(Sōchō)
1曹
(Issō)
2曹
(Nisō)
3曹
(Sansō)
士長
(Shichō)
1士
(Isshi)
2士
(Nishi)
自候生
(Jikōsei)
English translation Warrant
Officer
Sergeant
major
Master
sergeant
Sergeant
first
class
Sergeant Leading Private Private
first
class
Private Self-defense
official cadet
Insignia Type A
(甲階級章)
JGSDF Warrant Officer insignia (a) JGSDF Sergeant Major insignia (a).svg JGSDF Master Sergeant insignia (a).svg JGSDF Sergeant First Class insignia (a).svg JGSDF Sergeant insignia (a).svg JGSDF Leading Private insignia (a) JGSDF Private First Class insignia (a) JGSDF Private insignia (a) JGSDF self defence official cadet insignia (a)
Insignia Type B
(乙階級章)
JGSDF Warrant Officer insignia (b) JGSDF Sergeant Major insignia (b) JGSDF Master Sergeant insignia (b) JGSDF Sergeant First Class insignia (b) JGSDF Sergeant insignia (b) JGSDF Leading Private insignia (b) JGSDF Private First Class insignia (b) JGSDF Private insignia (b) JGSDF self defence official cadet insignia (b)
Insignia Miniature Type
(略章)
JGSDF Warrant Officer insignia (miniature) JGSDF Sergeant Major insignia (miniature) JGSDF Master Sergeant insignia (miniature) JGSDF Sergeant First Class insignia (miniature) JGSDF Sergeant insignia (miniature) JGSDF Leading Private insignia (miniature) JGSDF Private First Class insignia (miniature) JGSDF Private insignia (miniature) No insignia

Maritime Self-Defense Force

Ranks are listed with the lower rank at right.

Officer(幹部)

NATO Code OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1
(OF-8)[2] (OF-7)[2] (OF-6)[2]
Rank 海将
(統合幕僚長および海上幕僚長
(Kaishō serve as Chief of Staff)
海将
(Kaishō)
海将補
(Kaishō-ho)
1等海佐
(Ittō kaisa)
2等海佐
(Nitō kaisa)
3等海佐
(Santō kaisa)
1等海尉
(Ittō kaii)
2等海尉
(Nitō kaii)
3等海尉
(Santō kaii)
Abbreviation - - 将補
(Shō-ho)
1佐
(Issa)
2佐
(Nisa)
3佐
(Sansa)
1尉
(Ichii)
2尉
(Nii)
3尉
(San-i)
English translation Admiral Vice
admiral
Rear
admiral
Captain Commander Lieutenant
commander
Lieutenant Lieutenant
junior grade
Ensign
Insignia Type A
(甲階級章)
JMSDF Admiral insignia (a) JMSDF Vice Admiral insignia (a) JMSDF Rear Admiral insignia (a) JMSDF Captain insignia (a) JMSDF Commander insignia (a) JMSDF Lieutenant Commander insignia (a) JMSDF Lieutenant insignia (a) JMSDF Lieutenant Junior Grade insignia (a) JMSDF Ensign insignia (a)
Insignia Type B
(乙階級章)
JMSDF Admiral insignia (b) JMSDF Vice Admiral insignia (b) JMSDF Rear Admiral insignia (b) JMSDF Captain insignia (b) JMSDF Commander insignia (b) JMSDF Lieutenant Commander insignia (b) JMSDF Lieutenant insignia (b) JMSDF Lieutenant Junior Grade insignia (b) JMSDF Ensign insignia (b)
Insignia Type C
(丙階級章)
JMSDF Admiral insignia (c) JMSDF Vice Admiral insignia (c) JMSDF Rear Admiral insignia (c) JMSDF Captain insignia (c) JMSDF Commander insignia (c) JMSDF Lieutenant Commander insignia (c) JMSDF Lieutenant insignia (c) JMSDF Lieutenant Junior Grade insignia (c) JMSDF Ensign insignia (c)
Insignia Miniature Type
(略章)
JMSDF Admiral insignia (miniature) JMSDF Vice Admiral insignia (miniature) JMSDF Rear Admiral insignia (miniature) JMSDF Captain insignia (miniature) JMSDF Commander insignia (miniature) JMSDF Lieutenant Commander insignia (miniature) JMSDF Lieutenant insignia (miniature) JMSDF Lieutenant Junior Grade insignia (miniature) JMSDF Ensign insignia (miniature)

Warrant Officer & Enlisted(准尉および曹士)

NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1 OR-D
Rank 准海尉
(Jun kaii)
海曹長
(Kaisōchō)
1等海曹
(Ittō kaisō)
2等海曹
(Nitō kaisō)
3等海曹
(Santō kaisō)
海士長
(Kaishichō)
1等海士
(Ittō kaishi)
2等海士
(Nitō kaishi)
自衛官候補生
(Jieikan kōhosei)
Abbreviation 准尉
(Jun-i)
曹長
(Sōchō)
1曹
(Issō)
2曹
(Nisō)
3曹
(Sansō)
士長
(Shichō)
1士
(Isshi)
2士
(Nishi)
自候生
(Jikōsei)
English translation Warrant
Officer
Chief
petty
officer
Petty
officer
first class
Petty
officer
second class
Petty
officer
third class
Leading
seaman
Seaman Seaman
apprentice
Self-defence
official cadet
Type A
(甲階級章)
JMSDF Warrant Officer insignia (a) JMSDF Chief Petty Officer insignia (a) JMSDF Petty Officer 1st Class insignia (a) JMSDF Petty Officer 2nd Class insignia (a) JMSDF Petty Officer 3rd Class insignia (a) JMSDF Leading Seaman insignia (a) JMSDF Seaman insignia (a) JMSDF Seaman Apprentice insignia (a) JMSDF self defence official cadet insignia (a)1

JMSDF self defence official cadet insignia (a)2
Type B
(乙階級章)
JMSDF Warrant Officer insignia (b) JMSDF Chief Petty Officer insignia (b) JMSDF Petty Officer 1st Class insignia (b) JMSDF Petty Officer 2nd Class insignia (b) JMSDF Petty Officer 3rd Class insignia (b) JMSDF Leading Seaman insignia (b) JMSDF Seaman insignia (b) JMSDF Seaman Apprentice insignia (b) JMSDF self defence official cadet insignia (b)
Type C
(丙階級章)
JMSDF Warrant Officer insignia (c) JMSDF Chief Petty Officer insignia (c) JMSDF Petty Officer 1st Class insignia (c) JMSDF Petty Officer 2nd Class insignia (c) JMSDF Petty Officer 3rd Class insignia (c) JMSDF Leading Seaman insignia (c) JMSDF Seaman insignia (c) JMSDF Seaman Apprentice insignia (c) No insignia
Miniature
(略章)
JMSDF Warrant Officer insignia (miniature) JMSDF Chief Petty Officer insignia (miniature) JMSDF Petty Officer 1st Class insignia (miniature) JMSDF Petty Officer 2nd Class insignia (miniature) JMSDF Petty Officer 3rd Class insignia (miniature) JMSDF Leading Seaman insignia (miniature) JMSDF Seaman insignia (miniature) JMSDF Seaman Apprentice insignia (miniature) No insignia

Air Self-Defense Force

Ranks are listed with the lower rank at right.

Officer(幹部)

NATO Code OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1
(OF-8)[2] (OF-7)[2] (OF-6)[2]
Rank 空将
(統合幕僚長および航空幕僚長
(Kūshō serve as Chief of Staff)
空将
(Kūshō)
空将補
(Kūshō-ho)
1等空佐
(Ittō kūsa)
2等空佐
(Nitō kūsa)
3等空佐
(Santō kūsa)
1等空尉
(Ittō kūi)
2等空尉
(Nitō kūi)
3等空尉
(Santō kūi)
Abbreviation - - 将補
(Shō-ho)
1佐
(Issa)
2佐
(Nisa)
3佐
(Sansa)
1尉
(Ichii)
2尉
(Nii)
3尉
(San-i)
English translation General
or
Army general[3]
Lieutenant
general

or
Divisional general[3]
Major
general

or
Brigade general[3]
Colonel Lieutenant
colonel
Major Captain First
lieutenant
Second
lieutenant
Insignia Type A
(甲階級章)
JASDF General insignia (a) JASDF Lieutenant General insignia (a) JASDF Major General insignia (a) JASDF Colonel insignia (a) JASDF Lieutenant Colonel insignia (a) JASDF Major insignia (a) JASDF Captain insignia (a) JASDF First Lieutenant insignia (a) JASDF Second Lieutenant insignia (a)
Insignia Type B
(乙階級章)
JASDF General insignia (b) JASDF Lieutenant General insignia (b) JASDF Major General insignia (b) JASDF Colonel insignia (b) JASDF Lieutenant Colonel insignia (b) JASDF Major insignia (b) JASDF Captain insignia (b) JASDF First Lieutenant insignia (b) JASDF Second Lieutenant insignia (b)
Insignia Miniature Type
(略章)
JASDF General insignia (miniature) JASDF Lieutenant General insignia (miniature) JASDF Major General insignia (miniature) JASDF Colonel insignia (miniature) JASDF Lieutenant Colonel insignia (miniature) JASDF Major insignia (miniature) JASDF Captain insignia (miniature) JASDF First Lieutenant insignia (miniature) JASDF Second Lieutenant insignia (miniature)

Warrant Officer & Enlisted(准尉および曹士)

NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1 OR-D
Rank 准空尉
(Jun kūi)
空曹長
(Kūsōchō)
1等空曹
(Ittō kūsō)
2等空曹
(Nitō kūsō)
3等空曹
(Santō kūsō)
空士長
(Kūshichō)
1等空士
(Ittō kūshi)
2等空士
(Nitō kūshi)
自衛官候補生
(Jieikan kōhosei)
Abbreviation 准尉
(Jun-i)
曹長
(Sōchō)
1曹
(Issō)
2曹
(Nisō)
3曹
(Sansō)
士長
(Shichō)
1士
(Isshi)
2士
(Nishi)
自候生
(Jikōsei)
English translation Warrant
Officer
Senior
master
sergeant
Master
sergeant
Technical
sergeant
Staff
sergeant
Airman
first class
Airman
second class
Airman
third class
Self-defence
official cadet
Insignia Type A
(甲階級章)
JASDF Warrant Officer insignia (a) JASDF Senior Master Sergeant insignia (a) JASDF Master Sergeant insignia (a) JASDF Technical Sergeant insignia (a) JASDF Staff Sergeant insignia (a) JASDF Airman 1st Class insignia (a) JASDF Airman 2nd Class insignia (a) JASDF Airman 3rd Class insignia (a) JASDF self defence official cadet insignia (a)1

JASDF self defence official cadet insignia (a)2
Insignia Type B
(乙階級章)
JASDF Warrant Officer insignia (b) JASDF Senior Master Sergeant insignia (b) JASDF Master Sergeant insignia (b) JASDF Technical Sergeant insignia (b) JASDF Staff Sergeant insignia (b) JASDF Airman 1st Class insignia (b) JASDF Airman 2nd Class insignia (b) JASDF Airman 3rd Class insignia (b) JASDF self defence official cadet insignia (b)
Insignia Miniature Type
(略章)
JASDF Warrant Officer insignia (miniature) JASDF Senior Master Sergeant insignia (miniature) JASDF Master Sergeant insignia (miniature) JASDF Technical Sergeant insignia (miniature) JASDF Staff Sergeant insignia (miniature) JASDF Airman 1st Class insignia (miniature) JASDF Airman 2nd Class insignia (miniature) JASDF Airman 3rd Class insignia (miniature) No insignia

See also

References

  1. ^ "自衛隊の階級" [Ranks of the JSDF]. 平成16年版 防衛白書 [Defense of Japan 2004] (PDF) (in Japanese). Japanese Defense Agency. 2004. p. 266. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-27. Retrieved 2018-04-09.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Classified in consideration of personnel balance of foreign armed forces such as United States Armed Forces.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Another translation. (It corresponds to designations such as France and Italy.)
  4. ^ Divisional general serve as Chief of Staff( Le chef d'état-major de l'armée de terre japonaise en visite à Djibouti Archived 2018-02-10 at the Wayback Machine[Positional parameters ignored](French))

External links

Japan Air Self-Defense Force

The Japan Air Self-Defense Force (航空自衛隊, Kōkū Jieitai), JASDF, also referred to as the Japanese Air Force, is the air warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and for other aerospace operations. The JASDF carries out combat air patrols around Japan, while also maintaining a network of ground and air early-warning radar systems. The branch also has an aerobatic team known as Blue Impulse and has provided air transport in UN peacekeeping missions.

The JASDF had an estimated 50,324 personnel as of 2013, and as of 2013 operated 777 aircraft, approximately 373 of them fighter aircraft.

Japan Ground Self-Defense Force

The Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (陸上自衛隊, Rikujō Jieitai), JGSDF, also referred to as the Japanese Army, is the land warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. Created on July 1, 1954, it is the largest of the three services branches.

New military guidelines, announced in December 2010, direct the Japan Self-Defense Forces away from their Cold War focus on the Soviet Union to a new focus on China, especially in respect of the dispute over the Senkaku Islands.

The JGSDF operates under the command of the chief of the ground staff, based in the city of Ichigaya, Shinjuku, Tokyo. The present chief of staff is General Gorō Yuasa (湯浅悟郎). The JGSDF numbered around 150,000 soldiers in 2008.

Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force

The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (海上自衛隊, Kaijō Jieitai), JMSDF, also referred to as the Japanese Navy, is the maritime warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan. The JMSDF was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) after World War II. The JMSDF has a fleet of 154 ships and 346 aircraft and consists of approximately 45,800 personnel. Its main tasks are to maintain control of the nation's sea lanes and to patrol territorial waters. It also participates in UN-led peacekeeping operations (PKOs) and Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIOs).

Military history of Japan

The military history of Japan chronicles a vast time period over three millennia from the Jōmon 1000 BCE into the modern day. It is characterized by a long period of clan warfare until the 12th century CE. This was followed by feudal wars that culminated in military governments known as the Shogunate. Japanese history is distinguished by that the military class with the Shōgun ruled Japan for 676 years from 1192 till 1868 CE. The Shōgun and samurai warriors were de facto at the apex of the Japanese social structure. The aristocratic nobility were nominally above them. The sakoku policy closed Japan from foreigners for 212 years from 1641 to 1853. Feudal militarism transitioned to imperialism in the 19th century after the arrival of Admiral Perry and the elevation of Emperor Meiji. Japan was influenced by western colonial powers and Western imperialism in Asia. This led to Japanese colonialism and rampant imperialism until Japan's defeat in World War II. The 1947 Constitution prohibits Japan's ability to offensively use war against other nations. This led to the Japan Self-Defense Forces. The U.S.-Japan alliance requires the United States to protect Japan and to conduct offensive duties. In 2015, the Constitution was reinterpreted to allow collective self-defense of its allies. Thus Japan has a long military tradition with extensive militarism. Today Japan has the 4th most-powerful military in the world.

As of 1954, the Japan Self-Defense Forces consist of the Ground Self-Defense Force, Maritime Self-Defense Force and Air Self-Defense Force. They are all under the command of the Ministry of Defense. The Prime Minister of Japan is the commander-in-chief, and exercises the authority through the Minister of Defense and the Chair of the Chief of Staff, Joint Staff, which supervises JSDF operations.

Republic of China Armed Forces rank insignia

The Republic of China Armed Forces rank insignia have five schemes among different military branches, including Army, Navy, and Air Force. The Marine Corps, although being a part of the Navy, maintains a different insignia to other naval fleet personnel. The Military Police has insignia very similar to the Army, just with a slightly different green color. Under the current regulations, military ranks contain the following:

Officers (軍官) can be classified into three(3) levels (generals, colonels, captains), and to ten(10) ranks,

Non-commissioned officers (士官) can be classified into six(6) ranks, and

Enlisted soldiers (士兵) can be classified into three(3) ranks.The official military rank names in Chinese are identical across all different military branches, but their English translations may be different.

Seaman (rank)

Seaman is a military rank used in many navies around the world. It is considered a junior enlisted rank and, depending on the navy, it may be a single rank on its own or a name shared by several similarly-junior ranks.

In the Commonwealth, it is the lowest rank in the navy, while in the United States, it refers to the three lowest ranks of the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard. The equivalent of the seaman is the matelot in French-speaking countries, and Matrose in German-speaking countries.

Military ranks and insignia by country
Africa
Americas
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Europe
Oceania
Post-Soviet states
Commonwealth of Nations
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