Military history of Greece during World War II

The military history of Greece during World War II began on 28 October 1940, when the Italian Army invaded from Albania, beginning the Greco-Italian War. The Greek Army was able to halt the invasion temporarily and was able to push the Italians back into Albania. The Greek successes forced Nazi Germany to intervene. The Germans invaded Greece and Yugoslavia on 6 April 1941, and overran both countries within a month, despite British aid to Greece in the form of an expeditionary corps. The conquest of Greece was completed in May with the capture of Crete from the air, although the Fallschirmjäger (German paratroopers) suffered such extensive casualties in this operation that the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (German High Command) abandoned large-scale airborne operations for the remainder of the war. The German diversion of resources in the Balkans is also considered by some historians to have delayed the launch of the invasion of the Soviet Union by a critical month, which proved disastrous when the German Army failed to take Moscow.

Greece itself was occupied and divided between Germany, Italy and Bulgaria, while the King and the government fled into exile in Egypt. First attempts at armed resistance in summer 1941 were crushed by the Axis powers, but the Resistance movement began again in 1942 and grew enormously in 1943 and 1944, liberating large parts of the country's mountainous interior and tying down considerable Axis forces. However, political tensions between the Resistance groups resulted in the outbreak of a civil conflict among them in late 1943, which continued until the spring of 1944. The exiled Greek government also formed armed forces of its own, which served and fought alongside the British in the Middle East, North Africa and Italy. The contribution of the Greek Navy and merchant marine in particular was of special importance to the Allied cause.

Mainland Greece was liberated in October 1944 with the German withdrawal in the face of the advancing Red Army, while German garrisons continued to hold out in the Aegean Islands until after the war's end. The country was devastated by war and occupation, and its economy and infrastructure lay in ruins. Greece suffered more than 400,000 casualties during the occupation, and the country's Jewish community was almost completely exterminated in the Holocaust. By 1946, however, a vicious civil war erupted between the British and American-sponsored conservative government and leftist guerrillas, which would last until 1949.

Chora Sfakion 1941 evacuation monument
Monument to the Battle of Crete in Sfakia with the flags of Greece, the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand

Greco-Italian War

Greek Army during Primavera Offensive Klisura March 1941
Greek troops during the Italian Spring Offensive

The Italian invasion from Albania on October 28, 1940, after making small initial gains, was stopped by the determined defense of Greek forces in the battles at the Elaia–Kalamas line and the Pindus Mountains. The unwillingness of Bulgaria to attack Greece, as the Italians had hoped, allowed the Greek High Command to transfer most of the mobilizing divisions intended for the garrisoning of Macedonia to the front, where they were instrumental in the Greek counteroffensive, launched on November 14. Greek forces crossed the border into Albania and took city after city despite facing a harsh winter, having inadequate supplies and facing Italian air superiority. By mid-January, Greek forces had occupied a quarter of Albania, but the offensive had come to a standstill before it had reached its objective, the port of Vlorë.

This situation prompted Germany to come to the rescue of its Axis partner. However, according to Stockings and Hancock, Hitler had never wished to interfere in the Balkans. They claim in their book, Swastika over the Acropolis (2013) that the invasion of Greece had more to do with "a reluctant response to British involvement" than aiding his Axis partner.[1] In a final attempt to restore Italian prestige before the German intervention, a counterattack was launched on March 9, 1941 against the key sector of Klissura, under Mussolini's personal supervision. Despite massive artillery bombardments and the employment of several divisions on a narrow front, the attack failed to make any headway and was called off after almost two weeks.

But by April 13, the Italian front in Albania finally began to move, prompted by the general Italo-German joint attack. The Greeks put up a strong defense, fighting vigorously. However, a few days later, they were forced to retreat losing much of their hard won Albanian territory. Italian Bersaglieri units appeared and entered the plain of Korce, but even though minefields and road-blocks tried to delay their passage into Greek territory, they simply dismounted from their lorries and continued advancing by bicycle. The Greek Army of the Epirus however, was exhausted, while "the Italian advance amounted merely to keeping up with a defeated and retreating enemy."[2]

Italian Invasion 1940 in Pindus Epirus
Greek Offensive 1940 41 in Northern Epirus
Italian invasion and initial Greek counter-offensive
28 October – 18 November 1940
Greek counter-offensive and stalemate
14 November 1940 – 23 April 1941

German invasion

Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-163-0319-07A, Griechenland, Artilleriestellung auf freiem Feld
German artillery shelling the Metaxas Line
Battle of Greece WWII 1941 map-en
Map showing the German invasion in Greece

The long-anticipated German attack (Unternehmen Marita) began on April 6, 1941, against both Greece and Yugoslavia. The resulting "Battle of Greece" ended with the fall of Kalamata in the Peloponnese on April 30, the evacuation of the Commonwealth Expeditionary Force and the complete occupation of the Greek mainland by the Axis.

The initial attack came against the Greek positions of the "Metaxas Line" (19 forts in Eastern Macedonia between Mt. Beles and River Nestos and 2 more in Western Thrace). It was launched from Bulgarian territory and supported by artillery and bomber aircraft. The resistance of the forts under general Konstantinos Bakopoulos was both courageous and determined, but eventually futile. The rapid collapse of Yugoslavia had allowed the 2nd Panzer Division (which had started from the Strumica Valley in Bulgaria, advanced through Yugoslav territory and turned south along the Vardar/Axios River valley) to bypass the defenses and capture the vital port city of Thessaloniki on April 9. As a result, the Greek forces manning the forts (the Army Section of Eastern Macedonia, TSAM[3]) were cut off and given permission to surrender by the Greek High Command. The surrender was completed the next day, April 10, the same day that German forces crossed the Yugoslav-Greek border near Florina in Western Macedonia, after having defeated any resistance in southern Yugoslavia. The Germans broke through the Commonwealth (2 div. & 1 arm. brig.) and Greek (2 div.) defensive positions in the Kleidi area on April 11/12, and moved on to the south and southwest.

While pursuing the British southwards, the southwest movement threatened the rear of the bulk of the Greek Army (14 divisions), which was facing the Italians at the Albanian front. The Army belatedly began retreating southwards, first its northeast flank on April 12, and finally the southwest flank on April 17. The German thrust towards Kastoria on April 15 however made the situation critical, threatening to cut the Greek forces' retreat. The generals at the front began exploring the possibilities for capitulation (to the Germans only), despite the High Command's insistence on continuing the fight to cover the British retreat.

In the event, several generals under the leadership of Lt.Gen. Georgios Tsolakoglou mutinied on April 20, and taking matters in their own hands, signed a protocol of surrender with the commander of the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (LSSAH) near Metsovo the same day. It was followed by a second in Ioannina the next day (with Italian representation this time) and a final one in Thessaloniki between the three combatants on the 23rd. The very same day in Athens, Lt. General A. Papagos resigned his office as Supreme Commander whereas the King and his government embarked for Crete. About the same time the Commonwealth forces made a last stand at Thermopylae before their final retreat to the ports of Peloponnese for evacuation to Crete or Egypt. German troops seized the Corinth Canal bridges, entered Athens on April 27, and completed their occupation of the mainland and most islands by the end of the month, along with the Italians and Bulgarians.

Battle of Crete

Paratroopers Crete '41
German paratroopers land in Crete, May 1941

The only Greek territory remaining free by May 1941 was the large and strategically important island of Crete, which was held by a large but weak Allied garrison consisting primarily of the combat-damaged units evacuated from the mainland without their heavy equipment, especially transport. To conquer it, the German High Command prepared "Unternehmen Merkur", the first mass-scale airborne operation in history.

The attack was launched on May 20, 1941. The Germans attacked the three main airfields of the island, at the northern towns of Maleme, Rethimnon, and Heraklion, with paratroopers and gliders. The Germans met stubborn resistance from the British, Australian, New Zealand and the remaining Greek troops on the island, and from local civilians. At the end of the first day, none of the objectives had been reached.

Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-166-0527-06A, Kreta, Kondomari, Erschießung von Zivilisten
Dead civilians in Kondomari

During the next day however, partly through miscommunication and failure of the Allied commanders to grasp the situation, Maleme airfield in western Crete fell to the Germans. With Maleme airfield secured, the Germans flew in thousands of reinforcements and captured the rest of the western side of the island. This was followed by severe British naval losses due to intense German air attacks around the island. After seven days of fighting the Allied commanders realized that victory was no longer possible. By June 1, the evacuation of Crete by the Allies was complete and the island was under German occupation. In light of the heavy casualties suffered by the elite 7th Flieger Division, Adolf Hitler forbade further large-scale airborne operations. General Kurt Student would dub Crete "the graveyard of the German paratroopers" and a "disastrous victory."[4]

Immediately after the fall of Crete, Gen. Student ordered a wave of reprisals against the local population (Kondomari, Alikianos, Kandanos, etc.). The reprisals were carried out rapidly, omitting formalities and by the same units who had been confronted by the locals. Very soon, the Cretans formed resistance groups and in cooperation with British SOE agents began to harass the German forces with considerable success till the end of the war. As a result, mass reprisals against civilians continued throughout the occupation (Heraklion, Viannos, Kali Sykia, Kallikratis, Damasta, Kedros, Anogeia, etc.).

Occupation

The Greek government claimed in 2006 that the Greek Resistance killed 21,087 Axis soldiers (17,536 Germans, 2,739 Italians, 1,532 Bulgarians) and captured 6,463 (2,102 Germans, 2,109 Italians, 2,252 Bulgarians), for the death of 20,650 Greek partisans and an unknown number captured.[5] According to the OKH Heeresarzt 10-Day Casualty Reports per Theater of War, 1944,[6] the German field army had 8,152 dead, 22,794 wounded and 8,222 missing in the South- East (Greece and Yugoslavia) between 22.6.1941 and 31.12.1944. According to the OKW monthly casualty reports,[7] German army losses in the same theater between June 1941 and December 1944 were 16,532 dead (1.6.1941 to 31.12.1944), 22,794 wounded and sick (22.6.1941 to 31.12.1944) and 13,838 missing (1.6.1941 to 31.12.1944). Most German casualties in the South-East occurred in Yugoslavia.[8] The German War Graves Commission maintains two German cemeteries on Greek territory, one at Maleme on Crete containing 4,468 dead (mainly from the Battle of Crete), and another at Dionyssos-Rapendoza, containing about 10,000 dead transferred there from all over Greece except Crete.

The aformentioned Greek government report (p. 126) claims that the population losses of Greece in World War 2 were 1,106,922, thereof 300,000 due to birth deficit and 806,922 due to mortality. Deaths are broken down as follows: military deaths in 1940/41, 13,327; executed, 56,225; died as hostages in German concentration camps, 105,000; deaths from bombing, 7,000; national resistance fighters, 20,650; deaths in the Middle East, 1,100; deaths in the merchant navy, 3,500 (subtotal: 206,922); deaths from hunger and related diseases, 600,000. Included in the number of concentration camp victims are 69,151 Greek Jews deported between 15 March 1943 and 10 August 1944, of whom only 2,000 returned (p. 68). The number of 600,000 victims of the "great hunger" is mentioned in the entry dated 5 February 1942 of a "short diary of the resistance" (p. 118). An estimated 300,000 people died in the Great Famine (Greece) in 1941-1944.

Occupation forces

Triple Occupation of Greece
Map showing the three occupation zones
Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-164-0389-23A, Athen, Hissen der Hakenkreuzflagge
The symbolic beginning of the occupation: German soldiers raising the German War Flag over the Acropolis of Athens. It would be taken down in one of the first acts of resistance by Apostolos Santas and Manolis Glezos.
Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-163-0318-31, Griechenland, deutsche Soldaten in Geschäft
German soldiers in a food shop.
Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-168-0894-21A, Griechenland, Saloniki, Erfassung von Juden
Registration of the male Jews by Nazis at the center of Thessaloniki (Eleftherias square), July 1942.

Conquered Greece was divided into three zones of control by the occupying powers, Germany, Italy and Bulgaria.[9] The Germans controlled Athens, Central Macedonia, Western Crete, Milos, Amorgos and the islands of the Northern Aegean. Bulgaria annexed Western Thrace and Eastern Macedonia, while Italy occupied approximately two thirds of the country. The Italians were thus responsible for the greater part of Greece, especially the countryside, where any armed Resistance might take place. Italian forces in Greece comprised 11 infantry divisions, grouped in the 11th Army under General Carlo Geloso,[10] with a further division in the Italian colony of the Dodecanese Islands. The Italians adopted a rather relaxed attitude towards their security duties, but they were in part justified to do so. Until the summer of 1942, as the Resistance movement was in its infancy, they faced little real opposition and considered the situation to have been normalized.[11] The Germans limited themselves during the first period of the Occupation to the strategically important areas, and their forces were limited. The German troops in southeastern Europe came under the 12th Army headed initially by Field Marshal Wilhelm List and later by General Alexander Löhr. In Greece, two separate commands were created: the Salonica-Aegean Military Command at Thessalonica and the Southern Greece Military Command at Athens, for the entire duration of the war under Luftwaffe General Hellmuth Felmy.[12] Crete was organized as a fortress ("Festung Kreta") garrisoned by the Fortress Division "Kreta", and after August garrisoned by the crack 22nd Air Landing Division. The Bulgarians occupied their own zone with an Army Corps and, faced with active resistance from the local population, engaged from the outset in a policy of Bulgarization of the area.

After mid-1942, with the growth of armed Resistance, and the spectacular destruction of the Gorgopotamos bridge (Operation "Harling") by a force of Greek guerrillas and British saboteurs on 25 November, the Italian authorities tried vainly to contain the surge in acts of resistance directed against their forces. The guerrillas were largely successful against the Italians, allowing for the creation of "liberated" areas in the mountainous interior, including sizeable towns, by mid-1943. At that time, however, German troops began being moved into Greece. Elite formations such as the 1st Panzer Division and the 1st Mountain Division were brought into the country, both in anticipation of a possible Allied landing in Greece (a concept deliberately promoted by the Allies themselves as a diversion from the landings at Sicily) and as a guarantee against a possible Italian capitulation.[13]

These forces, especially the experienced mountain troops, engaged in large-scale counter-guerrilla operations in the area of Epirus. Their operations were successful in that they reduced the threat of guerrilla attacks on the occupation forces, but their often brutal conduct and mass reprisals policy resulted in massacres of civilians such as that of Kommeno on August 16, the Massacre of Distomo, or the "Massacre of Kalavryta" in December. In anticipation of the Italian collapse, the German command structure throughout the Balkans was reorganized: Army Group E under Löhr took over in Greece, overseeing both German forces and the Italian 11th Army.[14]

The Italian capitulation in September caused most Italian units to surrender to the Germans, although others, such as the Pinerolo division and the Lancieri di Aosta Cavalry Regiment, went over to the guerrillas, or chose to resist the German takeover. This resulted in brief but violent clashes between Germans and Italians, accompanied by atrocities against Italian prisoners of war, such as the massacre of the Acqui Division on Cephallonia, dramatized by the film Captain Corelli's Mandolin. In addition, British and Greek forces tried to occupy the Italian-held Dodecanese, but they and their Italian allies were defeated in a short campaign (see Dodecanese Campaign).[15]

Throughout late 1943 and the first half of 1944, the Germans, in cooperation with the Bulgarians and aided by Greek collaborators (see below) launched clearing operations against the Greek resistance, primarily against the communist-controlled "ELAS", while coming into an unofficial truce with the rightist EDES. At the same time, raids by British and Greek special forces were increasing in frequency in the Aegean islands. Finally, with the advance of the Red Army and the desertion of Romania and Bulgaria, the Germans were forced to evacuate mainland Greece in October 1944, although isolated garrisons remained in Crete, the Dodecanese and various other Aegean islands until the end of the war in May 1945.

Greek collaborators and conscripts

Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-179-1552-13, Griechenland, erhängter Mann in Ortschaft
A member of the Security Battalions stands near an executed man.

As in some occupied European countries, a Greek puppet government was formed from the outset by the Occupation authorities, initially headed by General Georgios Tsolakoglou and later by Konstantinos Logothetopoulos. The forces this government had at its disposal were primarily these of the city police and the rural gendarmerie, which were relied upon to maintain and enforce order. However, the government was never able to extend its authority to all of the country, as on the one side it was never given free rein nor entirely trusted by its Axis overseers, nor was it popular among the people. As anti-Axis sentiment grew in 1942, its organs found themselves attacked by guerrillas and socially isolated. Except for isolated cases, such as the group of Colonel Georgios Poulos, only in 1943, with the appointment of the experienced politician Ioannis Rallis as Prime Minister, did the Germans allow any substantial Greek armed force to be recruited by the Athens government. These were the infamous "Security Battalions" (Tagmata Asfaleias), whose motivation, as in many other cases in occupied Europe, was primarily political: they fought exclusively against the communist-dominated EAM-ELAS resistance movement, which controlled most of the country. Their harsh and indiscriminate repressive activities against the population at large and their association with the Germans led to their being widely reviled, and in colloquial Greek they were known as Germanotsoliades (Greek: Γερμανοτσολιάδες, literally meaning "German Tsolias").

Resistance

Greek Armed Forces in the Middle East

After the fall of Greece to the Axis, elements of the Greek armed forces managed to escape to the British-controlled Middle East. There they were placed under the Greek government in exile, and continued the fight alongside the Allies. The Greek Armed Forces in the Middle East fought on the North African Campaign, the Italian Campaign, the Dodecanese Campaign and commando raids against German positions in Greece, and participated in convoy duties in the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, and the Atlantic Ocean. As in Greece, these forces too were plagued by political strife, culminating in the pro-EAM April 1944 mutiny. After its suppression, the armed forces were restructured along firmly royalist and conservative officer cadres. Upon the withdrawal of German forces from the Greek mainland in October 1944, they returned to Greece and formed the nucleus of the new Greek armed forces that fought against EAM in the Dekemvriana, and against the Communists during the Greek Civil War.

Aftermath

Tomb of Unknown at Syntagma Square
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Syntagma Square in Athens. Many names of the battlefields where the Greek army participated are inscribed on both sides.
Statue of Victory (9454519944)
WWII Victory statue in Rhodes

After the war, Greece was in political and economical crisis due to the German occupation and the highly polarized struggle between leftists and rightists which targeted the power vacuum and led to the Greek Civil War, one of the first conflicts of the Cold War.

Officially, Greece claimed the lands of Northern Epirus (from Albania), Western Thrace (from the defeated Bulgaria) and the Dodecanese from Italy, but gained only the Dodecanese, as the new communist-controlled governments of Albania and Bulgaria had Soviet support.

After the war, the official Greek state tried and executed for war crimes among others Andon Kalchev, Bruno Bräuer and Friedrich-Wilhelm Müller.

In popular culture

The Axis occupation of Greece, specifically the Greek islands, figures in several English-language books and films based on real special forces raids such as Ill Met by Moonlight, The Cretan Runner, fictional ones like The Guns of Navarone, Escape to Athena, The Magus, They Who Dare, and Captain Corelli's Mandolin (a fictional occupation narrative). Notable Greek movies referring to the period, the war and the occupation, are Ochi, What did you do in the war, Thanasi? and Ipolochagos Natassa. The Greek defense was the subject of Swedish power metal band Sabaton's title track for their album Coat of Arms.

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Stockings, Craig, Hancock, Eleanor (2013). Swastika over the Acropolis. p. 70.
  2. ^ Owen Pearson, Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History: Volume II: Albania in Occupation and War, 1939-45, 2006, p. 142.
  3. ^ Field report of the Army Section of Eastern Macedonia by Lt. General Konstantinos Bakopoulos, from 2/8/1941 to 4/10/1941. Archives of the Hellenic Army General Staff/Army History Directorate. Period of WW II, F.629/A/1.
  4. ^ Beevor (1992), p. 229-231
  5. ^ Council for Reparations from Germany, "Black Book of the Occupation" (in Greek and German), Athens 2006, p. 125-126. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 31, 2014. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
  6. ^ BA/MA RW 6/547-548, 6/555, 6/557, 6/559. The figures are available online.
  7. ^ BA/MA RW 6/547, 6/548. Copies of the reports are available online
  8. ^ Basil Davidson, Partisan Picture, The Sixth Offensive
  9. ^ "Greece - MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2009-11-02.
  10. ^ German Antiguerrilla Operations, Ch. 4.II
  11. ^ Mazower (2001), p. 106-107
  12. ^ German Antiguerrilla Operations, Ch. 4.III
  13. ^ German Antiguerrilla Operations, Ch. 5.II-III
  14. ^ German Antiguerrilla Operations, Ch. 7.III
  15. ^ German Antiguerrilla Operations, Ch. 8.III

Sources

External links

Andon Kalchev

Andon Kalchev (Bulgarian: Андон Калчев) (1910 – 27 August 1948) was a Bulgarian army officer, one of the leaders of the Bulgarian-backed Ohrana, a paramilitary formation of Bulgarians in Greek Macedonia during World War II Axis occupation. He was active outside the Bulgarian occupied area of Macedonia, under the tolerance of the Italian and German authorities which used him in their fights with rival Greek EAM-ELAS and Yugoslav Communist resistance groups. Because of his activity, he was sentenced to death by Greek military tribunal, and was executed by firing squad on 27 August 1948.

Balkans Campaign (World War II)

The Balkans Campaign of World War II began with the Italian invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940. In the early months of 1941, Italy's offensive had stalled and a Greek counter-offensive pushed into Albania. Germany sought to aid Italy by deploying troops to Romania and Bulgaria and attacking Greece from the east. Meanwhile, the British landed troops and aircraft to shore up Greek defences. A coup d'état in Yugoslavia on 27 March caused Adolf Hitler to order the conquest of that country.

The invasion of Yugoslavia by Germany and Italy began on 6 April, simultaneously with the new Battle of Greece; on 11 April, Hungary joined the invasion. By 17 April the Yugoslavs had signed an armistice, and by 30 April all of mainland Greece was under German or Italian control. On 20 May Germany invaded Crete by air, and by 1 June all remaining Greek and British forces on the island had surrendered. Although it had not participated in the attacks in April, Bulgaria occupied parts of both Yugoslavia and Greece shortly thereafter for the remainder of the war in the Balkans.

Battle of Crete

The Battle of Crete (German: Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta, also Unternehmen Merkur, "Operation Mercury," Greek: Μάχη της Κρήτης) was fought during the Second World War on the Greek island of Crete. It began on the morning of 20 May 1941, when Nazi Germany began an airborne invasion of Crete. Greek and other Allied forces, along with Cretan civilians, defended the island. After one day of fighting, the Germans had suffered heavy casualties and the Allied troops were confident that they would defeat the invasion. The next day, through communication failures, Allied tactical hesitation and German offensive operations, Maleme Airfield in western Crete fell, enabling the Germans to land reinforcements and overwhelm the defensive positions on the north of the island. Allied forces withdrew to the south coast. More than half were evacuated by the British Royal Navy and the remainder surrendered or joined the Cretan resistance. The defence of Crete evolved into a costly naval engagement; by the end of the campaign the Royal Navy's eastern Mediterranean strength had been reduced to only two battleships and three cruisers.The Battle of Crete was the first occasion where Fallschirmjäger (German paratroops) were used en masse, the first mainly airborne invasion in military history, the first time the Allies made significant use of intelligence from decrypted German messages from the Enigma machine, and the first time German troops encountered mass resistance from a civilian population. Due to the number of casualties and the belief that airborne forces no longer had the advantage of surprise, Adolf Hitler became reluctant to authorise further large airborne operations, preferring instead to employ paratroopers as ground troops. In contrast, the Allies were impressed by the potential of paratroopers and started to form airborne-assault and airfield-defence regiments.

Battle of Leros

The Battle of Leros was the central event of the Dodecanese campaign of the Second World War, and is widely used as an alternate name for the whole campaign. The Italian garrison in Leros was strengthened by British forces on 15 September 1943. The battle began with German air attacks on 26 September, continued with the landings on 12 November, and ended with the capitulation of the Allied forces four days later.

Dekemvriana

The Dekemvriana (Greek: Δεκεμβριανά, "December events") refers to a series of clashes fought during World War II in Athens from 3 December 1944 to 11 January 1945. The conflict was the culmination of months of tension between the communist EAM, some parts of its military wing, the ELAS stationed in Athens, the KKE and the OPLA from one side and from the other side, the Greek Government, some parts of the Hellenic Royal Army, the Hellenic Gendarmerie, the Cities Police, the far-right Organization X, among others and also the British Army.Regardless of the tensions between the left and the right, on May 1944 it had been roughly agreed in the Lebanon Conference that all non-collaborationist factions would participate in a Government of National Unity; eventually 6 out of 24 ministers were appointed by EAM. Additionally, a few weeks before the withdrawal of the German troops on October 1944, it had been reaffirmed in the Caserta Agreement that all collaborationist forces would be tried and punished accordingly; and that all resistance forces would participate in the formation of the new Greek Army, under the command of the British. Yet, on December 1, the British commander Ronald Scobie ordered the unilateral disarmament of EAM-ELAS. The EAM ministers resigned on the 2nd of December and EAM called for a rally in central Athens on the 3rd, requesting the immediate punishment of the collaborationist Security Battalions and the withdrawal of the "Scobie" order. The rally of some 200,000 people was shot at by the Greek Police and Gendarmerie, leaving 28 protesters dead and 148 wounded. These killings ushered a full-blown armed confrontation between EAM and the Government forces at first (which included the Security Battalions), and during the 2nd half of December, against the full-blown British military forces.

The clashes were limited to Athens, while elsewhere in Greece the situation remained tense but peaceful, with the exception of Epirus where Velouchiotis attacked the forces of Zervas.

The Dekemvriana ended with the defeat of EAM-ELAS, leading to its disarmament in the Varkiza Agreement which marked the end of ELAS. This first defeat broke the power of EAM. This together with the EAM-instigated "Red Terror" was followed by a period of "White Terror" against the left, which contributed to the outbreak of the Greek Civil War in 1946.

Georgios Papadopoulos

Georgios Papadopoulos (; Greek: Γεώργιος Παπαδόπουλος [ʝeˈorʝios papaˈðopulos]; 5 May 1919 – 27 June 1999) was the head of the military coup d'état that took place in Greece on 21 April 1967, and leader of the junta that ruled the country from 1967 to 1974. He held his dictatorial power until 1973, when he was himself overthrown by his co-conspirator Dimitrios Ioannidis.

Papadopoulos was a Colonel of the Artillery. During World War II, he initially resisted the Italian 1940 invasion but later became an active Axis collaborator in the Security Battalions which "hunted down" Greek resistance fighters.

He underwent military and intelligence training in the United States during the 1950s, and had connections to the CIA.

Greco-Italian War

The Greco-Italian War (Italo-Greek War, Italian Campaign in Greece; in Greece: War of '40 and Epic of '40) took place between the kingdoms of Italy and Greece from 28 October 1940 to 23 April 1941. This local war began the Balkans Campaign of World War II between the Axis powers and the Allies. It turned into the Battle of Greece when British and German ground forces intervened early in 1941.

In the mid-1930s, the Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini began an aggressive foreign policy and annexed Albania in the spring of 1939. World War II began on 1 September 1939 and on 10 June 1940, Italy declared war on the Allies. By September 1940, the Italians had invaded France, British Somaliland and Egypt; preparations had also begun to occupy Greece. In the late 1930s, the Greeks had begun to build the Metaxas Line opposite Bulgaria and from 1939 accelerated their defensive preparations against an Italian attack from Albania. In 1940, there was a hostile press campaign in Italy and other provocations, culminating in the sinking of the Greek light cruiser Elli by the Italians on 15 August (the Christian Dormition of the Mother of God festival). On 28 October, Mussolini issued an ultimatum to Greece demanding the cession of Greek territory, which the Prime Minister of Greece, Ioannis Metaxas, rejected.

The Italian army invaded Greece on 28 October, before the Italian ultimatum had expired. The invasion was a disaster, the 140,000 troops of the Italian Army in Albania encountering an entrenched and determined enemy. The Italians had to contend with the mountainous terrain on the Albanian–Greek border and unexpectedly tenacious resistance by the Greek Army. By mid-November, the Greeks had stopped the Italian invasion just inside Greek territory. After completing their mobilization, the Greeks counter-attacked with the bulk of their army and pushed the Italians back into Albania – an advance which culminated in the Capture of Klisura Pass in January 1941, a few dozen kilometers inside the Albanian border. The defeat of the Italian invasion and the Greek counter-offensive of 1940 have been called the "first Axis setback of the entire war" by Mark Mazower, the Greeks "surprising everyone with the tenacity of their resistance". The front stabilized in February 1941, by which time the Italians had reinforced the Albanian front to 28 divisions against the Greeks' 14 divisions (though Greek divisions were larger). In March, the Italians conducted the unsuccessful Spring Offensive. At this point, losses were mutually costly, but the Greeks had far less ability than the Italians to replenish their losses in both men and materiel, and they were dangerously low on ammunition and other supplies. They also lacked the ability to rotate out their men and equipment, unlike the Italians. Requests by the Greeks to the British for material aid only partly alleviated the situation, and by April 1941 the Greek Army only possessed 1 more month's worth of heavy artillery ammunition and was unable to properly equip and mobilize the bulk of its 200,000–300,000 strong reserves.While originally content to simply let the Italians wear the Greeks down and (he predicted) finish the war in the summer of 1941, Adolf Hitler decided in December 1940 that potential British intervention in the conflict represented a threat to Germany's rear. This caused him to come to the aid of his Axis ally. German build-up in the Balkans accelerated after Bulgaria joined the Axis on 1 March 1941. British ground forces began arriving in Greece the next day. On 6 April, the Germans invaded northern Greece ("Operation Marita"). The Greeks had deployed the vast majority of their men into a mutually costly stalemate with the Italians on the Albanian front, leaving the fortified Metaxas Line with only a third of its authorized strength. During the Battle of Greece, Greek and British forces in northern Greece were overwhelmed and the Germans advanced rapidly west and south. In Albania, the Greek army made a belated withdrawal to avoid being cut off by the Germans but was followed up slowly by the Italians. Greece surrendered to German troops on 20 April 1941, under the condition that they would not have to surrender to the Italians; this condition was agreed to but revoked several days later after protests from Mussolini, and the Greek army surrendered to Italy as well. Greece was subsequently occupied by Bulgarian, German and Italian troops. The Italian army suffered 102,064 combat casualties (with 13,700 dead and 3,900 missing) and fifty thousand sick; the Greeks suffered over 90,000 combat casualties (including 14,000 killed and 5,000 missing) and an unknown number of sick. The economic and military failings of the Italian fascist regime were exposed by the Greek debacle and simultaneous defeats against the British in North Africa, which reduced the Italian fascist regime to dependence on Germany.

Greek Armed Forces in the Middle East

After the fall of Greece to the Axis powers in April–May 1941, elements of the Greek Armed Forces managed to escape to the British-controlled Middle East. There they were placed under the Greek government in exile, and continued the fight alongside the Allies until the liberation of Greece in October 1944. These are known in Greek history as the Greek Armed Forces in the Middle East (Ελληνικές Ένοπλες Δυνάμεις Μέσης Ανατολής).

Hellenic Armed Forces

The Hellenic Armed Forces (Greek: Eλληνικές Ένοπλες Δυνάμεις, Ellinikés Énoples Dynámis) are the combined ground, naval and air forces of Greece. They consist of the Hellenic National Defense General Staff, the Hellenic Army, the Hellenic Navy, and the Hellenic Air Force.

The civilian authority overseeing the Hellenic Armed Forces is the Ministry of National Defense.

Index of World War II articles (M)

M-1941 Field Jacket

M-24 (Japanese midget submarine)

M B Etheredge

M-class minesweeper (Germany)

M Special Unit

M. A. Yegorov

M. R. D. Foot

M. Z. Kiani

Maori Battalion

Möbelwagen

Möhne Reservoir

Mörser Karl

MÁVAG Heja I/II

M1 bayonet

M1 carbine

M1 Garand rifle

M1 Helmet

M1 mine

M10 tank destroyer

M101 howitzer

M114 155 mm howitzer

M115 203 mm howitzer

M116 howitzer

M12 Gun Motor Carriage

M15/42 tank

M18 Hellcat

M1903 Springfield rifle

M1905 bayonet

M1911 pistol

M1917 Browning machine gun

M1917 Enfield rifle

M1917 revolver

M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle

M1919 Browning machine gun

M1938 mortar

M1941 Johnson machine gun

M1941 Johnson rifle

M1942 bayonet

M2 Browning machine gun

M2 flamethrower

M2 Half Track Car

M2 Hyde

M2 Light Tank

M2 Medium Tank

M22 Locust

M24 Chaffee

M26 Pershing

M29 Weasel

M3 GMC

M3 Half-track

M3 Lee

M3 Scout Car

M3 submachine gun

M36 tank destroyer

M38 Wolfhound

M39 Pantserwagen

M4 Sherman variants

M4 Sherman

M40 Gun Motor Carriage

M42 Truppenfahrad

M50 Reising submachine gun

M6 Fargo

M6 heavy tank

M7 Priest

M8 Greyhound

Ma clique

Ma Zhanshan

MAB Model D pistol

Mabillon (Paris Métro)

MAC 1934

Mac Speedie

MacArthur (film)

Macchi C.200

Macchi C.202

Macchi C.205

Macelj massacre

Machijiri Kazumoto

Machtergreifung

Maciej Aleksy Dawidowski

Maciej Kalenkiewicz

Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion

MacRobert's Reply

Madagascar Plan

Madame de Pompadour

Madeleine (Paris Métro)

Madeleine Damerment

Madeleine Renaud

Madelyn Dunham

Mademoiselle Fleury

Mademoiselle Mars

Madge Oberholtzer

Madonna of Chancellor Rolin

Madsen machine gun

Maeda Ku-1

Maeda Ku-6

Magda Goebbels

Magda Herzberger

Magda Trocmé, see André and Magda Trocmé

Magdolna Purgly

Magenta (Paris RER)

Magic (cryptography)

Maginot Line

Magnar Solberg

Magne Thomassen

Magneto (comics)

Magnum crimen

Magnus von Braun

Mahamadou Dissa

Maiales

Main Administration for Affairs of Prisoners of War and Internees

Main Line of Resistance

Main Street Electrical Parade

Main Street, U.S.A.

Mairie d'Issy (Paris Métro)

Mairie de Clichy (Paris Métro)

Mairie de Montreuil (Paris Métro)

Mairie des Lilas (Paris Métro)

Maison Blanche (Paris Métro)

Maison de la Chimie

Maison de la Mutualité

Maison de Verre

Maison de Victor Hugo

Maisons-Laffitte (SNCF)

Maisons-Laffitte Racecourse

Maisons Jaoul

Maizuru Naval Arsenal

Maizuru Naval District

Maja Bogdanović

Majdanek

Major Zemo

Majors Airport (Texas)

Makan Dioumassi

Makapili

Makin Island raid

Making History (novel)

Making History: The Calm & The Storm

Maks Baće Milić

Maksim Purkayev

Maksymilian Ciężki

Mal Aldrich

Mala Zimetbaum

Malabar Battery

Malakand Field Force

Malaya (film)

Malaya Zemlya

Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army

Malchiel Gruenwald

Malchow concentration camp

Malcolm C. Grow

Malcolm David Wanklyn

Malcolm Lewis Pratt

Malcolm Milne

Malcolm Munthe

Malcolm Nokes

Malcolm Wilson (New York)

Male Call

Malesherbes (Paris Métro)

Malgré-nous

Malinta Tunnel

Malken Mierzynek

Malmedy massacre trial

Malmedy massacre

Malta Conference (1945)

Malta Convoys

Malta Story

Maly Trostenets extermination camp

Malèna

Mamadou Bagayoko

Mamadou Diallo (Malian footballer)

Mamadou Konte

Mamadou Sakho

Mamary Traoré

Mamayev Kurgan

Mamert Stankiewicz

Mamie Eisenhower

Mamoru Oshii

Mamoru Shigemitsu

Man's Search for Meaning

Man Hunt (1941 film)

Man Ray (bar)

Manchester Blitz

Manchukuo Air Force

Manchukuo Film Association

Manchukuo Imperial Army

Manchukuo Imperial Guards

Manchukuo Imperial Navy

Manchukuo National Airways

Manchukuo yuan

Manchukuo

Manchuria national football team

Manchurian Industrial Development Company

Manci Howard, Lady Howard of Effingham

Manfred Eigen

Manfred Freiherr von Killinger

Manfred Roeder

Manfred Schmid

Manfred von Knobelsdorff

Manfred von Richthofen

Manhattan Project

Manhunt (1969 TV series)

Manila American Cemetery and Memorial

Manila massacre

Manley Angell James

Mann (military rank)

Mannerheim Line

Mannert L. Abele

Mannlicher–Schönauer

Manolis Glezos

Manon Batiste

Manpower (1942 film)

Manrico Ducceschi

Manshūkoku Hikōki Seizo KK

Manshuk Mametova

Manson Benedict

Manstein Plan

Manton S. Eddy

Manuel Ávila Camacho

Manuel de Escandón y Barrón, Marquis of Villavieja

Manuel Gonzales

Manuel L. Quezon

Manuel Perez Jr.

Manuel Prado Ugarteche

Manuel Rosenthal

Manzanar

Mao Zedong

Maquis (World War II)

Maquis de Saffré

Maquis de Saint-Marcel

Maquis de Vabre

Maquis des Glières

Maquis du Limousin

Maquis du Mont Mouchet

Maquis du Vercors

Marama Vahirua

Maraîchers (Paris Métro)

Marburg speech

Marc Alexandre

Marc Bloch

Marc Boegner

Marc Detton

Marc Fumaroli

Marc Girardin

Marc Milner

Marc Mitscher

Marcadet - Poissonniers (Paris Métro)

Marcario Garcia

Marcel-Frédéric Lubin-Lebrère

Marcel-Maurice Carpentier

Marcel Achard

Marcel Albert

Marcel Arland

Marcel Astier

Marcel Berger

Marcel Bigeard

Marcel Bucard

Marcel Desailly

Marcel Domingo

Marcel Déat

Marcel J. E. Golay

Marcel Jacques Boulenger

Marcel L'Herbier

Marcel LeHardy

Marcel Louette

Marcel Marceau

Marcel Pagnol

Marcel Paul

Marcel Petiot

Marcel Pilet-Golaz

Marcel Proust

Marcel Prévost

Marcel Sembat (Paris Métro)

Marcel Tyberg

Marcel Van Crombrugge

Marceli Handelsman

Marcellin Berthelot

Marcellus as Hermes Logios

Marcelo Gallardo

March 10

March Air Reserve Base

March of the Living

March of Time: Inside Nazi Germany

Marché d'Intérêt National de Rungis

Marcinkonys Ghetto escape

Marco Polo Bridge Incident

Marco Simone

Marcos Venâncio de Albuquerque

Marcus Clarke (doctor)

Marcus Dinwiddie

Marcus Klingberg

Marcus Melchior

Marcus Ravenswaaij

Mardasson Memorial

Marder I

Marder II

Marder III

Mareşal tank destroyer

Marek Edelman

Marek Jan Chodakiewicz

Mareth Line

Marfa Army Airfield

Margaret Bourke-White

Margaret Ives Abbott

Margaret Ringenberg

Margaret Utinsky

Margarete Adler

Margarete Gallinat

Margarete Rabe

Margot Dreschel

Margot Frank

Margot Glockshuber

Marguerite Knight

Marguerite Yourcenar

Maria Baida

Maria Callas

Maria F. von Trapp

Maria Fedecka

Maria Francisca of Nemours

Maria Mandel

Maria Rasputin

Maria Restituta

Maria Schneider (actor)

Maria Terwiel

Maria Vierdag

Maria Vittoria del Pozzo della Cisterna

Maria von Trapp

Maria Wittek

Mariage Frères

Marian Damaschin

Marian Gieszczykiewicz

Marian Gołębiewski (soldier)

Marian P. Opala

Marian Pisarek

Marian Rejewski

Mariana and Palau Islands campaign

Marianna Municipal Airport

Marianne Grunberg-Manago

Marie-Anne Chabin

Marie-Christine Barrault

Marie-Claude Vaillant-Couturier

Marie-Félicité Brosset

Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier

Marie-Guillaume-Alphonse Devergie

Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles

Marie-Madeleine Fourcade

Marie-Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, comtesse de la Fayette

Marie Angelique Arnauld

Marie Anne de Cupis de Camargo

Marie Bell

Marie Cavallier

Marie Champmeslé

Marie d'Agoult

Marie de' Medici cycle

Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné

Marie Dissard

Marie Dubas

Marie François Xavier Bichat

Marie Henri d'Arbois de Jubainville

Marie Jeanne of Savoy-Nemours

Marie Juchacz

Marie Laurencin

Marie Ljalková

Marie Pierre Kœnig

Marie Teresa Rios

Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin

Marie Trintignant

Marie van Goethem

Marie Vassiltchikov

Marie Walewska

Mariechen Wehselau

Marielle de Sarnez

Marietta Alboni

Marietta Blau

Marija Bursać

Marin le Roy de Gomberville

Marina Raskova

Marine Corps Air Station Camp Pendleton

Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point

Marine Corps Air Station Eagle Mountain Lake

Marine Corps Air Station El Toro

Marine Corps Air Station Ewa

Marine Corps Air Station Miramar

Marine Corps Air Station Tustin

Marinus van der Lubbe

Mario Armano

Mario Puzo

Mario Rigoni Stern

Mario Suárez (writer)

Mario Yepes

Marion's Triumph

Marion Alice Orr

Marion Case Cheek

Marion Cotillard

Marion Dönhoff

Marion Eugene Carl

Marion Frederic Ramírez de Arellano

Marion Freisler

Marion Jessup

Marion Yorck von Wartenburg

Marisol Escobar

Marius Fiil

Mariveles Naval Section Base

Mariya Dolina

Marjatta Kajosmaa

Mark 13 torpedo

Mark 14 torpedo

Mark 15 torpedo

Mark 18 Torpedo

Mark 24 FIDO Torpedo

Mark Aitchison Young

Mark Arnold-Forster

Mark Edward Bradley

Mark Evelyn Heath

Mark Fredriksen

Mark Hanna Crouter

Mark Hatfield

Mark Matthews

Mark Norman

Mark Oliphant

Mark Roseman

Mark Tennyson, 5th Baron Tennyson

Mark Twain Riverboat

Mark Wayne Clark

Mark XIV bomb sight

Markiyan Dimidov

Marko Mesić

Marko Orešković

Marlag und Milag Nord

Marlborough: His Life and Times

Marlene Dietrich

Marmaduke Hussey, Baron Hussey of North Bradley

Marmaduke Pattle

Marmon-Herrington Armoured Car

Marmon-Herrington CTLS

Marne la Vallée-Chessy railway station

Marocchinate

Maroubra Force

Marquis de Condorcet

Marquis de Sade

Marshal (Japan)

Marshall Carter

Marshall Paul Jones

Marshall Plan

Martha Desrumeaux

Martha Gellhorn

Martha Norelius

Martha Sharp

Martial law in Trondheim in 1942

Martial Robin

Martial van Schelle

Martin-Baker MB 3

Martin-Baker MB 5

Martin-Michel-Charles Gaudin

Martin Adolf Bormann

Martin Balsam

Martin Baltimore

Martin Bartesch

Martin Bormann

Martin Broszat

Martin Charteris, Baron Charteris of Amisfield

Martin Denny

Martin Deutsch

Martin Drewes

Martin Dunbar-Nasmith

Martin Špegelj

Martin F. Loughlin

Martin Fiebig

Martin Field (Washington)

Martin Flannery

Martin Gauger

Martin Gerken

Martin Gibbs

Martin Gilbert

Martin Gottfried Weiss

Martin Gray (Holocaust survivor)

Martin H. Ray, Jr.

Martin Harlinghausen

Martin Heidegger

Martin James Monti

Martin K. Weiche

Martin Linge

Martin Luther (diplomat)

Martin Manulis

Martin McLaren

Martin Mutschmann

Martin Nielsen (politician)

Martin Niemöller

Martin Norberg

Martin Noth

Martin O. May

Martin Redmayne, Baron Redmayne

Martin Sandberger

Martin Tietze

Martin Weiss

Martin Wiesner

Martti Liuttula

Marty Karow

Marty Robbins

Martín Cardetti

Marvin Griffin

Marvin Lee Ramsden

Marvin Opler

Marvin Zindler

Marx-Lenin-Luxemburg Front

Marx Dormoy (Paris Métro)

Mary Colvin

Mary Coulshed

Mary Hallaren

Mary Herring

Mary Jayne Gold

Mary Katherine Herbert

Mary Previte

Mary Soames, Baroness Soames

Mary Tyrwhitt

Mary Welsh

Mary Yamashiro Otani

Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood

Maryan Wisnieski

Marye Anne Fox

Maryland Drydock Company

Maryse Bastié

Marzabotto massacre

Maréchal, nous voilà !

MAS-36 rifle

MAS-38

Masada Action and Defense Movement

Masafumi Arima

Masaharu Homma

Masahiko Amakasu

Masahiko Takeshita

Masaichi Niimi

Masakazu Kawabe

Masaki Kashiwara

Masakichi Inoue

Masanobu Tsuji

Masao Maruyama (Japanese Army officer)

Masao Maruyama (scholar)

Masao Nakamura

Masao Watanabe

Masaomi Yasuoka

Masashi Oguro

Masataka Ida

Masatane Kanda

Masatomi Kimura

Masazumi Inada

Maschinengewehr 08

Masha Bruskina

Mason Welch Gross

Mass racial violence in the United States

Massacre in Ciepielów

Massacre in Rome

Massacre in Trhová Kamenice

Massacre of Brzostowica Mala

Massacre of Kalavryta

Massacre of Lvov professors

Massacres of Poles in Volhynia

Massey Lopes, 2nd Baron Roborough

Massy-Verrières

Massy – Palaiseau (Paris RER)

Master Man (Marvel Comics)

Master race

Masuji Ibuse

Mata Gabin

Matagorda Island AFB

Matanikau Offensive

Mateen Ahmed Ansari

Matej Bor

Matheus Coradini Vivian

Mathias Kouo-Doumbe

Mathieu Bastareaud

Mathieu Berson

Mathieu Blin

Mathieu de Montmorency

Mathieu Kassovitz

Mathieu Tillet

Mathilda May

Mathilde Bonaparte

Mathilde Carré

Mathurin Henrio

Mathurin Jacques Brisson

Matilda Mk I

Matilda tank

Mato Dukovac

Matome Ugaki

Matouqin Nocturne

Matsu-class destroyer

Matsudaira Morio

Matsudaira Taro

Matsuhiro Watanabe

Matsuji Ijuin

Matt Batts

Matt McGrath

Matt Urban

Matthew McKeon

Matthew Meselson

Matthew Ridgway

Matthias Kleinheisterkamp

Matthäus Hetzenauer

Matvei Vainrub

Maubert-Mutualité (Paris Métro)

MAUD Committee

Maurice Abravanel

Maurice Albert Windham Rogers

Maurice Anderson

Maurice Arthur Pope

Maurice Austin

Maurice Bardèche

Maurice Barrès

Maurice Bavaud

Maurice Blitz

Maurice Monney-Bouton

Maurice Britt

Maurice Buckmaster

Maurice Challe

Maurice Delarue

Maurice Druon

Maurice Durquetty

Maurice E. Curts

Maurice Evans (actor)

Maurice F. Weisner

Maurice Faure

Maurice G. Dantec

Maurice Gamelin

Maurice Joseph Manuel

Maurice Kriegel-Valrimont

Maurice Lafont

Maurice Laing

Maurice Larrouy

Maurice Lecoq

Maurice Macmillan

Maurice Martenot

Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Maurice Norland

Maurice Paléologue

Maurice Papon

Maurice Peeters

Maurice Petherick

Maurice Raichenbach

Maurice Risch

Maurice Rose

Maurice Roy

Maurice Salomez

Maurice Schlesinger

Maurice Schumann

Maurice Taieb

Maurice Taylor (bishop)

Maurice Thorez

Maurice Tourneur

Maurice Turnbull

Maurice Verdonck

Maurice Villaret

Maurice Wilkins

Maurice Wood

Maurice, 6th duc de Broglie

Mauricio Pochettino

Mauritz Eriksson

Mauritz Johansson

Mauro Bergamasco

Mauro Cetto

Maury Maverick, Jr.

Maus

Mauser C96

Mauser HSc

Mauthausen-Gusen camp trials

Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp

Mašín

Maverick County Memorial International Airport

Mavis (DC Comics)

Mavis Gallant

Max-Günther Schrank

Max-Hellmuth Ostermann

Max Abegglen

Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook

Max Amann

Max Ammermann

Max Born

Max Clifford Stormes

Max Coyne

Max Domarus

Max Décugis

Max Ehrlich

Max Elitcher

Max Ernst

Max Guazzini

Max Hainle

Max Herrmann (theatrologist)

Max Ibel

Max Immelmann

Max Jacob

Max Jaffa

Max Josef Metzger

Max Kögel

Max Kennedy Horton

Max Manus

Max Marcuse

Max Matern

Max Ophüls

Max Page

Max Patkin

Max Sachsenheimer

Max Schöne

Max Schmeling

Max Sievers

Max Silverstein

Max Stotz

Max Thompson (Medal of Honor)

Max Valentiner

Max Varnel

Max Ward (bush pilot)

Max Wielen

Max Winkler

Max Wünsche

Max Wolff (soldier)

Maxence Flachez

Maxie Long

Maxim's Paris

Maxim Kontsevich

Maxim M/32-33

Maxime Bossis

Maxime Du Camp

Maxime Weygand

Maximilian de Angelis

Maximilian Grabner

Maximilian Kolbe

Maximilian Volke

Maximilian von Edelsheim

Maximilian von Herff

Maximilian von Weichs

Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg

Maximiliano Hernández Martínez

Maxwell D. Taylor

Maxwell Kogon

Maxwell Meighen

May 1940 War Cabinet Crisis

May Craig (journalist)

Mayfield Workman

Maynard A. Joslyn

Maynard Harrison Smith

Mazas Prison

Mazowiecka Cavalry Brigade

Maîtrise Notre Dame de Paris

McCawley-class attack transport

McClellan Airfield

McClelland Barclay

McCollum memo

McCook Army Airfield

McCoy Reynolds

McDowell Grove Forest Preserve

McHale's Navy

McNary Field

Me 262 Project

Me and the Colonel

Mechanised Transport Corps

Mechelen Incident

Mechelen transit camp

Medal "For the Defence of Kiev"

Medal "For the Defence of Leningrad"

Medal "For the Defence of Moscow"

Medal "For the Defence of Odessa"

Medal "For the Defence of Sevastopol"

Medal "For the Defence of Stalingrad"

Medal "For the Defence of the Caucasus"

Medal "For the Defence of the Soviet Transarctic"

Medal For the Victory Over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945

Medal "For the Victory over Japan"

Medal of Honor (video game series)

Medal of Honor (video game)

Medal of Honor: Airborne (soundtrack)

Medal of Honor: Airborne

Medal of Honor: Allied Assault

Medal of Honor: European Assault

Medal of Honor: Frontline

Medal of Honor: Heroes 2

Medal of Honor: Heroes

Medal of Honor: Infiltrator

Medal of Honor: Pacific Assault

Medal of Honor: Rising Sun

Medal of Honor: Underground

Medal of Honor: Vanguard

Medal of Honor

Medallions (book)

Medgar Evers

Medhi Bouzzine

Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre

Medium Extended Air Defense System

Medzhybizh

Mefküre

Mefo bills

MEFO

Mehdi Huseynzade

Mehdi Leroy

Mehdi Taouil

Meillerwagen

Mein Kampf

Meinoud Rost van Tonningen

Meinrad von Lauchert

Meir Balaban

Meir Dizengoff

Mel Allen

Mel and George "Do" World War II

Mel Brooks

Mel Hoderlein

Mel Mermelstein

Melchior de Polignac

Melchior de Vogüé

Melchior Wańkowicz

Melford Stevenson

Meliton Kantaria

Melitta Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg

Melville W. Beardsley

Melvin A. Casberg

Melvin Alvah Traylor Jr.

Melvin E. Biddle

Melvin Mayfield

Melvin R. Laird

Melvin Zais

Melvyn Douglas

Members of Hitler's cabinet

Memel Medal

Memoir '44

Mémorial de la Déportation

Memorial to gay and lesbian victims of National Socialism

Memorial to the German Resistance

Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe

Memphis Belle (B-17)

Memphis Belle (film)

Memphis Belle: A Story of a Flying Fortress

Men Behind the Sun

Men Bingyue

Men of Timor

Men of War

Men of War

Menachem Birnbaum

Menachem Ziemba

Mengjiang

Menglianggu Campaign

Merauke Force

Mercedes-Benz L3000

Mercer Simpson

Meredith Colket

Merian C. Cooper

Meridian Ridge Campaign

Merlin Minshall

Merril Sandoval

Merrill's Marauders (film)

Merrill's Marauders

Merrill B. Twining

Merrit Cecil Walton

Merritt A. Edson

Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence

Merton Beckwith-Smith

Merville Gun Battery

Mervyn S. Bennion

Merwin Graham

Mesha Stele

Messerschmitt Bf 108

Messerschmitt Bf 109 Survivors

Messerschmitt Bf 109

Messerschmitt Bf 110

Messerschmitt Bf 162

Messerschmitt Me 109TL

Messerschmitt Me 163

Messerschmitt Me 209-II

Messerschmitt Me 210

Messerschmitt Me 261

Messerschmitt Me 262

Messerschmitt Me 263

Messerschmitt Me 264

Messerschmitt Me 265

Messerschmitt Me 309

Messerschmitt Me 310

Messerschmitt Me 321

Messerschmitt Me 323

Messerschmitt Me 328

Messerschmitt Me 329

Messerschmitt Me 409

Messerschmitt Me 410

Messerschmitt Me 509

Messerschmitt Me 609

Messerschmitt Me P.1101

Messerschmitt Me P.1106

Metallurgical Laboratory

Metaxas Line

Metel

Metgethen massacre

Metox

Metropolitan Anthony (Bloom) of Sourozh

Mettawee-class gasoline tanker

MF 2000

MF 67

MF 77

MF 88

MG-13

MG 15 machine gun

MG 17 machine gun

MG 81 machine gun

MG30

MG34

MG42

MHDOIF

Miła 18

Międzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto

Międzyrzec Podlaski

Międzyrzecz Fortified Region

MI10

MI11

MI8

MI9

Miami International Airport

Mian Ghulam Jilani

Miao dao

Miao Peinan

Michał Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski

Michał Klepfisz

Michał Rola-Żymierski

Michał Vituška

Michael A. Hoffman II

Michael Aldridge

Michael Alexander

Michael Allmand

Michael Atiyah

Michael Barker (British Army officer)

Michael Beetham

Michael Berenbaum

Michael Carver, Baron Carver

Michael Collins (American author)

Michael Corleone

Michael Donald

Michael F. Feldkamp

Michael Faraday

Michael Flanders

Michael Floud Blaney

Michael Freund (writer)

Michael Gibson (GC)

Michael Goodliffe

Michael Hamburger

Michael Howard (historian)

Michael Hughes-Young, 1st Baron St Helens

Michael I of Romania

Michael J. Daly

Michael J. Novosel

Michael L. Chyet

Michael Leshing

Michael Lippert

Michael Lucas, 2nd Baron Lucas of Chilworth

Michael Marrus

Michael McCorkell

Michael Melford

Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin

Michael Musmanno

Michael O'Leary (VC)

Michael O'Moore Creagh

Michael Ochiltree

Michael P. W. Stone

Michael Pössinger

Michael Palliser

Michael Phayer

Michael Pollock

Michael R. Anastasio

Michael S. Davison

Michael Seifert (SS guard)

Michael Sinclair (British Army officer)

Michael Stewart, Baron Stewart of Fulham

Michael Strank

Michael Torrens-Spence

Michael Whitney Straight

Michael Willoughby, 11th Baron Middleton

Michael Wilson (writer)

Michael Wittmann

Michael Woodruff

Michael Young (bobsleigh)

Michalis Papazoglou

Michaël Llodra

Michel-Ange - Auteuil (Paris Métro)

Michel-Ange - Molitor (Paris Métro)

Michel-Jean Sedaine

Michel-Louis-Étienne Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély

Michel Arnaud

Michel Bensoussan

Michel Bibard

Michel Champoudry

Michel Corneille the Elder

Michel Corneille the Younger

Michel Debré

Michel Delacroix (painter)

Michel Der Zakarian

Michel Drach

Michel Dupuy

Michel Déon

Michel Foucault

Michel Hollard

Michel Jouvet

Michel Laclotte

Michel le Tellier

Michel Leiris

Michel Lotito

Michel Mayor

Michel Mohrt

Michel Ney

Michel Pastoureau

Michel Petrucciani

Michel Raynaud

Michel Richard Delalande

Michel Serres

Michel Simon

Michel Talagrand

Michel Thomas

Michel Théato

Michel Vermeulin

Michele Carafa

Micheline Presle

Michiel Daniel Overbeek

Michihiko Hachiya

Michinori Shiraishi

Michitarō Komatsubara

Michitaro Totsuka

Mickael Poté

Mickaël Dogbé

Mickaël Landreau

Mickaël Madar

Mickaël Tavares

Mickey Conroy

Mickey Spillane

Micky Burn

Mid-Atlantic gap

Mid-Ocean Escort Force

Middle East Command

Midway (1964 game)

Midway (1991 game)

Midway (1976 film)

Midway Atoll

Midway order of battle

Mieczysław Batsch

Mieczysław Fogg

Mieczysław Kawalec

Mieczysław Niedziałkowski

Mieczysław Smorawiński

Mieczysław Zygfryd Słowikowski

Miep Gies

Mies Boissevain - van Lennep

Mietje Baron

Miguel Ángel Asturias

Miguel García Vivancos

Miguel Serrano

Mihai Antonescu

Mihail Lascăr

Mihail Manoilescu

Mihail Sadoveanu

Mihailo Olćan

Mihajlo Lukić

Mihiel Gilormini

Mike Blyzka

Mike Calvert

Mike Colalillo

Mike Hoare

Mike Holovak

Mike Honda

Mike James (rugby)

Mike Judge (fictional character)

Mike Lithgow

Mike Masaoka

Mike Sandlock

Mike Staner

Mike Wallace

Mikel Arteta

Mikhail Devyatayev

Mikhail Gromov

Mikhail Kalinin

Mikhail Katukov

Mikhail Kirponos

Mikhail Loginov

Mikhail Minin

Mikhail Surkov

Mikhail Vodopianov

Mikio Hasemoto

Mikio Oda

Miklós Bánffy

Miklós Horthy

Miklós Kállay

Miklós Nyiszli

Miklós Radnóti

Miklós Steinmetz

Miklós Vig

Miklos Kanitz

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-1

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3

Mikura-class escort ship

Milan (camp)

Milan Nedić

Milan Neralić

Milch Trial

Mildred Gillars

Mildred H. McAfee

Mildred Harnack

Mile Budak

Milena Jesenská

Milentije Popović

Miles Aircraft

Miles Browning

Miles Dempsey

Miles Lerman

Miles M.20

Miles M.35 Libellula

Miles M.39B Libellula

Miles Magister

Miles Martinet

Miles Master

Miles Mohawk

Miles Stapleton-Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk

Miles Whitney Straight

Milford Zornes

Milice

Militarism-Socialism in Showa Japan

Military Administration (Nazi Germany)

Military awards of World War II

Military decorations of the Third Reich

Military description of the Warsaw Uprising

Military engagements of the Second Sino-Japanese War

Military equipment of Axis Power forces in Balkans and Russian Front

Military Geology Unit

Military history of Albania during World War II

Military history of Australia during World War II

Military history of Belarus during World War II

Military history of Bulgaria during World War II

Military history of Canada during the Second World War

Military history of Canada during World War I

Military history of Carpathian Ruthenia during World War II

Military history of Croatia

Military history of Egypt during World War II

Military history of Finland during World War II

Military history of France during World War II

Military history of Gibraltar during World War II

Military history of Greece during World War II

Military history of Italy during World War II

Military history of Latvia during World War II

Military history of Leningrad Oblast during World War II

Military history of New Zealand during World War II

Military history of South Africa during World War II

Military history of the Netherlands during World War II

Military history of the Philippines during World War II

Military history of the United Kingdom during World War II

Military history of the United States during World War II

Military Intelligence Service (United States)

Military Operations in Scandinavia, and Iceland during WW2

Military Order of the Iron Trefoil

Military Organization Lizard Union

Military Policy Committee

Military production during World War II

Military Service Act 1939

Milivoj Ašner

Millard Harmon

Millennium (Hellsing)

Millions Like Us

Millis Jefferis

Mills bomb

Milorad Nedeljković

Milorg

Miloslav Rechcigl, Sr.

Milosz Magin

Miloš Dimitrijević

Miloš Milutinović

Miloš Minić

Milovan Đilas

Milt Schmidt

Milton Ernest Ricketts

Milton Orville Thompson

Milton Reckord

Milton S. Eisenhower

Milton Shapp

Milton Wolff

Mimis Pierrakos

Mimoyecques

Mina Rosner

Minatec

Mineichi Koga

Minekaze-class destroyer

Mineo Ōsumi

Mineral Wells Airport

Mines of Paris

Minesweepers of the Royal New Zealand Navy

Minidoka National Historic Site

Ministries Trial

Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda

Ministry of Culture and Enlightenment (Norway)

Ministry of Production

Ministry of the Navy of Japan

Ministry of War of Japan

Minnie Spotted-Wolf

Minnie Vautrin

Minor Butler Poole

Minor sabotage

Minoru Genda

Minoru Ota

Minoru Sasaki

Minoru Yasui

Minsk Offensive Operation

Minás Dimákis

Mirabeau (Paris Métro)

Miracle at Midnight

Miracle at St. Anna

Mircea Eliade

Mirco Bergamasco

Miriam Davenport

Miriam Winter

Mirko Grmek

Miromesnil (Paris Métro)

Miron Constantinescu

Mirosław Żuławski

Mirosław Ferić

Mirosław Vitali

Miroslav Filipović

Miroslav Radman

Mirwais Ahmadzaï

Mirza Mešić

Miscegenation

Mischling

Misha: A Mémoire of the Holocaust Years

Miss Kittin

Missak Manouchian

Mission Accomplished (film)

Mission Albany

Mission Boston

Mission Chicago

Mission Detroit

Mission Elmira

Mission to Moscow

Mistel

Mister Roberts (1955 film)

Mister Roberts (1984 film)

Mister Roberts (novel)

Mister Roberts (play)

Mister Roberts (TV series)

Mister Sinister

Mit brennender Sorge

Mitchell Jenkins

Mitchell Paige

Mitchell Recreation Area

Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr.

Mitiţă Constantinescu

Mitry – Claye (SNCF)

Mitsubishi A7M

Mitsubishi B5M

Mitsubishi F1M

Mitsubishi G3M

Mitsubishi G4M

Mitsubishi J2M

Mitsubishi J8M

Mitsubishi Ki-202

Mitsubishi Ki-21

Mitsubishi Ki-30

Mitsubishi Ki-46

Mitsubishi Ki-51

Mitsubishi Ki-57

Mitsubishi Ki-83

Mitsumasa Yonai

Mitsumi Shimizu

Mitsuo Fuchida

Mitsuru Ushijima

Mitsuru Yoshida

Mittelbau-Dora

Mittelwerk

Miura Gorō

Mius-Front

Mizuno Shinryu

Mk 2 grenade

Mk III Turtle helmet

Mladen Delić

Mühldorf subcamp

München-Schwabing labor camp

Mo Johnston

Mo Udall

Moana-Nui-a-Kiwa Ngarimu

Mobile Downtown Airport

Mobile Regional Airport

Mochitsura Hashimoto

Model 24 grenade

Model 39 grenade

Model 43 grenade

Modele 1935 pistol

Modernization of the People's Liberation Army

Modeste M'bami

Modesto Cartagena

Modified Hotchkiss machine gun

Modlin Army

Modèle 1939 (mine)

Moe Berg

Moe Hurwitz

Moffett Federal Airfield

Mogador-class destroyer

Mogami-class destroyer

Mogens Fog

Mogilev Offensive Operation

Mohammad-Ali Ramin

Mohammad Amin al-Husayni

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Mohammed Mahdi Akef

Mohammed Taheri

Mohammed V of Morocco

Mohammed Zahir Shah

Mohan Singh Deb

Moirang

Moisis Michail Bourlas

Mojżesz Presburger

Molch

Molière

Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

Molotov Line

Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment

Momčilo Đujić

Moments of Reprieve

Momi-class destroyer

Momo-class destroyer

Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors

Momotaro's Sea Eagles

Mona Islands

Mona Lisa

Monceau (Paris Métro)

Mongolia Garrison Army

Mongolian People's Army tanks and armour of WWII

Monica Sone

Monica tail warning radar

Monique Haas

Monnaie de Paris

Monnet Plan

Monowitz concentration camp

Monroe Schwarzlose

Monsieur Klein

Montagne Sainte-Geneviève

Montagsloch

Montagu Dawson

Montagu Stopford

Montagu Toller

Monte Cervino Battalion

Monte la Difensa

Montelupich Prison

Montevideo Maru

Montgallet (Paris Métro)

Montgomery Atwater

Montgomery Burns

Montmartre Cemetery

Montmartre funicular

Montmartre

Montparnasse - Bienvenüe (Paris Métro)

Montparnasse Cemetery

Montparnasse

Montreal Holocaust Memorial Centre

Montreal Laboratory

Monument to the Women of World War II

Moonstrike

Moonzund Landing Operation

Moore Air Force Base

Moore Army Air Field

Moorook West (Wood Camp)

Mordechaï Podchlebnik

Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Mordechai Frizis

Mordechai Gebirtig

Mordechai Maklef

Mordechai Spiegler

Mordechaj Anielewicz

Morgan D. Peoples

Morgan Line

Morgan Taylor

Morgenrot (film)

Morgenthau Plan

Moritake Tanabe

Morituri

Moritz Rabinowitz

Moriz Seeler

Morley Nelson

Morotai Mutiny

Morrice James, Baron St Brides

Morris C8

Morris Cohen (Soviet spy)

Morris CS9

Morris DePass

Morris E. Crain

Morris Fisher

Morris Light Reconnaissance Car

Morris R. Jeppson

Morse Dry Dock & Repair Company

Morskogen

Mort Walker

Mortimer Wheeler

Mortyr

Morys Bruce, 4th Baron Aberdare

Moscow Armistice

Moscow Conference (1941)

Moscow Conference (1942)

Moscow Conference (1943)

Moscow Conference (1944)

Moscow Conference (1945)

Moscow Declaration

Moscow Peace Treaty

Moscow Strikes Back

Moscow Sun Yat-sen University

Moscow Victory Parade of 1945

Moseley Wanderers

Moses Beckelman

Moses Josef Rubin

Moshe Dayan

Moshe Dovid Winternitz

Moshe Lewin

Moshe Rynecki

Moshe Sanbar

Mosin–Nagant

Mosley Mayne

Moss Christie

Most Secret

Mother Maria

Mothers' Movement

Motives of the Second Sino-Japanese War

Moton Field Municipal Airport

Motoo Furushō

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-121

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-337

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-34

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-41

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-59

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-658

Motor Torpedo Boat PT 105

Motor Torpedo Boat PT 346

Motor Transport Corps

Moša Pijade

Moulin de la Galette

Moulin Rouge

Mount Samat

Mousetrap (weapon)

Mouton-Duvernet (Paris Métro)

Mouvement d'Action Civique

Mouvement Franciste

MP 59

MP 73

MP 89

MP18

MP3008

MP34

MP35

MP40

Mr. and Mrs. America

Mr. Anderson (Beavis and Butt-head)

Mr. Winkle Goes to War

Mrs. Miniver (film)

MS Asama Maru

MS Jutlandia

MS Oslofjord (1938)

MS Rangitane (1929)

MS Rigel

Mária Földes

Mário Silva (football player)

Mário Silva (footballer)

Márton Homonnai

MT-55

MTB 102

Muhammed Akbar Khan

Muhammetnazar Gapurow

Mukaishima, Hiroshima

Mukden Incident

Mulberry harbour

Munich Agreement

Munson Report

Munyo Gruber

Murakami Kakuichi

Muriel Byck

Murphy's War

Mury

Musa Cälil

Muselmann

Museum of Eroticism

Museum of Jewish Heritage

Museum of Lancashire

Museum of Music

Museum of the Great Patriotic War, Moscow

Museum of Tolerance

Music on the Bamboo Radio

Musidora

Mustafa el-Nahhas

Mustang X

Mustapha Dahleb

Mustapha Zitouni

Musée Adzak

Musée Cernuschi

Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris

Musée d'Orsay (Paris RER)

Musée d'Orsay

Musée d’histoire de la médecine

Musée de Cluny

Musée de l'Armée

Musée de l'Homme

Musée de l'Orangerie

Musée de la Contrefaçon

Musée de La Poste

Musée des Arts décoratifs, Strasbourg

Musée des Arts et Métiers

Musée du Luxembourg

Musée du Montparnasse

Musée du quai Branly

Musée du Vin

Musée Dupuytren

Musée Grévin

Musée Jacquemart-André

Musée Marmottan-Monet

Musée national de la Marine

Musée Nissim de Camondo

Musée Picasso

Musée Rodin

Muséum national d'histoire naturelle

Mutt and Jeff (spies)

MV Atheltemplar

MV Brisbane Star

MV Dunedin Star

MV Empire Galahad

MV Empire MacAlpine

MV Empire MacAndrew

MV Empire MacCabe

MV Empire MacCallum

MV Empire MacColl

MV Harpa

MV Joyita

MV Krait

MV Languedoc

MV Mamutu

MV San Demetrio

MVSN Colonial Militia

MVSN original organization

My Early Life

My Gal Sal (aircraft)

My Japan

My Opposition: the Diaries of Friedrich Kellner

My Opposition

Myōkō-class cruiser

Myer Prinstein

Mykola Lemyk

Médaille de la Résistance

Mélissa Theuriau

Ménagerie du Jardin des Plantes

Ménilmontant (Paris Métro)

Ménilmontant

Männer gegen Panzer

Levant Schooner Flotilla

The Levant Schooner Flotilla was an allied naval organization during World War II that facilitated covert and irregular military operations in the Aegean Sea from 1942–1945. It was primarily organized by the British Royal Navy and consisted of a series of commandeered caïques, or local schooners, manned by British sailors, special forces, and Greek volunteers.

National Liberation Front (Greece)

The National Liberation Front (Greek: Εθνικό Απελευθερωτικό Μέτωπο, Ethnikó Apeleftherotikó Métopo (EAM)) was the main movement of the Greek Resistance during the Axis occupation of Greece. Its main driving force was the Communist Party of Greece (KKE), but its membership throughout the occupation included several other leftist and republican groups. ΕΑΜ became the first true mass social movement in modern Greek history. Its military wing, the Greek People's Liberation Army (ELAS), quickly grew into the largest armed guerrilla force in the country, and the only one with nation-wide presence. At the same time, from late 1943 onwards, the political enmity between ΕΑΜ and rival resistance groups from the centre and right evolved into a virtual civil war, while its relationship with the British and the British-backed Greek government in exile was characterized by mutual mistrust, leading EAM to establish its own government, the Political Committee of National Liberation, in the areas it had liberated in spring 1944. Tensions were resolved provisionally in the Lebanon Conference in May 1944, when EAM agreed to enter the Greek government in exile under Georgios Papandreou. The organisation reached its peak after liberation in late 1944, when it controlled most of the country, before suffering a catastrophic military defeat against the British and the government forces in the Dekemvriana clashes. This marked the beginning of its gradual decline, the disarmament of ELAS, and the open persecution of its members during the "White Terror", leading eventually to the outbreak of the Greek Civil War.

National and Social Liberation

National and Social Liberation (Greek: Εθνική και Κοινωνική Απελευθέρωσις, Ethnikí kai Koinonikí Apelefthérosis (EKKA)) was a Greek Resistance movement during the Axis occupation of Greece. It was founded in autumn 1942 by Colonel Dimitrios Psarros and politician Georgios Kartalis.

No. 2909 Squadron RAF Regiment

The 2909 Squadron of the RAF Regiment saw action in Greece taking part in an invasion of the island of Kos from 15 September 1943 during the first time the RAF Regiment units deployed for action by air. The squadron deployed together with the 2901 Squadron, both armed with 33 Hispano-Suiza HS.404 anti-aircraft guns in support of the 1 battalion Durham Light Infantry.

Operation Animals

Operation Animals was a World War II mission by the British Special Operations Executive (SOE), in cooperation with the Greek Resistance groups ELAS, Zeus, PAO and the United States Air Force. The operation took place between 21 June and 11 July 1943 and included an organized campaign of sabotage in Greece, to deceive the Axis Powers into believing that Greece was the target of an Allied amphibious landing, instead of Sicily. Despite the mission's success, the Greek civilian population suffered from mass reprisals and British intervention into the internal affairs of the Greek resistance exacerbated the tensions between its various components.

Outline of Greece

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Greece:

Greece – sovereign country located on the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula in Southern Europe. Greece borders Albania, Bulgaria, and North Macedonia to the north, and Turkey to the east. The Aegean Sea lies to the east and south of mainland Greece, while the Ionian Sea lies to the west. Both parts of the Eastern Mediterranean basin feature a vast number of islands.

Greece lies at the juncture of Europe, Asia and Africa. It is heir to the heritages of ancient Greece, the Roman and Byzantine Empires, and nearly four centuries of Ottoman rule. Greece is the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, the Olympic Games (for this reason, unless it is the host nation, it always leads the Parade of Nations in accordance with tradition begun at the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics), Western literature and historiography, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, and Western drama including both tragedy and comedy.

Greece is a developed country, a member of the European Union since 1981, a member of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union since 2001, NATO since 1952, the OECD since 1961, the WEU since 1995 and ESA since 2005. Athens is the capital; Thessaloniki, Patras, Heraklion, Volos, Ioannina, Larissa and Kavala are some of the country's other major cities.

Security Battalions

The Security Battalions (Greek: Τάγματα Ασφαλείας, romanized: Tagmata Asfaleias, derisively known as Germanotsoliades (Γερμανοτσολιάδες) or Tagmatasfalites (Ταγματασφαλίτες) were Greek collaborationist military groups, formed during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II in order to support the German occupation troops.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.