Military history of the Netherlands during World War II

The Netherlands entered World War II on May 10, 1940, when invading German forces quickly overran them. On December 7, 1941, after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Netherlands government in exile also declared war on Japan. Operation Market Garden, which started in 1944, liberated the southern and eastern parts of the country, but full liberation did not come until the surrender of Germany on May 5, 1945.


When World War II erupted in September 1939, most in the Netherlands believed that the country could remain neutral, as it had in World War I. The months of "Phoney War" following the German invasion of Poland seemed to justify this attitude. The Dutch army did immediately mobilize in 1939, but not in full strength until April 1940.

Signs to the contrary went unheeded. Among them were some incidents, most notably the Venlo incident in which members of the German Abwehr operating in the Netherlands abducted two members of the British SIS and killed one Dutch intelligence officer. More direct were worrying signals from Berlin received by the government beginning in the first months of 1940. The Dutch military attaché there, Major Bert Sas, had established good relations with Colonel Hans Oster, who occupied a high position in the Abwehr. Oster warned Sas about German plans for an offensive against the Netherlands, Belgium and France, and Sas passed the warnings on. The government in the Netherlands, however, did not take them seriously, as the offensive was postponed several times, even though Oster did eventually offer the correct date of May 10, 1940.

Status of Netherlands Defenses

Dutch pre-World War II carbine (left view)
Left side view
Dutch pre-World War II carbine (right view)
Right side view

The Dutch army was not considered formidable even at the end of World War I, and it did not prosper during the interwar years. By the time of the German invasion in 1940, a total of 20 battalions were operational for the defense of the Netherlands, most poorly prepared for combat. Only a few had modern weapons; the majority of soldiers carried carbines of 19th-century vintage, and most artillery was similarly outdated. The Dutch army also had little armor, and its air arm, the Luchtvaartafdeeling, had but a handful of reasonably modern aircraft, most notably the Fokker G.1 twin-engine fighter-bomber and the fixed-undercarriage Fokker D.XXI single-seat fighter, with which to face the Luftwaffe. Moreover, the country lacked the industrial infrastructure necessary for fighting a prolonged war.

Reasons cited for the weakness of the Netherlands military include decay during the long lapse of time since its last active participation in a war, the Aceh War 1873-1903; the effects of widespread pacifism during the 1920s and 1930s; budget cuts, particularly during the Great Depression; and undue belief by politicians that the League of Nations would offer sufficient protection from aggression. Certainly, the Dutch military faced an unfavorable political climate between the wars. For example, in 1925, when rebuilding the Dutch army into a modern fighting force would have required increased funding of 350 million gulden, the government instead cut the army's budget by 100 million gulden. A committee tasked with finding further cuts concluded that the army was already so weak that any reductions would endanger its sustainability; the government thereupon disbanded the committee and appointed a new, more aggressive one, which recommended cutting another 160 million. Meanwhile, potential human capital was allowed to dissipate; compulsory service was cut back from 24 months to six, barely enough for the most basic of training.

Not until 1936 did the Dutch government recognize the growing threat of Nazi Germany, but the resultant budget increases were too small and too late to establish an effective defense of the country. One factor was practical: by that time, many European countries were rearming and had already placed orders taxing the available capacity of munitions plants, hindering Dutch efforts at procurement. A second factor was continued economic pressure, as Defense Minister Adriaan Dijxhoorn refused to authorize funds for modernizing both main Dutch lines of defense against attack from the east, the Waterline and the Grebbeline. The failure of General Izaak H. Reijnders, leader of the Dutch General Staff, to obtain more funding for these lines led to his replacement on February 6, 1940 by General Henri Winkelman, who opted to concentrate on modernizing the Grebbeline, with its largely wooden bunkers, because German artillery brought up as deep within the country as the Waterline would be within range of Amsterdam. Modernization of the Grebbeline, however, would not be complete or effective by the time of the invasion, in part because the government balked at the expense of clearing forests and houses blocking lines of sight from many of the fortifications.

Compounding the material weakness of the Dutch defense was a strategic miscalculation. General Winkelman expected a German invasion across the borders led by tanks. He did not foresee the landings of German paratroopers throughout the Netherlands behind the defenders' lines.

The German attack plan

For Germany, the Netherlands was only of secondary importance in the attack on France. Germany's main worry was the route through Limburg, to eliminate the delay caused by the Liege corridor, that had hindered German forces during World War I.

The aim of the attack plan was to eliminate the country as soon as possible. The 18th Army and the 9th Panzer Division were allotted for this task.

The 18th Army was to attack the Netherlands above the Rhine, most notably breaking through the eastern defences of Fortress Holland (formed by the Grebbeline) and crossing the Afsluitdijk. The 9th Panzer Division was to move through the southern part of the Netherlands and attack the Moerdijk Bridge.

Furthermore, the 22nd Air Landing Division and the 7th Fliegerdivision were to land around The Hague, in order to capture Queen Wilhelmina, the Dutch government and the General Staff. They also were to capture the Moerdijk Bridge and the bridges over the Maas in Rotterdam so that the 9th Panzer Division could easily cross these.

In preparation for their attack, German officers had conducted extensive espionage research. The Dutch did not hinder them in this - indeed, a watchtower near the Grebbe Line was not closed because, as Prime Minister Dirk Jan de Geer said, "it would harm the Dutch economy." Although after mobilization the lines would be closed from the public, a lot of high-ranking officers from the German army, including a few colonels, were able to see the Dutch lines and write down where the bunkers were, so artillery could destroy them.

Based on these observations, the Germans thought they could capture the Netherlands in one to two days.

The campaign

In the first days of May 1940, the Dutch government received several indications of German activity near the border, and on May 7 all leave was cancelled and the army was put on alert. Finally, on May 10, 3:55, the German army invaded the Netherlands.

At the rivers IJssel and Maas, running through the Netherlands from south to north and from east to west, were the first obstacles that the Germans encountered. They had created special units to capture the bridges over these rivers (sometimes even clad in Dutch uniforms), but in all but a few places the Dutch defenders were able to demolish the bridges. The German advance was further hindered by a line of pillboxes along both rivers, but despite heavy resistance they succeeded in crossing both IJssel and Maas by midday.

In the meantime, the airborne landing had taken the Dutch by surprise. German paratroopers succeeded in taking the Moerdijk bridges, the traffic bridge near Dordrecht and partially the traffic bridge in Rotterdam. They also captured the airfields of Waalhaven (near Rotterdam) and Ypenburg, Ockenburg and Valkenburg (around The Hague). However, Dutch resistance was again heavier than expected and the Dutch succeeded in keeping the paratroopers out of The Hague itself. Indeed, by the evening, all three airfields around The Hague had been recaptured by the Dutch.

Grebbeberg the Netherlands

The next day, the attack on the Grebbe Line started. The Germans attacked its most southern point, the Grebbeberg, where there were no inundations. Instead, there was a front line of outposts, a main defense line and finally a stop line, from which possible breaches in the main line could be contained and repaired. After an artillery barrage, the SS regiment "Der Führer" attacked the outposts. Once again, despite stiff resistance, the Germans succeeded in capturing the northern part of the outpost line, after which they could easily outflank the southern part. However, it took them until 16:00 to capture all outposts.

By now, French reinforcements had started to arrive from the south. Because of miscommunications between the Dutch and the French, and also because the Moerdijk Bridge, the only link between the eastern and southern parts of the Netherlands, was still in German hands, their effectiveness was limited.

On May 12, the German 1st Cavalry Division tried to cross the Afsluitdijk. However, at Kornwerderzand, the Dutch had built modern concrete fortifications to protect the dam. Moreover, the dam offered no cover whatsoever and the attack was easily repulsed (with the help of a Dutch gunboat). The Germans would try again on May 13, but to no success. The Kornwerderzand fortification would hold out until the Dutch surrender.

On the same day, the Germans attacked the main defense line of the Grebbe Line. Sometimes using Dutch POWs as a shield (a grave violation of the laws of war), by the end of the day they had captured this line as well. The Dutch tried to organize a counter-attack during the night, as they thought there were only some hundred German troops opposing them (the real number was probably somewhere around two thousand), but these met with little success. In places, they were even fired upon by other Dutch troops who had not been notified of the counterattack.

Finally, on May 13, the 9th Panzer Division brushed aside the French and made contact with the paratroopers. However, they met with heavy resistance in Rotterdam, where their advance was stopped.

On the same day, the Germans mounted their final attack against the Grebbe Line. The stop line, the last resort of the Dutch defenders, collapsed and the Germans had broken through the Grebbe Line. Isolated pockets of Dutch troops continued to resist, but a nightly attack to dislodge the Germans failed. As there were no reserve troops, it was clear that defeat was imminent: there was nothing between the Germans and the North Sea but the famous Waterlinie (Water Line) was only very sketchily prepared.

On May 14, the Dutch commander at Rotterdam, Colonel Scharroo, received an ultimatum: if he did not surrender, the town would be bombed. As the ultimatum was not signed, Scharroo sent it back. A few hours later, he received another ultimatum, this time duly signed by General Schmidt, the German commander at Rotterdam. Schmidt did not know that a squadron of bombers was already on its way to bomb Rotterdam. The Germans tried to warn the bomber crews by shooting red flares, but only half of the squadron noticed this; the other half continued on their mission and dropped their bombs on the city (see the Rotterdam Blitz).

Under the threat that other major cities like Amsterdam and Utrecht would share the fate of Rotterdam in which over 900 civilians were killed, the Dutch decided to surrender. On May 15, in Rijsoord, General Winkelman signed the surrender of the Netherlands, with the exception of the province of Zeeland, where the French still operated (Zeeland held out until May 19, after the city of Middelburg was bombed). The Dutch colonies also continued the battle.

Casualties were high in the five day campaign- over 10,000 Dutch soldiers were killed, injured or declared missing.

Fighting on

Though the Netherlands was occupied, by no means was all lost. The colonies (most notably the Dutch East Indies) were still free, and Queen Wilhelmina and the Dutch government had left the Netherlands for London.

The Royal Netherlands Navy had managed to get most of its ships to England (one, the light cruiser Jacob van Heemskerk was not finished yet and had to be towed). Also, the Netherlands had a large merchant marine, which would contribute greatly to the Allied war effort during the rest of the war.

A few Dutch pilots also had escaped and joined the RAF to fight in the Battle of Britain. In July 1940, two all-Dutch squadrons were formed with personnel and Fokker seaplanes from the Dutch naval air force: 320 Squadron and 321 Squadron (which afterwards moved to Ceylon). The Royal Netherlands Military Flying School was re-established at Hawkins Field, Jackson, Mississippi. In 1943, an all-Dutch fighter squadron was formed in the UK, 322 Squadron.

In 1942, an all-Dutch brigade was formed, the Princess Irene Brigade. This brigade would go on to participate in Operation Overlord in 1944.

Inside the Netherlands, both passive and active resistance was widespread throughout the country, with the first Dutch Resistance organisation, the Communist Party of the Netherlands, holding their first meeting the day after the Dutch capitulation.

The Allied Special Forces also recruited and trained a number of Dutch officers for Operation Jedburgh teams and for the Anglo Dutch Country Section of Force 136.

The Netherlands East Indies

Hr. Ms. De Ruyter moored in Soerabaja
KNIL units passing light cruiser De Ruyter in Soerabaja, c. 1940

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the Dutch government declared war on Japan. Like the defense of its mother country, the defense of the Netherlands East Indies (NEI) had been hopelessly neglected; the strongest naval units available were three light cruisers (De Ruyter, Java and Tromp), there were so few planes that Martin 139/166 bombers had to be used as fighters, and the KNIL, the Royal Dutch East Indies Army, was poorly equipped (though better than the Dutch army had been in 1940).

The Dutch participated in the ABDACOM, a joint-command for all American, British, Dutch and Australian units in the area to defend Southeast Asia against the Japanese advance. Nevertheless, despite these efforts, in the three months following Pearl Harbor the Dutch East Indies (along with the rest of Southeast Asia) were overrun by the Japanese. After the Battle of the Java Sea, naval assets were gone and the Dutch East Indies surrendered on March 8, 1942.

However, some personnel, especially aviators, managed to reach Australia. Later, three joint Australian-NEI squadrons were formed. The first of these, No. 18 (NEI) Squadron RAAF, was formed in April 1942 as a medium bomber squadron equipped with B-25 Mitchell aircraft. The second joint Australian-NEI squadron, No. 119 (NEI) Squadron RAAF, was also to be a medium bomber squadron. No. 119 NEI Squadron was only active between September and December 1943 when it was disbanded to form No. 120 (NEI) Squadron RAAF which was a fighter squadron, equipped with P-40 Kittyhawks. Both No. 18 and No. 120 Squadrons saw action against the Japanese (and against Indonesian nationalists during the Indonesian National Revolution, before being disbanded in 1950).

Some Dutch ships were also based in Australia and Ceylon, and continued to operate in the Indian and Pacific oceans. Due to the high number of submarines present in the Netherlands East Indies (the major part of the defensive plans of the Dutch government), the Dutch were called, in the Asian Campaign, the Fourth Ally. The total number of submarines operating in the Eastern Theater was seventeen.

During the Borneo campaign of 1945, some Dutch army units — including some from the Dutch West Indies and Dutch Guyana — were attached to Australian Army units operating in the Dutch portion of Borneo.

The Netherlands West Indies

Dutch military exercises on Curaçao during World War II
Dutch military exercises on Curaçao

The Netherlands’ colonial possessions in the Caribbean comprised the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, Sint Eustatius and Sint Maarten, and these together with Surinam, made up the Netherlands West Indies.

Aruba was of significant strategic importance as it housed the largest oil terminal in the Caribbean, from which much of Britain’s oil was shipped. Oil from Venezuela was taken by coastal tankers to Aruba where it was stored in large tanks awaiting transshipment to oceangoing vessels. These facilities were vulnerable to German attack but as the UK could spare no resources to help protect them, their defense fell to the Netherlands West Indies Defense Force. This Territorial force possessed only small arms, a handful of obsolete 8 cm. naval guns and a few small coastal patrol boats. In the summer of 1940 it was felt that the U-boat threat to the oil terminal and shipping lanes necessitated air cover and so an air support unit was created using a Fokker F.XVIII converted for maritime patrol duties.

In fact, the only military action in the area occurred in February 1942 when the Defense Force’s Fokker together with a US aircraft attacked two U-boats off Aruba which had sunk a number of allied oilers. From the summer of 1942 onwards, air cover for the area was provided by US aircraft.


BC856 HUI-1699
People celebrating the liberation of Hague on 8 May 1945

The first Allied troops entered the Netherlands on September 9, 1944, on a reconnaissance patrol; on September 12, 1944, a small part of Limburg was liberated by the US 30th Infantry Division. During Operation Market Garden, the Americans and British established a corridor to Nijmegen, but they failed to secure a Rhine crossing at Arnhem.

During the rest of 1944, the Canadian First Army liberated Zeeland in the Schelde Campaign, in order to free access to the harbour of Antwerp. By 1945, the entire southern part of the Netherlands (up to the Waal and Maas rivers) had been liberated.[1]

After Operation Veritable, the Allied advance from the Dutch-German border into the Rhineland, and the crossing of the Rhine at Wesel and Rees in Operation Plunder, the Canadian First Army liberated the eastern and northern parts of the Netherlands. However, they did not attack the German forces in the western part (ironically, they stopped at about where the Grebbe Line was in 1940), for fear of massive civilian casualties: the western part of the Netherlands (also called the Randstad) is one of the most densely populated areas in the world. The civilian population there, still suffering from the effects of the Hongerwinter ('Hungerwinter'), was now cut off from food that was available in the rest of the Netherlands. However, the Germans, having agreed to a truce, did allow the staging of an Allied relief effort, Operations Manna (RAF) and Chowhound (USAAF). The German forces in the Netherlands finally surrendered in Wageningen, on May 5, 1945. The acts of Canadian soldiers toward the civilian population during this period would be a major point of endearment and friendship in Canada–Netherlands relations, among other acts throughout the war, for many years afterward.

See also


  1. ^ Mark Zuehlke, On to Victory: The Canadian Liberation of the Netherlands, March 23 - May 5, 1945 (D & M Publishers, 2010.)

Further reading

  • Foot, Michael, ed. Holland at war against Hitler: Anglo-Dutch relations 1940-1945 (1990) excerpt and text search
  • Maass, Walter B. The Netherlands at war: 1940-1945 (Abelard-Schuman, 1970)
American-British-Dutch-Australian Command

The American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) Command, or ABDACOM, was a short-lived, supreme command for all Allied forces in South East Asia, in early 1942, during the Pacific War in World War II. The main objective of the command, led by General Sir Archibald Wavell, was to maintain control of the "Malay Barrier" (or "East Indies Barrier"), a notional line running down the Malayan Peninsula, through Singapore and the southernmost islands of Dutch East Indies. ABDACOM was also known in British military circles as the "South West Pacific Command", although it should not be confused with the later South West Pacific Area command (see below).

Although ABDACOM was only in existence for a few weeks and presided over one defeat after another, it did provide some useful lessons for combined Allied commands later in the war.

Battle of Arnhem

The Battle of Arnhem was a major battle of the Second World War at the vanguard of the Allied Operation Market Garden. It was fought in and around the Dutch towns of Arnhem, Oosterbeek, Wolfheze, Driel, and the surrounding countryside from 17–26 September 1944.

The Allies were poised to enter the Netherlands after sweeping through France and Belgium in the summer of 1944, after the Battle of Normandy. Market Garden was proposed by Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery, who favoured a single thrust north over the branches of the Lower Rhine River, allowing the British Second Army to bypass the Siegfried Line and attack the Ruhr. Allied Airborne troops were dropped in the Netherlands to secure key bridges and towns along the Allied axis of advance. Farthest north, the British 1st Airborne Division landed at Arnhem to secure bridges across the Nederrijn, supported by men of the Glider Pilot Regiment and the 1st Polish Parachute Brigade. British XXX Corps were expected to reach the British airborne forces in two to three days.

The British airborne forces landed some distance from their objectives and were hampered by unexpected resistance, especially from elements of the 9th and 10th SS Panzer Divisions. Only a small force was able to reach the Arnhem road bridge while the main body of the division was halted on the outskirts of the town. Meanwhile, XXX Corps was unable to advance north as quickly as anticipated and they failed to relieve the airborne troops according to schedule. After four days, the small British force at the bridge was overwhelmed and the rest of the division became trapped in a small pocket north of the river, where they could not be sufficiently reinforced by the Poles or XXX Corps when they arrived on the southern bank, nor by the RAF's resupply flights. After nine days of fighting, the shattered remains of the division were withdrawn in Operation Berlin. The Allies were unable to advance farther with no secure bridges over the Nederrijn, and the front line stabilised south of Arnhem. The British 1st Airborne Division lost nearly ¾ of its strength and did not see combat again.

Battle of the Scheldt

The Battle of the Scheldt in World War II was a series of military operations by Canadian, British and Polish formations to open up the shipping route to Antwerp so that its port could be used to supply the Allies in north-west Europe. Led by Lieutenant-General Guy Simonds, the battle took place in northern Belgium and southwestern Netherlands from October 2 to November 8, 1944.The well-established Wehrmacht defenders staged an effective delaying action, during which the Germans flooded land areas in the Scheldt Estuary, slowing the Allied advance. After five weeks of difficult fighting, the Canadian First Army, at a cost of 12,873 Allied casualties (half of them Canadian), was successful in clearing the Scheldt after numerous amphibious assaults, obstacle crossings, and costly assaults over open ground.

Once the German defenders were no longer a threat, it was a further three weeks before the first convoy carrying Allied supplies was able to unload in Antwerp (on November 29, 1944) due to the necessity of de-mining the harbours.

Bombing of Nijmegen

The Bombing of Nijmegen (22 February 1944) was an unplanned aerial bombing raid by the United States Army Air Forces on the city of Nijmegen in the Netherlands, then occupied by Nazi Germany. In terms of the number of victims, it was one of the largest bombardments of a Dutch city during World War II. Officially, nearly 800 people (almost all of them civilians) were killed by accident due to careless bombing, but because people that were in hiding could not be counted, the actual death toll is probably higher. A large part of the historic city centre was destroyed, including Saint Steven's Church. Saint Augustine's Church and Nijmegen railway station (the intended target) were heavily damaged as well.

Because the Dutch government-in-exile in London, which was able to reestablish itself on the continent in early 1945 thanks to the U.S. Army and other Allies' military efforts, tried to avoid criticism against the countries it was relying on for its liberation and future security, it and local authorities largely remained silent on the misfortunate events for decades after, leaving survivors with unaddressed grief and questions, and allowing wild conspiracy theories to thrive. Although officials long maintained it had been an 'erroneous bombardment', as if Nijmegen was the wrong target, historical research has shown that the attack was definitely intentional, but had been executed terribly.

Chronology of the liberation of Dutch cities and towns during World War II

This is a chronological overview of the dates at which the liberation by the Allies in World War II took place of a number of Dutch cities and towns.

On "Mad Tuesday" (5 September 1944) Alllies forces reached the southern border of the Netherlands.

After the Allies crossed the Rhine in March 1945, Canadian forces entered the Netherlands from the east.

The final liberation of remaining cities and towns came with capitulation of remaining German forces on May 5.

Dolle Dinsdag

Dolle Dinsdag (Mad Tuesday) took place in the Netherlands on 5 September 1944 after broadcasts alleging that Breda had been liberated caused rumours to spread across the occupied Netherlands that the liberation by Allied forces was at hand, prompting celebrations.

Dutch annexation of German territory after World War II

At the end of World War II, plans were made in the Netherlands to annex German territory as compensation for the damages caused by the war. In October 1945, the Dutch state asked Germany for 25 billion guilders in reparations. In February 1945 it had already been established at the Yalta Conference that reparations would not be given in monetary form. The plan which was worked out in most detail was the one made by Frits Bakker Schut, and hence became known as the Bakker-Schut Plan.

In its most ambitious form, this plan included the cities of Cologne, Aachen, Münster and Osnabrück, and would have enlarged the country's European area by 30 to 50 percent. The local population had to be either deported, or, when still speaking the original Low German dialects, Dutchified. The plan was largely dropped after U.S. dismissal of it. Eventually, an area of a total size of 69 km2 (27 sq mi) was allocated to the Netherlands. Almost all of this was returned to West Germany in 1963 after Germany paid the Netherlands 280 million German marks.

Many Germans living in the Netherlands were declared "enemy subjects" after World War II ended and put into an internment camp in an operation called Black Tulip. A total of 3,691 Germans were ultimately deported.

Dutch famine of 1944–45

The Dutch famine of 1944–45, known in the Netherlands as the Hongerwinter (literal translation: hunger winter), was a famine that took place in the German-occupied Netherlands, especially in the densely populated western provinces north of the great rivers, during the winter of 1944–45, near the end of World War II.

A German blockade cut off food and fuel shipments from farm towns. Some 4.5 million were affected and survived thanks to soup kitchens. Loe de Jong (1914–2005), author of The Kingdom of the Netherlands During World War II, estimated at least 22,000 deaths occurred due to the famine. Another author estimated 18,000 deaths from the famine. Most of the victims were reportedly elderly men.The famine was alleviated by the liberation of the provinces by the Allies in May 1945. Prior to that, bread baked from flour shipped in from Sweden, and the airlift of food by the Royal Air Force, the Royal Canadian Air Force, and the United States Army Air Forces – under an agreement with the Germans that if the Germans did not shoot at the mercy flights, the Allies would not bomb the German positions – helped to mitigate the famine. These were Operations Manna and Chowhound. Operation Faust also trucked in food to the province.

Dutch resistance

The Dutch resistance to the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands during World War II can be mainly characterized as non-violent, and was organized by the Communist Party, churches, and independent groups. A peak of over 300,000 people were hidden from German authorities in the autumn of 1944, tended to by some 60,000 to 200,000 illegal landlords and caretakers, and tolerated knowingly by some one million people, including a few incidental individuals among German occupiers and military.Dutch resistance developed relatively slowly, but the event of the February strike and its cause, the random police harassment and deportation of over 400 Jews, greatly stimulated resistance. The first to organize themselves were the Dutch communists, who set up a cell-system immediately. Some other very amateurish groups also emerged, notably De Geuzen, set up by Bernardus IJzerdraat, as well as some military-styled groups, such as the Order Service (Dutch: Ordedienst). Most had great trouble surviving betrayal in the first two years of the war.

Dutch counterintelligence, domestic sabotage, and communications networks eventually provided key support to Allied forces, beginning in 1944 and continuing until the Netherlands was fully liberated. Some 75% (105,000 out of 140,000) of the Jewish population perished in the Holocaust, most of whom were murdered in Nazi death camps. A number of resistance groups specialized in saving Jewish children, including the Utrechtse Kindercomité, Landelijke Organisatie voor Hulp aan Onderduikers, Naamloze Vennootschap (NV), and Amsterdam Student Group. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust estimates that 215–500 Dutch Romanis were killed by the Nazis, with the higher figure estimated as almost the entire pre-war population of Dutch Romanis.

Dutch underground press

The Dutch underground press was part of the resistance to the German occupation of the Netherlands during World War II, paralleling the emergence of underground media across German-occupied Europe.

After the occupation of the Netherlands in May 1940, the Germans quickly took control over the existing Dutch press and enforced censorship and publication of Nazi propaganda. Independent Dutch citizens organized themselves into publishing their own illegal papers. These papers were cherished by the population, and were better trusted than the official papers (even though one might argue that they were equally slanted). Issues were distributed and passed on, even though there were heavy penalties (including the death penalty) for those involved with illegal anti-Nazi publications.

Some of today's main paper and magazine titles originate from this period, including:


Het Parool

Vrij NederlandA collection is maintained in the British Library in London and by the NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies in Amsterdam.


Engelandvaarder, (literally translated as "England sailer") was the term given during the Second World War to men and women who attempted to escape from the Netherlands across over 100 miles of the North Sea to reach England and freedom. Only about one in ten were successful in the crossing, with most just disappearing in the sea. Once they reached England many joined the Allied forces to help free their country from Nazi Germany. The period covered is between the capitulation of the Dutch armed forces on 15 May 1940 and the Allied invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944 (D-Day).

In July 1940 three Dutchmen escaped from the occupied Netherlands and crossed the North Sea to England in a twelve foot boat. They were called "Engelandvaarders". This first success encouraged many others to try the crossing. Most of these disappeared and were never heard from again. With time, land routes out of the Netherlands developed, and a number of the Dutch reached England overland traveling from safe house to safe house to reach southern France, Spain, Portugal, Switzerland or Sweden.

A large number of men and women, however, were killed or arrested on their way to England. Many died at sea. Some were captured by the Germans. Of these, some were shot, but most were deported to concentration camps. Some escaped from detention, such as Bram van der Stok, the most successful Dutch fighter pilot in World War II, who escaped with Bodo Sandberg and four other Engelandvaarders from the prisoner of war camp Stalag Luft III, in a car stolen from the camp commander. Many others were taken to death camps, of whom only a few returned to the Netherlands after the liberation.

Upon arriving in England these Engelandvaarders were interrogated by British secret service to be sure Nazi Germany had not slipped a secret agent among their number. This was done in London at the "London Reception Centre". in the building over a period of four years. Once they cleared the interview process they all had a meeting with Queen Wilhelmina, who viewed them as her window back to her homeland. A number of the Engelandvaarders were awarded the Dutch Bronze Cross (BK) or the Cross of Merit (KV).

Over 1,700 Dutch men and women overcame many difficulties to reach England. Of these 332 joined the Royal Army, 118 the Royal Air Force, 397 the Royal Navy, 176 the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (KNIL) and 164 the merchant navy. 129 served with the Dutch government-in-exile in London. 111 became secret agents and returned to occupied Netherlands.

Georgian uprising on Texel

The Georgian Uprising on Texel (Dutch: Opstand der Georgiërs) (5 April 1945 – 20 May 1945) was an insurrection by the 882nd Infantry Battalion Königin Tamara (Queen Tamar or Tamara) of the Georgian Legion of the German Army stationed on the German occupied Dutch island of Texel (pronounced Tessel). The battalion was made up of 800 Georgians and 400 Germans, with mainly German officers. It was one of the last battles in the European theatre.

German declaration of war against the Netherlands

At 6:00 am (Amsterdam Time) on 10 May 1940, during the Battle of the Netherlands, the German envoy Count von Zech-Burkersroda gave the Dutch Minister of Foreign Affairs Van Kleffens a message. It was not an actual declaration of war. The message was later interpreted by the Dutch as a declaration of war; however from the German side it was at the time seen as a mere warning, hopefully intimidating the Dutch enough to accept German military protection. At this moment the German troops had already transgressed the Dutch border.

Index of World War II articles (M)

M-1941 Field Jacket

M-24 (Japanese midget submarine)

M B Etheredge

M-class minesweeper (Germany)

M Special Unit

M. A. Yegorov

M. R. D. Foot

M. Z. Kiani

Maori Battalion


Möhne Reservoir

Mörser Karl


M1 bayonet

M1 carbine

M1 Garand rifle

M1 Helmet

M1 mine

M10 tank destroyer

M101 howitzer

M114 155 mm howitzer

M115 203 mm howitzer

M116 howitzer

M12 Gun Motor Carriage

M15/42 tank

M18 Hellcat

M1903 Springfield rifle

M1905 bayonet

M1911 pistol

M1917 Browning machine gun

M1917 Enfield rifle

M1917 revolver

M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle

M1919 Browning machine gun

M1938 mortar

M1941 Johnson machine gun

M1941 Johnson rifle

M1942 bayonet

M2 Browning machine gun

M2 flamethrower

M2 Half Track Car

M2 Hyde

M2 Light Tank

M2 Medium Tank

M22 Locust

M24 Chaffee

M26 Pershing

M29 Weasel


M3 Half-track

M3 Lee

M3 Scout Car

M3 submachine gun

M36 tank destroyer

M38 Wolfhound

M39 Pantserwagen

M4 Sherman variants

M4 Sherman

M40 Gun Motor Carriage

M42 Truppenfahrad

M50 Reising submachine gun

M6 Fargo

M6 heavy tank

M7 Priest

M8 Greyhound

Ma clique

Ma Zhanshan

MAB Model D pistol

Mabillon (Paris Métro)

MAC 1934

Mac Speedie

MacArthur (film)

Macchi C.200

Macchi C.202

Macchi C.205

Macelj massacre

Machijiri Kazumoto


Maciej Aleksy Dawidowski

Maciej Kalenkiewicz

Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion

MacRobert's Reply

Madagascar Plan

Madame de Pompadour

Madeleine (Paris Métro)

Madeleine Damerment

Madeleine Renaud

Madelyn Dunham

Mademoiselle Fleury

Mademoiselle Mars

Madge Oberholtzer

Madonna of Chancellor Rolin

Madsen machine gun

Maeda Ku-1

Maeda Ku-6

Magda Goebbels

Magda Herzberger

Magda Trocmé, see André and Magda Trocmé

Magdolna Purgly

Magenta (Paris RER)

Magic (cryptography)

Maginot Line

Magnar Solberg

Magne Thomassen

Magneto (comics)

Magnum crimen

Magnus von Braun

Mahamadou Dissa


Main Administration for Affairs of Prisoners of War and Internees

Main Line of Resistance

Main Street Electrical Parade

Main Street, U.S.A.

Mairie d'Issy (Paris Métro)

Mairie de Clichy (Paris Métro)

Mairie de Montreuil (Paris Métro)

Mairie des Lilas (Paris Métro)

Maison Blanche (Paris Métro)

Maison de la Chimie

Maison de la Mutualité

Maison de Verre

Maison de Victor Hugo

Maisons-Laffitte (SNCF)

Maisons-Laffitte Racecourse

Maisons Jaoul

Maizuru Naval Arsenal

Maizuru Naval District

Maja Bogdanović


Major Zemo

Majors Airport (Texas)

Makan Dioumassi


Makin Island raid

Making History (novel)

Making History: The Calm & The Storm

Maks Baće Milić

Maksim Purkayev

Maksymilian Ciężki

Mal Aldrich

Mala Zimetbaum

Malabar Battery

Malakand Field Force

Malaya (film)

Malaya Zemlya

Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army

Malchiel Gruenwald

Malchow concentration camp

Malcolm C. Grow

Malcolm David Wanklyn

Malcolm Lewis Pratt

Malcolm Milne

Malcolm Munthe

Malcolm Nokes

Malcolm Wilson (New York)

Male Call

Malesherbes (Paris Métro)


Malinta Tunnel

Malken Mierzynek

Malmedy massacre trial

Malmedy massacre

Malta Conference (1945)

Malta Convoys

Malta Story

Maly Trostenets extermination camp


Mamadou Bagayoko

Mamadou Diallo (Malian footballer)

Mamadou Konte

Mamadou Sakho

Mamary Traoré

Mamayev Kurgan

Mamert Stankiewicz

Mamie Eisenhower

Mamoru Oshii

Mamoru Shigemitsu

Man's Search for Meaning

Man Hunt (1941 film)

Man Ray (bar)

Manchester Blitz

Manchukuo Air Force

Manchukuo Film Association

Manchukuo Imperial Army

Manchukuo Imperial Guards

Manchukuo Imperial Navy

Manchukuo National Airways

Manchukuo yuan


Manchuria national football team

Manchurian Industrial Development Company

Manci Howard, Lady Howard of Effingham

Manfred Eigen

Manfred Freiherr von Killinger

Manfred Roeder

Manfred Schmid

Manfred von Knobelsdorff

Manfred von Richthofen

Manhattan Project

Manhunt (1969 TV series)

Manila American Cemetery and Memorial

Manila massacre

Manley Angell James

Mann (military rank)

Mannerheim Line

Mannert L. Abele


Manolis Glezos

Manon Batiste

Manpower (1942 film)

Manrico Ducceschi

Manshūkoku Hikōki Seizo KK

Manshuk Mametova

Manson Benedict

Manstein Plan

Manton S. Eddy

Manuel Ávila Camacho

Manuel de Escandón y Barrón, Marquis of Villavieja

Manuel Gonzales

Manuel L. Quezon

Manuel Perez Jr.

Manuel Prado Ugarteche

Manuel Rosenthal


Mao Zedong

Maquis (World War II)

Maquis de Saffré

Maquis de Saint-Marcel

Maquis de Vabre

Maquis des Glières

Maquis du Limousin

Maquis du Mont Mouchet

Maquis du Vercors

Marama Vahirua

Maraîchers (Paris Métro)

Marburg speech

Marc Alexandre

Marc Bloch

Marc Boegner

Marc Detton

Marc Fumaroli

Marc Girardin

Marc Milner

Marc Mitscher

Marcadet - Poissonniers (Paris Métro)

Marcario Garcia

Marcel-Frédéric Lubin-Lebrère

Marcel-Maurice Carpentier

Marcel Achard

Marcel Albert

Marcel Arland

Marcel Astier

Marcel Berger

Marcel Bigeard

Marcel Bucard

Marcel Desailly

Marcel Domingo

Marcel Déat

Marcel J. E. Golay

Marcel Jacques Boulenger

Marcel L'Herbier

Marcel LeHardy

Marcel Louette

Marcel Marceau

Marcel Pagnol

Marcel Paul

Marcel Petiot

Marcel Pilet-Golaz

Marcel Proust

Marcel Prévost

Marcel Sembat (Paris Métro)

Marcel Tyberg

Marcel Van Crombrugge

Marceli Handelsman

Marcellin Berthelot

Marcellus as Hermes Logios

Marcelo Gallardo

March 10

March Air Reserve Base

March of the Living

March of Time: Inside Nazi Germany

Marché d'Intérêt National de Rungis

Marcinkonys Ghetto escape

Marco Polo Bridge Incident

Marco Simone

Marcos Venâncio de Albuquerque

Marcus Clarke (doctor)

Marcus Dinwiddie

Marcus Klingberg

Marcus Melchior

Marcus Ravenswaaij

Mardasson Memorial

Marder I

Marder II

Marder III

Mareşal tank destroyer

Marek Edelman

Marek Jan Chodakiewicz

Mareth Line

Marfa Army Airfield

Margaret Bourke-White

Margaret Ives Abbott

Margaret Ringenberg

Margaret Utinsky

Margarete Adler

Margarete Gallinat

Margarete Rabe

Margot Dreschel

Margot Frank

Margot Glockshuber

Marguerite Knight

Marguerite Yourcenar

Maria Baida

Maria Callas

Maria F. von Trapp

Maria Fedecka

Maria Francisca of Nemours

Maria Mandel

Maria Rasputin

Maria Restituta

Maria Schneider (actor)

Maria Terwiel

Maria Vierdag

Maria Vittoria del Pozzo della Cisterna

Maria von Trapp

Maria Wittek

Mariage Frères

Marian Damaschin

Marian Gieszczykiewicz

Marian Gołębiewski (soldier)

Marian P. Opala

Marian Pisarek

Marian Rejewski

Mariana and Palau Islands campaign

Marianna Municipal Airport

Marianne Grunberg-Manago

Marie-Anne Chabin

Marie-Christine Barrault

Marie-Claude Vaillant-Couturier

Marie-Félicité Brosset

Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier

Marie-Guillaume-Alphonse Devergie

Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles

Marie-Madeleine Fourcade

Marie-Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, comtesse de la Fayette

Marie Angelique Arnauld

Marie Anne de Cupis de Camargo

Marie Bell

Marie Cavallier

Marie Champmeslé

Marie d'Agoult

Marie de' Medici cycle

Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné

Marie Dissard

Marie Dubas

Marie François Xavier Bichat

Marie Henri d'Arbois de Jubainville

Marie Jeanne of Savoy-Nemours

Marie Juchacz

Marie Laurencin

Marie Ljalková

Marie Pierre Kœnig

Marie Teresa Rios

Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin

Marie Trintignant

Marie van Goethem

Marie Vassiltchikov

Marie Walewska

Mariechen Wehselau

Marielle de Sarnez

Marietta Alboni

Marietta Blau

Marija Bursać

Marin le Roy de Gomberville

Marina Raskova

Marine Corps Air Station Camp Pendleton

Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point

Marine Corps Air Station Eagle Mountain Lake

Marine Corps Air Station El Toro

Marine Corps Air Station Ewa

Marine Corps Air Station Miramar

Marine Corps Air Station Tustin

Marinus van der Lubbe

Mario Armano

Mario Puzo

Mario Rigoni Stern

Mario Suárez (writer)

Mario Yepes

Marion's Triumph

Marion Alice Orr

Marion Case Cheek

Marion Cotillard

Marion Dönhoff

Marion Eugene Carl

Marion Frederic Ramírez de Arellano

Marion Freisler

Marion Jessup

Marion Yorck von Wartenburg

Marisol Escobar

Marius Fiil

Mariveles Naval Section Base

Mariya Dolina

Marjatta Kajosmaa

Mark 13 torpedo

Mark 14 torpedo

Mark 15 torpedo

Mark 18 Torpedo

Mark 24 FIDO Torpedo

Mark Aitchison Young

Mark Arnold-Forster

Mark Edward Bradley

Mark Evelyn Heath

Mark Fredriksen

Mark Hanna Crouter

Mark Hatfield

Mark Matthews

Mark Norman

Mark Oliphant

Mark Roseman

Mark Tennyson, 5th Baron Tennyson

Mark Twain Riverboat

Mark Wayne Clark

Mark XIV bomb sight

Markiyan Dimidov

Marko Mesić

Marko Orešković

Marlag und Milag Nord

Marlborough: His Life and Times

Marlene Dietrich

Marmaduke Hussey, Baron Hussey of North Bradley

Marmaduke Pattle

Marmon-Herrington Armoured Car

Marmon-Herrington CTLS

Marne la Vallée-Chessy railway station


Maroubra Force

Marquis de Condorcet

Marquis de Sade

Marshal (Japan)

Marshall Carter

Marshall Paul Jones

Marshall Plan

Martha Desrumeaux

Martha Gellhorn

Martha Norelius

Martha Sharp

Martial law in Trondheim in 1942

Martial Robin

Martial van Schelle

Martin-Baker MB 3

Martin-Baker MB 5

Martin-Michel-Charles Gaudin

Martin Adolf Bormann

Martin Balsam

Martin Baltimore

Martin Bartesch

Martin Bormann

Martin Broszat

Martin Charteris, Baron Charteris of Amisfield

Martin Denny

Martin Deutsch

Martin Drewes

Martin Dunbar-Nasmith

Martin Špegelj

Martin F. Loughlin

Martin Fiebig

Martin Field (Washington)

Martin Flannery

Martin Gauger

Martin Gerken

Martin Gibbs

Martin Gilbert

Martin Gottfried Weiss

Martin Gray (Holocaust survivor)

Martin H. Ray, Jr.

Martin Harlinghausen

Martin Heidegger

Martin James Monti

Martin K. Weiche

Martin Linge

Martin Luther (diplomat)

Martin Manulis

Martin McLaren

Martin Mutschmann

Martin Nielsen (politician)

Martin Niemöller

Martin Norberg

Martin Noth

Martin O. May

Martin Redmayne, Baron Redmayne

Martin Sandberger

Martin Tietze

Martin Weiss

Martin Wiesner

Martti Liuttula

Marty Karow

Marty Robbins

Martín Cardetti

Marvin Griffin

Marvin Lee Ramsden

Marvin Opler

Marvin Zindler

Marx-Lenin-Luxemburg Front

Marx Dormoy (Paris Métro)

Mary Colvin

Mary Coulshed

Mary Hallaren

Mary Herring

Mary Jayne Gold

Mary Katherine Herbert

Mary Previte

Mary Soames, Baroness Soames

Mary Tyrwhitt

Mary Welsh

Mary Yamashiro Otani

Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood

Maryan Wisnieski

Marye Anne Fox

Maryland Drydock Company

Maryse Bastié

Marzabotto massacre

Maréchal, nous voilà !

MAS-36 rifle


Masada Action and Defense Movement

Masafumi Arima

Masaharu Homma

Masahiko Amakasu

Masahiko Takeshita

Masaichi Niimi

Masakazu Kawabe

Masaki Kashiwara

Masakichi Inoue

Masanobu Tsuji

Masao Maruyama (Japanese Army officer)

Masao Maruyama (scholar)

Masao Nakamura

Masao Watanabe

Masaomi Yasuoka

Masashi Oguro

Masataka Ida

Masatane Kanda

Masatomi Kimura

Masazumi Inada

Maschinengewehr 08

Masha Bruskina

Mason Welch Gross

Mass racial violence in the United States

Massacre in Ciepielów

Massacre in Rome

Massacre in Trhová Kamenice

Massacre of Brzostowica Mala

Massacre of Kalavryta

Massacre of Lvov professors

Massacres of Poles in Volhynia

Massey Lopes, 2nd Baron Roborough


Massy – Palaiseau (Paris RER)

Master Man (Marvel Comics)

Master race

Masuji Ibuse

Mata Gabin

Matagorda Island AFB

Matanikau Offensive

Mateen Ahmed Ansari

Matej Bor

Matheus Coradini Vivian

Mathias Kouo-Doumbe

Mathieu Bastareaud

Mathieu Berson

Mathieu Blin

Mathieu de Montmorency

Mathieu Kassovitz

Mathieu Tillet

Mathilda May

Mathilde Bonaparte

Mathilde Carré

Mathurin Henrio

Mathurin Jacques Brisson

Matilda Mk I

Matilda tank

Mato Dukovac

Matome Ugaki

Matouqin Nocturne

Matsu-class destroyer

Matsudaira Morio

Matsudaira Taro

Matsuhiro Watanabe

Matsuji Ijuin

Matt Batts

Matt McGrath

Matt Urban

Matthew McKeon

Matthew Meselson

Matthew Ridgway

Matthias Kleinheisterkamp

Matthäus Hetzenauer

Matvei Vainrub

Maubert-Mutualité (Paris Métro)

MAUD Committee

Maurice Abravanel

Maurice Albert Windham Rogers

Maurice Anderson

Maurice Arthur Pope

Maurice Austin

Maurice Bardèche

Maurice Barrès

Maurice Bavaud

Maurice Blitz

Maurice Monney-Bouton

Maurice Britt

Maurice Buckmaster

Maurice Challe

Maurice Delarue

Maurice Druon

Maurice Durquetty

Maurice E. Curts

Maurice Evans (actor)

Maurice F. Weisner

Maurice Faure

Maurice G. Dantec

Maurice Gamelin

Maurice Joseph Manuel

Maurice Kriegel-Valrimont

Maurice Lafont

Maurice Laing

Maurice Larrouy

Maurice Lecoq

Maurice Macmillan

Maurice Martenot

Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Maurice Norland

Maurice Paléologue

Maurice Papon

Maurice Peeters

Maurice Petherick

Maurice Raichenbach

Maurice Risch

Maurice Rose

Maurice Roy

Maurice Salomez

Maurice Schlesinger

Maurice Schumann

Maurice Taieb

Maurice Taylor (bishop)

Maurice Thorez

Maurice Tourneur

Maurice Turnbull

Maurice Verdonck

Maurice Villaret

Maurice Wilkins

Maurice Wood

Maurice, 6th duc de Broglie

Mauricio Pochettino

Mauritz Eriksson

Mauritz Johansson

Mauro Bergamasco

Mauro Cetto

Maury Maverick, Jr.


Mauser C96

Mauser HSc

Mauthausen-Gusen camp trials

Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp


Maverick County Memorial International Airport

Mavis (DC Comics)

Mavis Gallant

Max-Günther Schrank

Max-Hellmuth Ostermann

Max Abegglen

Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook

Max Amann

Max Ammermann

Max Born

Max Clifford Stormes

Max Coyne

Max Domarus

Max Décugis

Max Ehrlich

Max Elitcher

Max Ernst

Max Guazzini

Max Hainle

Max Herrmann (theatrologist)

Max Ibel

Max Immelmann

Max Jacob

Max Jaffa

Max Josef Metzger

Max Kögel

Max Kennedy Horton

Max Manus

Max Marcuse

Max Matern

Max Ophüls

Max Page

Max Patkin

Max Sachsenheimer

Max Schöne

Max Schmeling

Max Sievers

Max Silverstein

Max Stotz

Max Thompson (Medal of Honor)

Max Valentiner

Max Varnel

Max Ward (bush pilot)

Max Wielen

Max Winkler

Max Wünsche

Max Wolff (soldier)

Maxence Flachez

Maxie Long

Maxim's Paris

Maxim Kontsevich

Maxim M/32-33

Maxime Bossis

Maxime Du Camp

Maxime Weygand

Maximilian de Angelis

Maximilian Grabner

Maximilian Kolbe

Maximilian Volke

Maximilian von Edelsheim

Maximilian von Herff

Maximilian von Weichs

Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg

Maximiliano Hernández Martínez

Maxwell D. Taylor

Maxwell Kogon

Maxwell Meighen

May 1940 War Cabinet Crisis

May Craig (journalist)

Mayfield Workman

Maynard A. Joslyn

Maynard Harrison Smith

Mazas Prison

Mazowiecka Cavalry Brigade

Maîtrise Notre Dame de Paris

McCawley-class attack transport

McClellan Airfield

McClelland Barclay

McCollum memo

McCook Army Airfield

McCoy Reynolds

McDowell Grove Forest Preserve

McHale's Navy

McNary Field

Me 262 Project

Me and the Colonel

Mechanised Transport Corps

Mechelen Incident

Mechelen transit camp

Medal "For the Defence of Kiev"

Medal "For the Defence of Leningrad"

Medal "For the Defence of Moscow"

Medal "For the Defence of Odessa"

Medal "For the Defence of Sevastopol"

Medal "For the Defence of Stalingrad"

Medal "For the Defence of the Caucasus"

Medal "For the Defence of the Soviet Transarctic"

Medal For the Victory Over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945

Medal "For the Victory over Japan"

Medal of Honor (video game series)

Medal of Honor (video game)

Medal of Honor: Airborne (soundtrack)

Medal of Honor: Airborne

Medal of Honor: Allied Assault

Medal of Honor: European Assault

Medal of Honor: Frontline

Medal of Honor: Heroes 2

Medal of Honor: Heroes

Medal of Honor: Infiltrator

Medal of Honor: Pacific Assault

Medal of Honor: Rising Sun

Medal of Honor: Underground

Medal of Honor: Vanguard

Medal of Honor

Medallions (book)

Medgar Evers

Medhi Bouzzine

Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre

Medium Extended Air Defense System



Mefo bills


Mehdi Huseynzade

Mehdi Leroy

Mehdi Taouil


Mein Kampf

Meinoud Rost van Tonningen

Meinrad von Lauchert

Meir Balaban

Meir Dizengoff

Mel Allen

Mel and George "Do" World War II

Mel Brooks

Mel Hoderlein

Mel Mermelstein

Melchior de Polignac

Melchior de Vogüé

Melchior Wańkowicz

Melford Stevenson

Meliton Kantaria

Melitta Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg

Melville W. Beardsley

Melvin A. Casberg

Melvin Alvah Traylor Jr.

Melvin E. Biddle

Melvin Mayfield

Melvin R. Laird

Melvin Zais

Melvyn Douglas

Members of Hitler's cabinet

Memel Medal

Memoir '44

Mémorial de la Déportation

Memorial to gay and lesbian victims of National Socialism

Memorial to the German Resistance

Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe

Memphis Belle (B-17)

Memphis Belle (film)

Memphis Belle: A Story of a Flying Fortress

Men Behind the Sun

Men Bingyue

Men of Timor

Men of War

Men of War

Menachem Birnbaum

Menachem Ziemba


Menglianggu Campaign

Merauke Force

Mercedes-Benz L3000

Mercer Simpson

Meredith Colket

Merian C. Cooper

Meridian Ridge Campaign

Merlin Minshall

Merril Sandoval

Merrill's Marauders (film)

Merrill's Marauders

Merrill B. Twining

Merrit Cecil Walton

Merritt A. Edson

Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence

Merton Beckwith-Smith

Merville Gun Battery

Mervyn S. Bennion

Merwin Graham

Mesha Stele

Messerschmitt Bf 108

Messerschmitt Bf 109 Survivors

Messerschmitt Bf 109

Messerschmitt Bf 110

Messerschmitt Bf 162

Messerschmitt Me 109TL

Messerschmitt Me 163

Messerschmitt Me 209-II

Messerschmitt Me 210

Messerschmitt Me 261

Messerschmitt Me 262

Messerschmitt Me 263

Messerschmitt Me 264

Messerschmitt Me 265

Messerschmitt Me 309

Messerschmitt Me 310

Messerschmitt Me 321

Messerschmitt Me 323

Messerschmitt Me 328

Messerschmitt Me 329

Messerschmitt Me 409

Messerschmitt Me 410

Messerschmitt Me 509

Messerschmitt Me 609

Messerschmitt Me P.1101

Messerschmitt Me P.1106

Metallurgical Laboratory

Metaxas Line


Metgethen massacre


Metropolitan Anthony (Bloom) of Sourozh

Mettawee-class gasoline tanker

MF 2000

MF 67

MF 77

MF 88


MG 15 machine gun

MG 17 machine gun

MG 81 machine gun





Miła 18

Międzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto

Międzyrzec Podlaski

Międzyrzecz Fortified Region





Miami International Airport

Mian Ghulam Jilani

Miao dao

Miao Peinan

Michał Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski

Michał Klepfisz

Michał Rola-Żymierski

Michał Vituška

Michael A. Hoffman II

Michael Aldridge

Michael Alexander

Michael Allmand

Michael Atiyah

Michael Barker (British Army officer)

Michael Beetham

Michael Berenbaum

Michael Carver, Baron Carver

Michael Collins (American author)

Michael Corleone

Michael Donald

Michael F. Feldkamp

Michael Faraday

Michael Flanders

Michael Floud Blaney

Michael Freund (writer)

Michael Gibson (GC)

Michael Goodliffe

Michael Hamburger

Michael Howard (historian)

Michael Hughes-Young, 1st Baron St Helens

Michael I of Romania

Michael J. Daly

Michael J. Novosel

Michael L. Chyet

Michael Leshing

Michael Lippert

Michael Lucas, 2nd Baron Lucas of Chilworth

Michael Marrus

Michael McCorkell

Michael Melford

Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin

Michael Musmanno

Michael O'Leary (VC)

Michael O'Moore Creagh

Michael Ochiltree

Michael P. W. Stone

Michael Pössinger

Michael Palliser

Michael Phayer

Michael Pollock

Michael R. Anastasio

Michael S. Davison

Michael Seifert (SS guard)

Michael Sinclair (British Army officer)

Michael Stewart, Baron Stewart of Fulham

Michael Strank

Michael Torrens-Spence

Michael Whitney Straight

Michael Willoughby, 11th Baron Middleton

Michael Wilson (writer)

Michael Wittmann

Michael Woodruff

Michael Young (bobsleigh)

Michalis Papazoglou

Michaël Llodra

Michel-Ange - Auteuil (Paris Métro)

Michel-Ange - Molitor (Paris Métro)

Michel-Jean Sedaine

Michel-Louis-Étienne Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély

Michel Arnaud

Michel Bensoussan

Michel Bibard

Michel Champoudry

Michel Corneille the Elder

Michel Corneille the Younger

Michel Debré

Michel Delacroix (painter)

Michel Der Zakarian

Michel Drach

Michel Dupuy

Michel Déon

Michel Foucault

Michel Hollard

Michel Jouvet

Michel Laclotte

Michel le Tellier

Michel Leiris

Michel Lotito

Michel Mayor

Michel Mohrt

Michel Ney

Michel Pastoureau

Michel Petrucciani

Michel Raynaud

Michel Richard Delalande

Michel Serres

Michel Simon

Michel Talagrand

Michel Thomas

Michel Théato

Michel Vermeulin

Michele Carafa

Micheline Presle

Michiel Daniel Overbeek

Michihiko Hachiya

Michinori Shiraishi

Michitarō Komatsubara

Michitaro Totsuka

Mickael Poté

Mickaël Dogbé

Mickaël Landreau

Mickaël Madar

Mickaël Tavares

Mickey Conroy

Mickey Spillane

Micky Burn

Mid-Atlantic gap

Mid-Ocean Escort Force

Middle East Command

Midway (1964 game)

Midway (1991 game)

Midway (1976 film)

Midway Atoll

Midway order of battle

Mieczysław Batsch

Mieczysław Fogg

Mieczysław Kawalec

Mieczysław Niedziałkowski

Mieczysław Smorawiński

Mieczysław Zygfryd Słowikowski

Miep Gies

Mies Boissevain - van Lennep

Mietje Baron

Miguel Ángel Asturias

Miguel García Vivancos

Miguel Serrano

Mihai Antonescu

Mihail Lascăr

Mihail Manoilescu

Mihail Sadoveanu

Mihailo Olćan

Mihajlo Lukić

Mihiel Gilormini

Mike Blyzka

Mike Calvert

Mike Colalillo

Mike Hoare

Mike Holovak

Mike Honda

Mike James (rugby)

Mike Judge (fictional character)

Mike Lithgow

Mike Masaoka

Mike Sandlock

Mike Staner

Mike Wallace

Mikel Arteta

Mikhail Devyatayev

Mikhail Gromov

Mikhail Kalinin

Mikhail Katukov

Mikhail Kirponos

Mikhail Loginov

Mikhail Minin

Mikhail Surkov

Mikhail Vodopianov

Mikio Hasemoto

Mikio Oda

Miklós Bánffy

Miklós Horthy

Miklós Kállay

Miklós Nyiszli

Miklós Radnóti

Miklós Steinmetz

Miklós Vig

Miklos Kanitz

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-1

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3

Mikura-class escort ship

Milan (camp)

Milan Nedić

Milan Neralić

Milch Trial

Mildred Gillars

Mildred H. McAfee

Mildred Harnack

Mile Budak

Milena Jesenská

Milentije Popović

Miles Aircraft

Miles Browning

Miles Dempsey

Miles Lerman

Miles M.20

Miles M.35 Libellula

Miles M.39B Libellula

Miles Magister

Miles Martinet

Miles Master

Miles Mohawk

Miles Stapleton-Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk

Miles Whitney Straight

Milford Zornes


Militarism-Socialism in Showa Japan

Military Administration (Nazi Germany)

Military awards of World War II

Military decorations of the Third Reich

Military description of the Warsaw Uprising

Military engagements of the Second Sino-Japanese War

Military equipment of Axis Power forces in Balkans and Russian Front

Military Geology Unit

Military history of Albania during World War II

Military history of Australia during World War II

Military history of Belarus during World War II

Military history of Bulgaria during World War II

Military history of Canada during the Second World War

Military history of Canada during World War I

Military history of Carpathian Ruthenia during World War II

Military history of Croatia

Military history of Egypt during World War II

Military history of Finland during World War II

Military history of France during World War II

Military history of Gibraltar during World War II

Military history of Greece during World War II

Military history of Italy during World War II

Military history of Latvia during World War II

Military history of Leningrad Oblast during World War II

Military history of New Zealand during World War II

Military history of South Africa during World War II

Military history of the Netherlands during World War II

Military history of the Philippines during World War II

Military history of the United Kingdom during World War II

Military history of the United States during World War II

Military Intelligence Service (United States)

Military Operations in Scandinavia, and Iceland during WW2

Military Order of the Iron Trefoil

Military Organization Lizard Union

Military Policy Committee

Military production during World War II

Military Service Act 1939

Milivoj Ašner

Millard Harmon

Millennium (Hellsing)

Millions Like Us

Millis Jefferis

Mills bomb

Milorad Nedeljković


Miloslav Rechcigl, Sr.

Milosz Magin

Miloš Dimitrijević

Miloš Milutinović

Miloš Minić

Milovan Đilas

Milt Schmidt

Milton Ernest Ricketts

Milton Orville Thompson

Milton Reckord

Milton S. Eisenhower

Milton Shapp

Milton Wolff

Mimis Pierrakos


Mina Rosner


Mineichi Koga

Minekaze-class destroyer

Mineo Ōsumi

Mineral Wells Airport

Mines of Paris

Minesweepers of the Royal New Zealand Navy

Minidoka National Historic Site

Ministries Trial

Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda

Ministry of Culture and Enlightenment (Norway)

Ministry of Production

Ministry of the Navy of Japan

Ministry of War of Japan

Minnie Spotted-Wolf

Minnie Vautrin

Minor Butler Poole

Minor sabotage

Minoru Genda

Minoru Ota

Minoru Sasaki

Minoru Yasui

Minsk Offensive Operation

Minás Dimákis

Mirabeau (Paris Métro)

Miracle at Midnight

Miracle at St. Anna

Mircea Eliade

Mirco Bergamasco

Miriam Davenport

Miriam Winter

Mirko Grmek

Miromesnil (Paris Métro)

Miron Constantinescu

Mirosław Żuławski

Mirosław Ferić

Mirosław Vitali

Miroslav Filipović

Miroslav Radman

Mirwais Ahmadzaï

Mirza Mešić



Misha: A Mémoire of the Holocaust Years

Miss Kittin

Missak Manouchian

Mission Accomplished (film)

Mission Albany

Mission Boston

Mission Chicago

Mission Detroit

Mission Elmira

Mission to Moscow


Mister Roberts (1955 film)

Mister Roberts (1984 film)

Mister Roberts (novel)

Mister Roberts (play)

Mister Roberts (TV series)

Mister Sinister

Mit brennender Sorge

Mitchell Jenkins

Mitchell Paige

Mitchell Recreation Area

Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr.

Mitiţă Constantinescu

Mitry – Claye (SNCF)

Mitsubishi A7M

Mitsubishi B5M

Mitsubishi F1M

Mitsubishi G3M

Mitsubishi G4M

Mitsubishi J2M

Mitsubishi J8M

Mitsubishi Ki-202

Mitsubishi Ki-21

Mitsubishi Ki-30

Mitsubishi Ki-46

Mitsubishi Ki-51

Mitsubishi Ki-57

Mitsubishi Ki-83

Mitsumasa Yonai

Mitsumi Shimizu

Mitsuo Fuchida

Mitsuru Ushijima

Mitsuru Yoshida



Miura Gorō


Mizuno Shinryu

Mk 2 grenade

Mk III Turtle helmet

Mladen Delić

Mühldorf subcamp

München-Schwabing labor camp

Mo Johnston

Mo Udall

Moana-Nui-a-Kiwa Ngarimu

Mobile Downtown Airport

Mobile Regional Airport

Mochitsura Hashimoto

Model 24 grenade

Model 39 grenade

Model 43 grenade

Modele 1935 pistol

Modernization of the People's Liberation Army

Modeste M'bami

Modesto Cartagena

Modified Hotchkiss machine gun

Modlin Army

Modèle 1939 (mine)

Moe Berg

Moe Hurwitz

Moffett Federal Airfield

Mogador-class destroyer

Mogami-class destroyer

Mogens Fog

Mogilev Offensive Operation

Mohammad-Ali Ramin

Mohammad Amin al-Husayni

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Mohammed Mahdi Akef

Mohammed Taheri

Mohammed V of Morocco

Mohammed Zahir Shah

Mohan Singh Deb


Moisis Michail Bourlas

Mojżesz Presburger



Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

Molotov Line

Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment

Momčilo Đujić

Moments of Reprieve

Momi-class destroyer

Momo-class destroyer

Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors

Momotaro's Sea Eagles

Mona Islands

Mona Lisa

Monceau (Paris Métro)

Mongolia Garrison Army

Mongolian People's Army tanks and armour of WWII

Monica Sone

Monica tail warning radar

Monique Haas

Monnaie de Paris

Monnet Plan

Monowitz concentration camp

Monroe Schwarzlose

Monsieur Klein

Montagne Sainte-Geneviève


Montagu Dawson

Montagu Stopford

Montagu Toller

Monte Cervino Battalion

Monte la Difensa

Montelupich Prison

Montevideo Maru

Montgallet (Paris Métro)

Montgomery Atwater

Montgomery Burns

Montmartre Cemetery

Montmartre funicular


Montparnasse - Bienvenüe (Paris Métro)

Montparnasse Cemetery


Montreal Holocaust Memorial Centre

Montreal Laboratory

Monument to the Women of World War II


Moonzund Landing Operation

Moore Air Force Base

Moore Army Air Field

Moorook West (Wood Camp)

Mordechaï Podchlebnik

Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Mordechai Frizis

Mordechai Gebirtig

Mordechai Maklef

Mordechai Spiegler

Mordechaj Anielewicz

Morgan D. Peoples

Morgan Line

Morgan Taylor

Morgenrot (film)

Morgenthau Plan

Moritake Tanabe


Moritz Rabinowitz

Moriz Seeler

Morley Nelson

Morotai Mutiny

Morrice James, Baron St Brides

Morris C8

Morris Cohen (Soviet spy)

Morris CS9

Morris DePass

Morris E. Crain

Morris Fisher

Morris Light Reconnaissance Car

Morris R. Jeppson

Morse Dry Dock & Repair Company


Mort Walker

Mortimer Wheeler


Morys Bruce, 4th Baron Aberdare

Moscow Armistice

Moscow Conference (1941)

Moscow Conference (1942)

Moscow Conference (1943)

Moscow Conference (1944)

Moscow Conference (1945)

Moscow Declaration

Moscow Peace Treaty

Moscow Strikes Back

Moscow Sun Yat-sen University

Moscow Victory Parade of 1945

Moseley Wanderers

Moses Beckelman

Moses Josef Rubin

Moshe Dayan

Moshe Dovid Winternitz

Moshe Lewin

Moshe Rynecki

Moshe Sanbar


Mosley Mayne

Moss Christie

Most Secret

Mother Maria

Mothers' Movement

Motives of the Second Sino-Japanese War

Moton Field Municipal Airport

Motoo Furushō

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-121

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-337

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-34

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-41

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-59

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-658

Motor Torpedo Boat PT 105

Motor Torpedo Boat PT 346

Motor Transport Corps

Moša Pijade

Moulin de la Galette

Moulin Rouge

Mount Samat

Mousetrap (weapon)

Mouton-Duvernet (Paris Métro)

Mouvement d'Action Civique

Mouvement Franciste

MP 59

MP 73

MP 89






Mr. and Mrs. America

Mr. Anderson (Beavis and Butt-head)

Mr. Winkle Goes to War

Mrs. Miniver (film)

MS Asama Maru

MS Jutlandia

MS Oslofjord (1938)

MS Rangitane (1929)

MS Rigel

Mária Földes

Mário Silva (football player)

Mário Silva (footballer)

Márton Homonnai


MTB 102

Muhammed Akbar Khan

Muhammetnazar Gapurow

Mukaishima, Hiroshima

Mukden Incident

Mulberry harbour

Munich Agreement

Munson Report

Munyo Gruber

Murakami Kakuichi

Muriel Byck

Murphy's War


Musa Cälil


Museum of Eroticism

Museum of Jewish Heritage

Museum of Lancashire

Museum of Music

Museum of the Great Patriotic War, Moscow

Museum of Tolerance

Music on the Bamboo Radio


Mustafa el-Nahhas

Mustang X

Mustapha Dahleb

Mustapha Zitouni

Musée Adzak

Musée Cernuschi

Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris

Musée d'Orsay (Paris RER)

Musée d'Orsay

Musée d’histoire de la médecine

Musée de Cluny

Musée de l'Armée

Musée de l'Homme

Musée de l'Orangerie

Musée de la Contrefaçon

Musée de La Poste

Musée des Arts décoratifs, Strasbourg

Musée des Arts et Métiers

Musée du Luxembourg

Musée du Montparnasse

Musée du quai Branly

Musée du Vin

Musée Dupuytren

Musée Grévin

Musée Jacquemart-André

Musée Marmottan-Monet

Musée national de la Marine

Musée Nissim de Camondo

Musée Picasso

Musée Rodin

Muséum national d'histoire naturelle

Mutt and Jeff (spies)

MV Atheltemplar

MV Brisbane Star

MV Dunedin Star

MV Empire Galahad

MV Empire MacAlpine

MV Empire MacAndrew

MV Empire MacCabe

MV Empire MacCallum

MV Empire MacColl

MV Harpa

MV Joyita

MV Krait

MV Languedoc

MV Mamutu

MV San Demetrio

MVSN Colonial Militia

MVSN original organization

My Early Life

My Gal Sal (aircraft)

My Japan

My Opposition: the Diaries of Friedrich Kellner

My Opposition

Myōkō-class cruiser

Myer Prinstein

Mykola Lemyk

Médaille de la Résistance

Mélissa Theuriau

Ménagerie du Jardin des Plantes

Ménilmontant (Paris Métro)


Männer gegen Panzer

Jacob Luitjens

Jacob Luitjens (born April 18, 1919) was a Dutch collaborator during World War II. He was nicknamed the terror of Roden, as he was active in and around Roden in the Drenthe Province. He was born in Buitenzorg, Dutch East Indies.

After the war, on 10 September 1948, Luitjens was convicted in absentia to life imprisonment. He evaded this punishment by fleeing to Paraguay, aided by Mennonites, using the name "Gerhard Harder". He emigrated to Canada in 1961, where he became an instructor in the Department of Botany at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver. Students in the department knew him as an almost completely silent "ghost-like" man.

The Frisian Jack Kooistra, also known as 'the Frisian Simon Wiesenthal', managed to track down Luitjens in 1992. Luitjens was stripped of his Canadian citizenship and was deported to the Netherlands. At a court in Assen, he was convicted and sentenced to an imprisonment of 28 months. He served this term until March 1995 in a prison in Groningen. Afterwards, the Canadian government forbade his return to Canada. Luitjens has been without a nationality since. Ian Kagedan of B'nai Brith Canada characterized the deportation as part of an ongoing "quest" to bring Nazi war criminals to justice.

Liberation of Arnhem

Operation Anger (sometimes known as Operation Quick Anger), was a military operation to seize the city of Arnhem in April 1945, during the closing stages of the Second World War. It is occasionally referred to as the Second Battle of Arnhem or the Liberation of Arnhem. The operation was part of the Canadian First Army's liberation of the Netherlands and was led by the 49th British Infantry Division, supported by armour of the 5th Canadian Armoured Division, Royal Air Force air strikes and boats of the Royal Navy.

The Western Allies first tried to liberate Arnhem in September 1944 during Operation Market Garden. Poor planning, the unexpected presence of German armoured units and a delayed advance by ground forces meant that the 1st British Airborne Division were defeated and a new front stabilised south of the city. Fresh planning to take Arnhem began in the new year as the Canadian First Army sought ways to link up its units advancing into the Netherlands. However it was not until April that the liberation of the city became a distinct possibility. After II Canadian Corps secured the eastern bank of the IJssel river and advanced north, I Canadian Corps prepared to assault Arnhem.

The operation began on 12 April 1945 and proceeded to plan, as the three infantry brigades of the 49th Division leapfrogged each other through the city. Within four days Arnhem was totally under Allied control, allowing the Canadians to advance further into the Netherlands. Less than two weeks after the battle a general truce brought major combat operations in the country to an end and on 5 May the German commander in chief in the Netherlands surrendered to the Canadian Army. Three days later Germany unconditionally surrendered, bringing the war in Europe to a close.

Netherlands in World War II

Despite being neutral, the Netherlands in World War II was invaded by Nazi Germany on 10 May 1940, under orders of Adolf Hitler. On 15 May 1940, one day after the bombing of Rotterdam, the Dutch forces surrendered. The Dutch government and the royal family saved themselves by going to London. Princess Juliana and her children moved on to Canada for additional safety.

The Netherlands was placed under German occupation, which endured in some areas until the German surrender in May 1945. Active resistance was carried out by a minority, which grew in the course of the occupation. The occupiers deported the majority of the country's Jews to Nazi concentration camps.Due to the high variation in the survival rate of Jewish inhabitants among local regions in the Netherlands, scholars have questioned the validity of a single explanation at the national level. In part due to the well-organized population registers, about 70% of the country's Jewish population were killed during the conflict, a much higher percentage than comparable countries, such as Belgium and France. In 2008, records were opened that revealed the Germans had paid a bounty to Dutch police and administration officials to locate and identify Jews, aiding in their capture. But, uniquely among all German occupied areas, the city of Amsterdam organized an industrial action to protest the persecution of its Jewish citizens.

World War II occurred in four distinct phases in the European Netherlands:

September 1939 to May 1940: The war breaks out with the Netherlands declaring neutrality. The country is subsequently invaded and occupied.

May 1940 to June 1941: An economic boom caused by orders from Germany, combined with the 'velvet glove' approach from Arthur Seyss-Inquart, results in a mild occupation.

June 1941 to June 1944: As the war intensifies, Germany demands higher contributions from occupied territory, resulting in a decline of life standards. Repression against the Jewish population intensifies and thousands are deported to extermination camps. The 'velvet glove' approach ends.

June 1944 to May 1945: Conditions deteriorate further, leading to starvation and lack of fuel. The German occupation authorities gradually lose control over the situation. Fanatical Nazis want to make a last stand and commit acts of destruction. Others try to mitigate the situation.Most of the south of the country was liberated in the second half of 1944. The rest, especially the west and north of the country still under occupation, suffered from a famine at the end of 1944, known as the "Hunger Winter". On 5 May 1945, the whole country was finally liberated by the total surrender of all German forces.

Operation Pheasant

Operation Pheasant also known as the Liberation of North Brabant was a major operation to clear German troops from the Province of Brabant in the Netherlands during the fighting on the Western Front in the Second World War. The offensive was conceived as a result of the failure of Operation Market Garden and the allied effort to capture the important port of Antwerp. It was conducted by the allied 21st Army Group between 20 October to 4 November 1944.The offensive after some resistance liberated the cities of Tilburg, s-Hertogenbosch, Roosendaal, Bergen Op Zoom, Willemstad and Breda and had cleared much of Brabant. It also broke the German positions which had defended the region along its canals and rivers.

Western Front (World War II)

The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.


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