Military organization

Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer such military capability as a national defense policy may require. In some countries paramilitary forces are included in a nation's armed forces, though not considered military. Armed forces that are not a part of military or paramilitary organizations, such as insurgent forces, often mimic military organizations, or use ad hoc structures, while formal military organization tends to use hierarchical forms.

History

The use of formalized ranks in a hierarchical structure came into widespread use with the Roman Army.

In modern times, executive control, management and administration of military organization is typically undertaken by governments through a government department within the structure of public administration, often known as a Ministry of Defense, Department of Defense, or Department of War. These in turn manage Armed Services that themselves command formations and units specialising in combat, combat support and combat-service support.

Executive control, management and administration

The usually civilian or partly civilian executive control over the national military organization is exercised in democracies by an elected political leader as a member of the government's Cabinet, usually known as a Minister of Defense. (In presidential systems, such as the United States, the president is the commander-in-chief, and the cabinet-level defense minister is second in command.) Subordinated to that position are often Secretaries for specific major operational divisions of the armed forces as a whole, such as those that provide general support services to the Armed Services, including their dependants.

Then there are the heads of specific departmental agencies responsible for the provision and management of specific skill- and knowledge-based service such as Strategy advice, Capability Development assessment, or Defense Science provision of research, and design and development of technologies. Within each departmental agency will be found administrative branches responsible for further agency business specialization work.

Armed services

USN-JASDF ship and aircraft formations during ANNUALEX 2008 081119-N-7047S-140
A mixed aircraft and ship formation of military vehicles during an exercise with USN and JASDF vehicles.

In most countries the armed forces are divided into three or four Armed services (also: service, military service, or military branch): army, navy, and air force.

Many countries have a variation on the standard model of three or four basic Armed Services. Some nations also organize their marines, special forces or strategic missile forces as independent armed services. A nation's coast guard may also be an independent military branch of its military, although in many nations the coast guard is a law enforcement or civil agency. A number of countries have no navy, for geographical reasons. Some other variations include:

In larger armed forces the culture between the different Armed Services of the armed forces can be quite different.

Most smaller countries have a single organization that encompasses all armed forces employed by the country in question. Third-world armies tend to consist primarily of infantry, while first-world armies tend to have larger units manning expensive equipment and only a fraction of personnel in infantry units.

It is worthwhile to make mention of the term joint. In western militaries, a joint force is defined as a unit or formation comprising representation of combat power from two or more branches of the military.

Internal security forces

Gendarmeries, including equivalents such as Internal Troops, Paramilitary Forces and similar, are an internal security service common in most of the world, but uncommon in Anglo-Saxon countries where civil police are employed to enforce the law, and there are tight restrictions on how the armed forces may be used to assist.[1]

Commands, formations and units

It is common, at least in the European and North American militaries, to refer to the building blocks of a military as commands, formations and units.

In a military context, a command is a collection of units and formations under the control of a single officer. Although during the Second World War a Command was also a name given to a battle group in the US Army, in general it is an administrative and executive strategic headquarters which is responsible to the national government or the national military headquarters. It is not uncommon for a nation's services to each consist of their own command (such as Land Component, Air Component, Naval Component, and Medical Component in the Belgian Army), but this does not preclude the existence of commands which are not service-based.

A formation is defined by the US Department of Defense as "two or more aircraft, ships, or units proceeding together under a commander".[2] Formin in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia emphasised its combined-arms nature: "Formations are those military organisations which are formed from different speciality Arms and Services troop units to create a balanced, combined combat force. The formations only differ in their ability to achieve different scales of application of force to achieve different strategic, operational and tactical goals and mission objectives."[3] It is a composite military organization that includes a mixture of integrated and operationally attached sub-units, and is usually combat-capable. Example of formations include: divisions, brigades, battalions, wings, etc. Formation may also refer to tactical formation, the physical arrangement or disposition of troops and weapons.[4] Examples of formation in such usage include: pakfront, panzerkeil, testudo formation, etc.

A typical unit is a homogeneous military organization (either combat, combat-support or non-combat in capability) that includes service personnel predominantly from a single arm of service, or a branch of service, and its administrative and command functions are self-contained. Any unit subordinate to another unit is considered its sub-unit or minor unit. It is not uncommon for unit and formation to be used synonymously in the United States. In Commonwealth practice, formation is not used for smaller organizations like battalions which are instead called "units", and their constituent platoons or companies are referred to as sub-units. In the Commonwealth, formations are divisions, brigades, etc.

Different armed forces, and even different branches of service of the armed forces, may use the same name to denote different types of organizations. An example is the "squadron". In most navies a squadron is a formation of several ships; in most air forces it is a unit; in the U.S. Army it is a battalion-sized cavalry unit; and in Commonwealth armies a squadron is a company-sized sub-unit.

Table of organization and equipment

A table of organization and equipment (TOE or TO&E) is a document published by the U.S. Army Force Management Support Agency that prescribes the organization, manning, and equipage of units from divisional size and down, but also including the headquarters of Corps and Armies.

It also provides information on the mission and capabilities of a unit as well as the unit's current status. A general TOE is applicable to a type of unit (for instance, infantry) rather than a specific unit (the 3rd Infantry Division). In this way, all units of the same branch (such as infantry) follow the same structural guidelines.

Modern hierarchy

Main article: Command hierarchy

Military organization
Latvian platoon at Camp Lejune
Typical Units Typical numbers Typical Commander
Fireteam 2–4 Lance Corporal /
Corporal
Squad/
Section
8–14 Corporal/
Sergeant/
Staff Sergeant
Platoon/
Troop
15–45 Second Lieutenant /
First Lieutenant /
Lieutenant
Company/
Battery/
Squadron
80–150 Captain /
Major
Battalion /
Cohort
300–800 Lieutenant Colonel
Regiment /
Brigade /
Legion
1,000–5,500 Colonel /
Brigadier General
Division 10,000–25,000 Major General
Corps 30,000–50,000 Lieutenant General
Field Army 100,000–300,000 General
Army Group /
Front
2+ field armies Field Marshal /
Five-star General
Region /
Theater
4+ army groups Six-star rank /
Commander-in-chief

Army hierarchy

The following table gives an overview of some of the terms used to describe army hierarchy in armed forces across the world. Whilst it is recognized that there are differences between armies of different nations, many are modeled on the British or American models, or both. However, many military units and formations go back in history for a long time, and were devised by various military thinkers throughout European history.

For example, the modern Corps was first introduced in France about 1805 by Napoleon as a more flexible tactical grouping of two or more divisions during the Napoleonic Wars.

They have become part of the organization of most armies around the world.

APP-6A Symbol Name Nature Strength Constituent units Commander or leader
XXXXXX region, theater Command 1,000,000–10,000,000 4+ army groups general, army general, five-star general or field marshal
XXXXX army group, front Command 400,000–1,000,000 2+ armies general, army general, five-star general or field marshal
XXXX army Command 100,000–200,000 2–4 corps general, army general, four-star general or colonel general
XXX corps Formation 20,000–50,000 2+ divisions lieutenant general, corps general or three-star general
XX division, legion Formation 6,000–20,000 2–4 brigades or regiments major general, divisional general or two-star general
X brigade Formation 3,000–5,000 2+ regiments, 3–6 battalions or Commonwealth regiments brigadier, brigadier general, brigade general, or one-star general (sometimes colonel)
III regiment or group Unit 1,000–3,000 2+ battalions or U.S. Cavalry squadrons colonel
II battalion, U.S. Cavalry squadron, Commonwealth armoured regiment or Argentine Army regiment/artillery group/battalion, German Abteilung, artillery or cavalry divizion in some languages, cohort Unit 300–1,000 2–6 companies, batteries, U.S. Cavalry troops, or Commonwealth squadrons, Argentine squadrons/companies lieutenant colonel
I infantry company, artillery battery, U.S. Cavalry troop, Commonwealth armour or combat engineering squadron or Argentine cavalry squadron or engineering company Subunit 80–250 2–8 platoons or Commonwealth troops chief warrant officer, captain or major
••• platoon or Commonwealth troop Sub-subunit 26–55 2+ Section, or vehicles warrant officer, first or second lieutenant
•• section or patrol - 12–24 1–2+ squads or 3–6 fireteams sergeant or staff sergeant
squad or crew - 8–12 2–3 fireteams or 1+ cell corporal or sergeant
Ø fireteam or cell - 3-4 n/a lance corporal to sergeant
Ø fire and maneuver team - 2-3 n/a any/private first class

Rungs may be skipped in this ladder: for example, typically NATO forces skip from battalion to brigade. Likewise, only large military powers may have organizations at the top levels and different armies and countries may also use traditional names, creating considerable confusion: for example, a British or Canadian armored regiment (battalion) is divided into squadrons (companies) and troops (platoons), whereas an American cavalry squadron (battalion) is divided into troops (companies) and platoons.

Army, army group, region, and theatre are all large formations that vary significantly between armed forces in size and hierarchy position. While divisions were the traditional level at which support elements (field artillery, hospital, logistics and maintenance, etc.) were added to the unit structure, since World War II, many brigades now have such support units, and since the 1980s, regiments also have been receiving support elements. A regiment with such support elements is called a regimental combat team in US military parlance, or a battle group in the UK and other forces.

During World War II the Red Army used the same basic organizational structure. However, in the beginning many units were greatly underpowered and their size was actually one level below on the ladder that is usually used elsewhere; for example, a division in the early-WWII Red Army would have been about the size of most nations' regiments or brigades.[5][6] At the top of the ladder, what other nations would call an army group, the Red Army called a front. By contrast, during the same period the German Wehrmacht Army Groups, particularly on the Eastern Front, such as Army Group Centre significantly exceeded the above numbers, and were more cognate with the Soviet Strategic Directions.

Naval hierarchy

Naval organization at the flotilla level and higher is less commonly abided by, as ships operate in smaller or larger groups in various situations that may change at a moment's notice. However, there is some common terminology used throughout navies to communicate the general concept of how many vessels might be in a unit.

Navies are generally organized into groups for a specific purpose, usually strategic, and these organizational groupings appear and disappear frequently based on the conditions and demands placed upon a navy. This contrasts with army organization where units remain static, with the same men and equipment, over long periods of time.

Unit Name Vessel types No. of Vessels Officer in command
Navy or Admiralty All vessels in a navy 2+ Fleets Fleet Admiral, Admiral of the Fleet, Grand Admiral or Admiral
Fleet All vessels in an ocean or general region 2+ Battle Fleets or Task Forces Admiral or Vice Admiral
Battle Fleet or Task Force A large number of vessels of all types 2+ Task Groups Vice Admiral
Task Group[7] A collection of complementary vessels 2+ Task Units or Squadrons Rear Admiral (upper half) or Rear Admiral
Squadron or Task Unit Usually capital ships A small number of vessels Rear Admiral (lower half), Commodore, or Flotilla Admiral
Flotilla or Task Unit Usually not capital ships A small number of vessels, usually of the same or similar types Rear Admiral (lower half), Commodore, or Flotilla Admiral
Task Element A single vessel One Captain or Commander

The five-star ranks of Admiral of the Fleet and Fleet Admiral have largely been out of regular use since the 1990s, with the exception of ceremonial or honorary appointments. Currently, all major navies are commanded by an admiral (four-star rank) or vice-admiral (three-star rank) depending on relative size. Smaller naval forces, such as the RNZN, or those navies that are effectively coastguards, are commanded by a rear-admiral (two-star rank), commodore (one-star rank) or even a captain.

Aircraft carriers are typically commanded by a captain. Submarines and destroyers are typically commanded by a captain or commander. Some destroyers, particularly smaller destroyers such as frigates (formerly known as destroyer escorts) are usually commanded by officers with the rank of commander. Corvettes, the smallest class of warship, are commanded by officers with the rank of commander or lieutenant-commander. Auxiliary ships, including gunboats, minesweepers, patrol boats, military riverine craft, tenders and torpedo boats are usually commanded by lieutenants, sub-lieutenants or warrant officers. Usually, the smaller the vessel, the lower the rank of the ship's commander. For example, patrol boats are often commanded by ensigns, while frigates are rarely commanded by an officer below the rank of commander.

Historical navies were far more rigid in structure. Ships were collected in divisions, which in turn were collected in numbered squadrons, which comprised a numbered fleet. Permission for a vessel to leave one unit and join another would have to be approved on paper.

The modern U.S. Navy is primarily based on a number of standard groupings of vessels, including the carrier strike group and the Expeditionary Strike Group.[8]

Additionally, Naval organization continues aboard a single ship. The complement forms three or four departments (such as tactical and engineering), each of which has a number of divisions, followed by work centers.

Air Force hierarchy

The organizational structures of air forces vary between nations: some air forces (such as the United States Air Force and the Royal Air Force) are divided into commands, groups and squadrons; others (such as the Soviet Air Force) have an Army-style organizational structure. The modern Royal Canadian Air Force uses Air Division as the formation between wings and the entire air command. Like the RAF, Canadian wings consist of squadrons.

Symbol (for Army structure comparison) Unit Name (USAF/RAF/Other air forces) No. of personnel No. of aircraft No. of subordinate units (USAF/RAF) Officer in command (USAF/RAF)
XXXXXX + Air Force Entire air force Entire air force All Major Commands / Commands GAF / MRAF or Air Chf Mshl
XXXXX Major Command/Command or Tactical Air Force / Russian Air army[9] Varies Varies By Region or Duty (subordinate units varies) Gen/Air Chf Mshl or Air Mshl
XX Numbered Air Force/No RAF equivalent/Aviation Division /Air Division/Air Brigade By Region (subordinate units varies) Varies 2+ Wings/Groups Maj-Gen or Lt-Gen / N/A
X Wing/Group (inc. EAGs)/Russian aviation brigade 1,000–5,000 48–100 2+ Groups/Wings Brig-Gen/AVM or Air Cdre
III Group/Wing (inc. EAWs) or Station/Russian aviation regiment 300–1,000 17–48 3–4 Squadrons/3–10 Flights Col/Gp Capt or Wg Cdr
II Squadron 100–300 7–16 3–4 Flights Lt Col or Maj/Wg Cdr or Sqn Ldr
••• Flight 20–100 4–6 2 Sections plus maintenance and support crew Capt/Sqn Ldr or Flt Lt
•• Element or Section 5–20 n/a–2 n/a Junior Officer or Senior NCO
Detail 2–4 n/a n/a Junior NCO

Task force

A task force is a unit or formation created as a temporary grouping for a specific operational purpose. Aside from administrative hierarchical forms of organization that have evolved since the early 17th century in Europe, fighting forces have been grouped for specific operational purposes into mission-related organizations such as the German Kampfgruppe or the U.S. Combat Team (Army) and Task Force (Navy) during the Second World War, or the Soviet Operational manoeuvre group during the Cold War. In the British and Commonwealth armies the battlegroup became the usual grouping of companies during the Second World War and the Cold War.

Within NATO, a Joint Task Force (JTF) would be such a temporary grouping that includes elements from more than one armed service, a Combined Task Force (CTF) would be such a temporary grouping that includes elements from more than one nation, and a Combined Joint Task Force (CJTF) would be such a temporary grouping that includes elements of more than one armed service and more than one nation.

See also

References

  1. ^ In the United States it is a common misunderstanding that their armed forces are totally prohibited from doing so by the Posse Comitatus Act. This Act, which reserves to Congress the power to employ Federal military force to enforce law and order, refers specifically only to the US Army and US Air Force. The US Marines and Navy are separately regulated, and the Coast Guard has a clear law enforcement role in its peacetime status. The state-controlled Army National Guard (technically a branch of the US Army) is also excluded from the Posse Comitatus Act. The Insurrection Act specifically permits the President to use Federal military force to restore public order in extreme emergency situations: this Act was implemented during the "Rodney King Riots" in Los Angeles.
  2. ^ United States Department of Defense, DOD Dictionary Archived 2008-12-23 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Fomin, N.N., Great Soviet Encyclopaedia (Russian: Большая Советская Энциклопедия), Moscow, 1978
  4. ^ Shorter Oxford English Dictionary
  5. ^ "Доклад НКО август 1939. doklad-nko-8-39.shtml". Armor.kiev.ua. Retrieved 2013-11-20.
  6. ^ Центральный государственный архив Советской армии (с июня 1992 г. Российский государственный военный архив). В двух томах. Том 2. Путеводитель. 1993 (in Russian). Guides.rusarchives.ru. Retrieved 2013-11-20.
  7. ^ Group. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2009-08-30.
  8. ^ US Navy. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2009-08-30.
  9. ^ http://www.airpages.ru/ru/vvs1.shtml Red Army VVS Organisation(rus)
Anglo-Saxon military organization

Anglo-Saxon military organization is difficult to analyze because there are many conflicting records and opinions as to the precise occurrences and procedures. Anglo-Saxon England was known for its tumultuous nature and the constant presence of outside threats and dangers made it necessary for a solid military to be constantly in place. However, in spite of this, by the 10th century, the Saxon kingdom of England was, perhaps, the best ordered state in Europe with a highly efficient administration that had a solid currency and could raise taxes to support a military establishment. Even though there is some controversy as to the accurate forms of military organization, some aspects can be deduced from the records that have been preserved.

The period can, however, be split into two: before settlement, AD 400 to AD 600; and the settlement period, when the Saxons had established organized kingdoms, AD 600 to AD 1066.

Ataman

Ataman (variants: otaman, wataman, vataman; Russian: атаман, Ukrainian: отаман) was a title of Cossack and haidamak leaders of various kinds. In the Russian Empire, the term was the official title of the supreme military commanders of the Cossack armies. The Ukrainian version of the same word is Hetman. Otaman in Ukrainian Cossack forces was a position of a lower rank.

Cadre (military)

A cadre (UK: or US: ) is the complement of commissioned officers and non-commissioned officers of a military unit responsible for training the rest of the unit. The cadre may be the permanent skeleton establishment of a unit, around which the full unit can be built if needed. In countries which have conscription, a cadre may comprise the permanent staff of a regiment who train the conscripts assigned to it. The term comes from the French expression en cadre, with the same meaning.In the United States military, a cadre is a group or member of a group of leaders, especially in units that conduct formal training schools. In United States Army jargon, the word is both singular and plural. At the United States Military Academy, the upper-class cadets who conduct Cadet Basic Training for incoming freshmen are called the cadre.In the British Armed Forces a cadre is a group of instructors, or a unit that trains potential instructors or non-commissioned officers (NCOs), in which case it usually also includes the trainees themselves (e.g., the Mountain Leader Training Cadre of the Royal Marines).

Adapted from the military usage, in Canadian police services, a cadre is an individual officer. It is used in place of badge number and is used in Records Management Systems for dispatching and report entry.

Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization

The Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization, also known as the "Military Case" or the "Tukhachevsky Case"), was a 1937 secret trial of the high command of the Red Army, a part of the Great Purge.

Combat service support

The term Combat service support (or CSS) is utilized by numerous military organizations throughout the world to describe entities that provide direct and indirect sustainment services to the groups that engage (or are potentially to be engaged) in combat.

Command and control

Command and control or C2 is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes ... [that] employs human, physical, and information resources to solve problems and accomplish missions" to achieve the goals of an organization or enterprise, according to a 2015 definition by military scientists Marius Vassiliou, David S. Alberts and Jonathan R. Agre, The term often refers to a military system.

Versions of the United States Army Field Manual 3-0 circulated circa 1999, define C2 in a military organization as the exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commanding officer over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of a mission.A 1988 NATO definition, command and control is the exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated individual over assigned resources in the accomplishment of a common goal. An Australian Defence Force definition, similar to that of NATO, emphasises that C2 is the system empowering designated personnel to exercise lawful authority and direction over assigned forces for the accomplishment of missions and tasks. (The Australian doctrine goes on to state: The use of agreed terminology and definitions is fundamental to any C2 system and the development of joint doctrine and procedures. The definitions in the following paragraphs have some agreement internationally, although not every potential ally will use the terms with exactly the same meaning.)

Command hierarchy

A command hierarchy is a group of people who carry out orders based on others authority within the group. It can be viewed as part of a power structure, in which it is usually seen as the most vulnerable and also the most powerful part.

Front (military)

A military front or battlefront is a contested armed frontier between opposing forces. It can be a local or tactical front, or it can range to a theater. A typical front was the Western Front in France and Belgium in World War I.

The term "home front" has been used to denote conditions in the civilian sector of a country at war, including those involved in the production of matériel.

Both the Soviet and Polish Armies used the term "front" to mean an army group during the Polish-Soviet War and World War II. The equivalent of the term established in the header was the "Theater of military operations".

The term "front line city" was used by the Germans during their long retreat from Moscow/Stalingrad to refer to metropolitan centres that had become disputed by the two combatants. Designation of a city as such resulted in administrative changes (largely the imposition of martial law). In the film Downfall, the term was briefly referenced.

The term "transferred to the front" is often used by soldiers or personnel when their position has been changed from other activities.

Hetman

Hetman (Ukrainian: гетьман, translit. het’mаn; Czech: hejtman; Romanian: hatman) is a political title from Central and Eastern Europe, historically assigned to military commanders.

It was the title of the second-highest military commander in the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the 16th to 18th centuries. A hetman was the highest military officer in the hetmanates of Ukraine, the Zaporizhian Host (1649–1764), and the Ukrainian State (1918). The title was used by Ukrainian Cossacks from the 16th century. Used by the Czechs in Bohemia since the 15th century, in the modern Czech Republic the title is used for regional governors. Throughout much of the history of Romania and the Moldavia, hetmans were the second-highest army rank.

Home guard

Home guard is a title given to various military organizations at various times, with the implication of an emergency or reserve force raised for local defense.

The term "home guard" was first officially used in the American Civil War, starting with units formed by German immigrants in Missouri, and may derive from possible historic use of the term Heimwehr ("home guard") to describe units officially known as Landwehr ("country guard"), or from an attempted translation of landwehr.

Military Organization Lizard Union

Organizacja Wojskowa Związek Jaszczurczy (Military Organization Lizard Union, short form: Związek Jaszczurczy, abbreviated OW ZJ) was an organization of Polish resistance in World War II. Created in 1939 and transformed into National Armed Forces (Narodowe Siły Zbrojne, NSZ) in 1942, it represented the far-right of the Polish political spectrum (related to the National Radical Camp (Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny, ONR) political party) and thus refused to recognize the Polish Underground State (although there was some uneasy tactical cooperation for practical reasons).

Military branch

Military branch (also service branch or armed service) is according to common standard the subdivision of the national armed forces of a sovereign nation or state.

Military science fiction

Military science fiction is a subgenre of science fiction that features the use of science fiction technology, mainly weapons, for military purposes and usually principal characters that are members of a military organization involved in military activity; occurring sometimes in outer space or on a different planet or planets. It exists in literature, comics, film, and video games.

A detailed description of the conflict, the tactics and weapons used for it, and the role of a military service and the individual members of that military organization forms the basis for a typical work of military science fiction. The stories often use features of actual past or current Earth conflicts, with countries being replaced by planets or galaxies of similar characteristics, battleships replaced by space battleships and certain events changed so that the author can extrapolate what might have occurred.

National Military Organization

Narodowa Organizacja Wojskowa (National Military Organization, NOW) was one of the Polish resistance movements in World War II. Created in October 1939, it did not merge with the Service for Poland's Victory (SZP)/Union of Armed Struggle (ZWZ); later Home Army (AK). Nevertheless, it recognized the Polish government in exile, which was located in London. The National Military Organization was politically related to the National Party (SN). In 1942/1943 it split into two parts; one merged with the Home Army, while another formed the National Armed Forces (NSZ). After the Warsaw Uprising, most of NOW members formed the National Military Union (NZW).

Papakha

Papakha (Armenian: փափախ; Azerbaijani: papaq; Adyghe: па1о, pa'o; Georgian: ფაფახი, p’ap’akhi, [pʰapʰaxi]; Chechen: холхазан куй, xolxazan kuy; Russian: папа́ха, papakha, IPA: [pɐˈpaxə]), also known as astrakhan peruk in English, is a wool hat worn by men throughout the Caucasus and also in uniformed regiments in the region and beyond. The word papakha is of Turkic language origin (cf Turkish papak, Azeri papaq).There are two different Russian papakhas. One, called a papaha, is a high fur hat, usually made of karakul sheep skin. The hat has the general appearance of a cylinder with one open end, and is set upon the head in such a way as to have the brim touch the temples. Some of them come with ear flaps which can be folded up when not in use. The other called a kubanka, which is similar to the papaha, except shorter and with no ear flaps.

Papakha are very common in Armenia as well as other mountainous regions, where a man's hat is considered a very important part of his identity. In Georgia, papakhi are also mostly worn in mountainous regions of Pshavi, Khevi, Mtiuleti, and Tusheti. Papaq are also very common in Azerbaijan. Papakhi are also donned by the Chechens, Dagestanians, and other Caucasian tribes. In 1855, after the campaigns in the Caucasus Mountains, the Papakha was introduced in the Russian army as an official part of the uniform for the Cossacks, and later for the rest of the cavalry.

Platoon leader

A platoon leader (NATO) or platoon commander (more common in Commonwealth militaries and the US Marine Corps) is the officer in charge of a platoon. This person is usually a junior officer — a second or first lieutenant or an equivalent rank. The officer is usually assisted by a platoon sergeant. Some special units, such as specific aviation platoons and special forces, require a captain as platoon leader, due to the nature and increased responsibility of such assignments. Platoons normally consist of three or four sections (Commonwealth) or squads (US).

Polish Military Organisation

Polish Military Organisation, PMO (Polish: 'Polska Organizacja Wojskowa', POW) was a secret military organization created by Józef Piłsudski in August 1914, and officially named in November 1914, during World War I. Its tasks were to gather intelligence and sabotage the enemies of the Polish people. It was used by Piłsudski to create a body independent from his cautious Austro-Hungarian supporters, and it was an important, if somewhat lesser known, counterpart to the Polish Legions. Its targets included the Russian Empire in the early phase of the war, and the German Empire later. Its membership rose from a few hundred members in 1914 to over 30,000 in 1918.

Tumen (unit)

Tumen, or tümen ("unit of ten thousand"; Old Turkic: tümän; Mongolian: Түмэн, tümen; Turkish: tümen; Hungarian: tömény), was a part of the decimal system used by the Turkic peoples and Mongol peoples to organize their armies. Tumen is an army unit of 10,000 soldiers.

Union Army

During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states. Also known as the Federal Army, it proved essential to the preservation of the United States of America as a working, viable republic.

The Union Army was made up of the permanent regular army of the United States, but further fortified, augmented, and strengthened by the many temporary units of dedicated volunteers as well as including those who were drafted in to service as conscripts. To this end, the Union Army fought and ultimately triumphed over the efforts of the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War.

Over the course of the war, 2,128,948 men enlisted in the Union Army, including 178,895 colored troops; 25% of the white men who served were foreign-born. Of these soldiers, 596,670 were killed, wounded or went missing. The initial call-up was for just three months, after which many of these men chose to reenlist for an additional three years.

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