Military district

Military districts (also called military regions) are formations of a state's armed forces (often of the Army) which are responsible for a certain area of territory. They are often more responsible for administrative than operational matters, and in countries with conscript forces, often handle parts of the conscription cycle.

Navies have also used a similar model, with organizations such as the United States Naval Districts. A number of navies in South America used naval districts at various points in time.

Algeria

Régions militaires-Algérie
Algerian military regions[1]

Algeria is divided into six numbered military regions, each with headquarters located in a principal city or town (see People's National Army (Algeria)#Military regions). This system of territorial organization, adopted shortly after independence, grew out of the wartime wilaya structure and the postwar necessity of subduing antigovernment insurgencies that were based in the various regions. Regional commanders control and administer bases, logistics, and housing, as well as conscript training. Commanders of army divisions and brigades, air force installations, and naval forces report directly to the Ministry of National Defence and service chiefs of staff on operational matters. Previously Algeria had formed France's tenth military region.

Military region commanders in 2003 included Brahim Fodel Chérif (1st Military Region), Kamel Abderrahmane (2nd Military Region, Abcène Tafer (3rd Military Region), Abdelmadjid Sahed (4th Military Region, Chérif Abderrazak (5th Military Region) and Ali Benali (6th Military Region).[2]

China

Republic of China

There were 76 northern military districts or military regions (軍區), or war areas, which were the largest formations of the National Revolutionary Army, under the Military Affairs Commission, chaired by Chiang Kai-shek during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. During the Second Sino-Japanese War the National Revolutionary Army eventually organized itself into twelve Military Regions.

People's Republic of China

The military regions (originally eleven, then seven) of the People's Liberation Army were divided into military districts (usually contiguous with provinces) and military sub-districts, under the command of the Central Military Commission.

In February 2016, the 7 military regions were changed to 5 theater commands:[3]

France

Third Republic

Under the Third Republic, a military region comprised several departments which supported an army corps. For many years up to 21 military regions were active.

Fifth Republic

With the evolution of administrative organization, France was divided into regional administrative districts (circa 1963) (administrative region dependent of a prefect of the region). The military organisation then combined the administrative organization and in each CAR corresponded a territorial military division (TMD). On the defence side, these military divisions have been grouped into military regions. Their number varied depending on the period. The current number is six.

Germany

German Reich

During World War II, Germany used the system of military districts (German: Wehrkreis) to relieve field commanders of as much administrative work as possible and to provide a regular flow of trained recruits and supplies to the Field Army. The method they adopted was to separate the Field Army (Oberbefehlshaber des Heeres) from the Home Command (Heimatkriegsgebiet) and to entrust the responsibilities of training, conscription, supply and equipment to that command.

The Commander of the Infantry Corps with the identical number also commanded the Wehrkreis in peacetime, but command of the Wehrkreis passed to his second-in command at the outbreak of war.

In peacetime, the Wehrkreis was the home to the Infantry Corps of the same number and all subordinate units of that Corps.

Federal Republic of Germany

Until 2013 the German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr) had four military districts – Wehrbereichskommando (WBK) as part of the Streitkräftebasis or Joint Service Support Command. Each WBK controlled several Landeskommandos (State Commands) due to the federal structure of Germany who have taken over functions carried out by the Verteidigungsbezirkskommandos (VBKs) or Military Region Commands (Defence District Commands) as. These command authorities are in charge of all military facilities. Now the Landeskommmandos are led by the National Territorial Command called Kommando Territoriale Aufgaben der Bundeswehr (KdoTerrAufgBw).

Indonesia

KodamLabel
Kodam districts as of 2007 in Indonesia
Kodam VI Mulawarman, Balikpapan
VI Mulawarman Military district command HQ, situated in Balikpapan, East Kalimantan

The Indonesian Army (Bahasa Indonesia: Tentara Nasional Indonesia - Angkatan Darat "TNI-AD") uses military districts, known as Komando Daerah Militer (Military Region command) or KODAM. It was created by General Soedirman as a system initially called "Wehrkreise", adapted from the German system during World War II. The system was later ratified in "Surat Perintah Siasat No.1" (No.1 Strategy Command Letter), signed by General Soedirman on November 1948.

Military regional commands functioned as a means of circles of defense, or regional defense, to defend the designated islands/provinces under Indonesian territory. Each MRC commander had full authority to begin operations with assets available in the district. MRC commanders have command and autonomy over its military structures and organizations.

Current Indonesian Military Regional commands are:

  1. Kodam Jaya HQ in Jakarta
  2. Kodam Iskandar Muda HQ in Banda Aceh
  3. Kodam I/Bukit Barisan HQ in Medan
  4. Kodam II/Sriwijaya HQ in Palembang
  5. Kodam III/Siliwangi HQ in Bandung
  6. Kodam IV/Diponegoro HQ in Semarang
  7. Kodam V/Brawijaya HQ in Surabaya
  8. Kodam VI/Mulawarman HQ in Balikpapan
  9. Kodam IX/Udayana HQ in Denpasar
  10. Kodam XII/Tanjungpura HQ in Pontianak
  11. Kodam XIII/Merdeka HQ in Manado
  12. Kodam XIV/Hasanuddin HQ in Makassar
  13. Kodam XVI/Pattimura HQ in Ambon
  14. Kodam XVII/Cenderawasih HQ in Jayapura
  15. Kodam XVIII/Kasuari HQ in Sorong

Kazakhstan

ВО Казахстана
Regional Commands of Kazakhstan

A Regional Command (Kazakh: Аймақтық қолбасшылық, Aymaqtıq qolbasşılıq; Russian: Региональная команда, Regional'naya komanda) in Kazakhstan operates in a similar fashion to Russian military districts.

The Kazakh Ground Forces are divided into four regional commands:[4]

  • Regional Command "Astana" headquartered in Astana
  • Regional Command "East" headquartered in Semey
  • Regional Command "West" headquartered in Atyrau
  • Regional Command "South" headquartered in Taraz

Poland

Initially, right after the First World War, Poland had five military districts (1918–1921):

  • Kraków Military District (Krakowski Okręg Wojskowy), HQ in Kraków
  • Łódź Military District (Łódzki Okręg Wojskowy), HQ in Łódź
  • Lublin Military District (Lubelski Okręg Wojskowy), HQ in Lublin.
  • Poznań Military District (Poznański Okręg Wojskowy), HQ in Poznań
  • Warsaw Military District (Warszawski Okręg Wojskowy), HQ in Warszawa.

In 1921, due to reorganization, the military districts were replaced with Dowództwo Okręgu Korpusu (DOK – Corps District Command). In the Second Polish Republic there were ten DOKs:

Each DOK consisted of four large units (three infantry divisions and one cavalry brigade).

For district arrangements after World War II see Polish Land Forces. The Kraków Military District disbanded in 1953. From 1999 Poland has been divided into two military districts, the Pomeranian Military District and the Silesian Military District, both were disbanded by the end of 2011.

Russia and the Soviet Union

Russian Empire

Map of Military Districts of Russian Empire 1913
Military districts of the Russian Empire in 1913

The Russian Empire's military district (Russian: вое́нный о́круг, voyenny okrug) was a territorial association of military units, formations, military schools, and various local military establishments. This territorial division type was utilized in Imperial Russia, USSR and is currently in use in Russian Federation.

Such territorial division provided convenient management of army units, their training and other activities regarding the country's readiness to defend itself.

Soviet Union

In the USSR, the military districts continued to perform the same role they had done in the Russian Empire, with first six military districts (Yaroslavsky, Moskovsky, Orlovsky, Belomorsky, Uralsky, and Privolzhsky) were formed on 31 March 1918 during the Russian Civil War.

This increased to 17 military districts of the USSR at the beginning of July 1940 shortly before the USSR was invaded by Germany and entered the Second World War, and were used to create combat Fronts after commencement of the German invasion of the USSR.

During the war the districts were further divided into geographic regions for logistic reasons, these being:

  • North and North Western districts
  • West and Central USSR districts
  • South and South Western districts
  • Siberian and Central Asian districts
  • Far Eastern districts

After the war, the number was increased to 33 to aid in demobilisation of forces, but by October 1946, they had been reduced to 21.[5]

By the end of the 1980s, immediately before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, there were sixteen military districts, within three to five main strategic Theatre groupings.

Russian Federation

A military district (Russian: вое́нный о́круг, voyenny okrug) in the Russian Federation operates under the command of the district headquarters, headed by the district commander, and is subordinated to the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. (Previously under Commander-in-Chief of the Ground Forces General Nikolai Kormiltsev, the military districts reported to the General Staff via the Russian Ground Forces staff.) It is a territorial association of military units, formations, military schools, and various local military establishments. This territorial division type was historically adopted, originally by Imperial Russia, to provide a more efficient management of army units, their training and other operations activities related to combat readiness.

From 1992 to 2010, the Armed Forces maintained a diminishing number of former Soviet Armed Forces districts – Leningrad Military District, Moscow Military District, Volga-Urals Military District, North Caucasus Military District, Siberian Military District, Far East Military District.

Military districts of Russia 2016
Military districts of Russia as of 2016

In 2009–2010, these districts were reorganised into 4 Military Districts comprising regional Joint Strategic Commands:[6] In 2014 Northern Fleet was reorganized into separate Joint Strategic Command.

Sweden

The military area (Swedish: Militärområde, usually abbreviated to Milo) was an administrative division of the Swedish Armed Forces, and was a higher regional level subdivision. The commander of a military area, the Militärområdesbefälhavare (also militärbefälhavare), commanded the Swedish Army divisions stationed in the region, the regional naval command, the regional air defence sector as well as the lower regional level subdivision defence areas that made up the military area. The commander answered directly to the Supreme Commander. The military areas in the modern form were created in 1966, and each area was named according to the geographical area they covered. Several changes were made, such as creating or merging areas, until all military areas were disbanded in 2000. After the Defence Act of 2000 the military areas were replaced by military districts (Swedish: Militärdistrikt, usually abbreviated to MD). The new military districts corresponded geographically to the former military areas, however, they did not have the same territorial and operational tasks which the military areas had. In 2005, the military districts were replaced to some extent by four Security and Cooperation Sections (Swedish: Säkerhets- och samverkanssektioner).

United Kingdom

British Army regional districts have evolved slowly over the previous 150 years or so. For many years there were regional commands in the UK, including Aldershot Command (from 1880), Eastern Command, Northern Command, Scottish Command, Southern Command and Western Command (from 1905). By 1985 these were superseded by districts, and until the spring of 1991 there were nine of them. Antony Beevor wrote in his revised edition of Inside the British Army in 1991 that '..the first of the minor districts to be amalgamated were North West District, Western District, and Wales, to form a new Western District.' HQ Northern Ireland remained separate and reported to HQ UK Land Forces only on non-operational matters.[7]

Regional Forces (UK)
Structure Regional Forces c.2006

From 1995, UK commands and later districts were replaced by regenerative divisions. 2nd Division, 4th Division, 5th Division and London District acted as regional commands within the UK reporting to Commander Regional Forces. Scotland District was absorbed by 2nd Division in 2000. The divisions were responsible for training subordinate formations and units under their command for operations in the UK, such as Military Aid to the Civil Community, as well as training units for overseas deployments. 2nd, 4th and 5th Divisions were replaced by Support Command on 1 November 2011.[8]

United States

[9]

The military department was a military and administrative command of the US Army.

Present day US military organization is structured around Unified Combatant Commands, which encompass different geographical areas and responsibilities.

Vietnam

Vietnam People's Army has 8 Military Regions:

  • Hanoi Capital Command: It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending the capital. The headquarters is in Hanoi.
  • 1st Military Region: It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to protect against foreign invaders; and to organize, build, manage and command forces in northeastern Vietnam. The headquarters is in Thai Nguyen.
  • 2nd Military Region: It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending northwestern Vietnam. The headquarters is in Viet Tri.
  • 3rd Military Region: It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending the Red River Delta area. The headquarters is in Hai Phong.
  • 4th Military Region: It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending north central Vietnam. The headquarters is in Vinh.
  • 5th Military Region: It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending south central Vietnam, including the western highlands and south central coastal provinces. The headquarters is in Da Nang.
  • 7th Military Region: It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending southeastern Vietnam. The headquarters is in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • 9th Military Region: It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending the Mekong Delta. The headquarters is in Cần Thơ

See also

References

  1. ^ "Library of Congress Country Study, 1993, 258-260" (PDF). marines.mil.
  2. ^ Isabelle Werenfels, 'Managing Instability in Algeria: Elites and Political Change since 1995,' p.186 (fn 51).
  3. ^ http://news.ifeng.com/a/20160201/47322320_0.shtml#_zbs_baidu_bk
  4. ^ http://www8.brinkster.com/vad777/sng/kazachztan/kazachstan-grand.htm Kazakh Ground Forces
  5. ^ V.I. Feskov et al, The Soviet Army in the Period of the Cold War, Tomsk, 2004
  6. ^ "Главная : Министерство обороны Российской Федерации". www.mil.ru.
  7. ^ Beevor, 1991 revised edition, 232.
  8. ^ Charles Heyman, 'The British Army: A Pocket Guide 2012-2013', p.31
  9. ^ "Records of United States Army Continental Commands, 1821-1920". archives.gov. 15 August 2016.
1st Independent Division of Shandong Provincial Military District

1st Independent Division of Shandong Provincial Military District (Chinese: 山东省军区独立第1师) was formed on August 8, 1966. The division was composed of three infantry regiments (1st to 3rd) and an artillery regiment.

In October 1976 the division was renamed as Independent Division of Shandong Provincial Military District (Chinese: 山东省军区独立师) following 2nd Independent Division of Shandong Provincial Military District's disbandment.

The division was disbanded in October 1981.

1st Independent Division of Zhejiang Provincial Military District (2nd Formation)

Independent Division of Anhui Provincial Military District (Chinese: 安徽省军区独立师)(1st Formation) was formed in December 1964 from the 540th Infantry Regiment and 560th Artillery Regiment of the disbanding 180th Army Division. The division was then composed of 3 infantry regiments (1st to 3rd).

In June 1966 the division was renamed as 1st Independent Division of Anhui Provincial Military District (Chinese: 安徽省军区独立第1师) after 2nd Independent Division of Anhui Provincial Military District's formation.

From September 1967 to November 14th 1969 it was put under command of 12th Army Corps, after which the division returned to Anhui Provincial Military District's control.

On March 25th 1975, the division exchanged its designation and position with 1st Independent Division of Zhejiang Provincial Military District and became the second formation of 1st Independent Division of Zhejiang Provincial Military District(Chinese: 浙江省军区独立第1师).

The division was then stationed in Zhuji, Zhejiang.

In May 1976 the division was renamed as Independent Division of Zhejiang Provincial Military District(Chinese: 浙江省军区独立师) following 2nd Independent Division of Zhejiang Provincial Military District (People's Republic of China)'s disbandment. Artillery Regiment of the disbanding 74th Army Division was attached to the division.

In December 1980 the division was disbanded.

2nd Independent Division of Anhui Provincial Military District

2nd Independent Division of Anhui Provincial Military District (Chinese: 安徽省军区独立第2师) was formed on September 6, 1966 from the Public Security Contingent of Anhui province. The division was composed of three regiments (4th to 6th).

From September 17, 1967 to November 1969 the division was put under command of 12th Army Corps. After that the division was returned to Anhui Provincial Military District's control.

The division was disbanded in March 1976.

2nd Independent Division of Henan Provincial Military District (People's Republic of China)

2nd Independent Division of Henan Provincial Military District(Chinese: 河南省军区独立第2师) was formed on September 1, 1966 from Public Security Contingent of Henan province. The division was composed of four infantry regiments (4th to 7th).

On March 9, 1970 the division was renamed as Independent Division of Henan Provincial Military District(Chinese: 河南省军区独立师) following 1st Independent Division of Henan Provincial Military District's renaming. Its regiments were renamed as follows:

1st Infantry Regiment (former 5th);

2nd Infantry Regiment (former 6th);

3rd Infantry Regiment (former 7th);

4th Infantry Regiment (not changed).On February 9, 1973 the division was renamed as 2nd Independent Division of Henan Provincial Military District again following 50th Army Division's returning and renaming. its regiments were renamed back to their designations before March 1970.

On April 18, 1976 the division was disbanded.

2nd Independent Division of Liaoning Provincial Military District

2nd Independent Division of Heilongjiang Provincial Military District (Chinese: 黑龙江省军区独立第2师)(1st Formation) was formed on June 30th 1966 from the Public Security Contingent of Heilongjiang province. The division was composed of seven regiments (5th to 11th) and an independent battalion.

In February 1969 it exchanged its position and designation with 2nd Independent Division of Liaoning Provincial Military District and became the second formation of 2nd Independent Division of Liaoning Provincial Military District(Chinese: 辽宁省军区独立第2师).

In 1976 the division was disbanded.

2nd Independent Division of Zhejiang Provincial Military District

2nd Independent Division of Zhejiang Provincial Military District (Chinese: 浙江省军区独立第2师) was formed in September 1966 from the Public Security Contingent of Zhejiang province. The division was composed of three regiments (5th to 7th).

From September 1967 to November 1969 the division was transferred to 20th Army Corps. After that the division was returned to Zhejiang Provincial Military District's control.

The division was disbanded in May 1976.

Belorussian Military District

The Byelorussian Military District (Russian: Белорусский военный округ, Belarusskiy Voyenyi Okrug; alternative spelling Belorussian) was a military district of the Soviet Armed Forces. Originally formed just before the World War I as the Minsk Military District out of the remnants of the Vilno Military District and the Warsaw Military District, it was headed by the Russian General Eugen Alexander Ernst Rausch von Traubenberg.

With the outbreak of the Russian Civil War it was reorganized into the Western Front and in April 1924 it was renamed to the Western Military District. In October 1926 it was redesignated the Belorussian Military District, with its staff in Smolensk. And in July 1940 it was renamed the Western Special Military District. It covered the territory of the Byelorussian SSR and the western part of the RSFSR (including Smolensk area, Bryansk area, and parts of Kaluga area).

Independent Division of Guangdong Provincial Military District (People's Republic of China)

1st Independent Division of Guangxi Military District(Chinese: 广西军区独立第1师)(1st Formation) was formed in January 1967 from 2nd Independent Regiment and five independent battalions of Guangxi Military District. The division was composed of three regiments (1st to 3rd).

From its formation to July 1, 1975, the division's code-number was Military Unit 6949. From 1975 to 1981 the division's code-number was Military Unit 54101.

From July 26 to August 6, 1968, a detachment from the division, under the command of its deputy commander, Wang Jianxun(Chinese: 王建勋), conducted a number of mass massacre in Binyang, Guangxi, killing 3681 civilians. The incident is considered as one of the most bloody massacres during the Cultural Revolution.

In March 1969 it moved to Shaoguan, Guangdong and was renamed as Independent Division of Guangdong Provincial Military District (Chinese: 广东省军区独立师).

In March 1977 its 3rd Infantry Regiment was detached. The division then absorbed the disbanding 142nd Army Division. By then the division was composed of four regiments (1st to 3rd infantry, artillery).

In March 1981 the division was disbanded.

Independent Division of Shaanxi Provincial Military District (2nd Formation)(People's Republic of China)

Independent Division of Gansu Provincial Military District (Chinese: 甘肃省军区独立师)(1st Formation) was formed on July 1st 1966 from the Public Security Contingent of Gansu province. The division was composed of five regiments (1st to 5th) and two independent battalions, a total of 9247 personnel.

In Autumn 1966, 5th Regiment was detached and moved to Sichuan.

In March 1983 4th Regiment exchanged its position and designation with 6th Regiment of Independent Division of Qinghai Provincial Military District.

On April 18th 1969 it exchanged its position and designation with Independent Division of Shaanxi Provincial Military District and became the second formation of Independent Division of Shaanxi Provincial Military District(Chinese: 陕西省军区独立师) with 2 of its regiments (1st to 3rd). The division was then composed of:

1st Infantry Regiment (former 2nd Regiment of Gansu Independent Division);

2nd Infantry Regiment (former 1st Regiment of Gansu Independent Division);

3rd Infantry Regiment (former 5th Regiment of Gansu Independent Division);

4th Infantry Regiment (former 2nd Regiment of Qinghai Independent Division).In December 1970 5th Independent Infantry Regiment of Shaanxi Provincial Military District attached to the division and became its 5th Regiment.

On July 1st 1976 the division was disbanded. All its regiments became independent.

Independent Division of Shanxi Provincial Military District (2nd Formation)(People's Republic of China)

2nd Independent Division of Hebei Provincial Military District (Chinese: 河北省军区独立第2师) was formed in July 1966 from the Public Security Contingent of Hebei province. The division was composed of five regiments (7th to 11th).

In February 1969 it moved to Shanxi province and became the second formation of Independent Division of Shanxi Provincial Military District(Chinese: 辽宁省军区独立师) with all but 8th Infantry Regiments. The 8th Infantry became 4th Infantry Regiment, Independent Division of Hebei Provincial Military District.

The 7th, 9th, 10th and 11th Infantry Regiments were renamed as 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Infantry Regiments of the division.

In September 1976 the division was disbanded.

Kiev Military District

The Kiev Military District (Russian: Киевский вое́нный о́круг (КВО), translit. Kiyevskiy voyénnyy ókrug (KVO)) was a military district of the Imperial Russian Army and subsequently of the Red Army and Soviet Armed Forces. It was first formed in 1862, and was headquartered in Kiev for most of its existence.

Leningrad Military District

The Leningrad Military District was a military district of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. In 2010 it was merged with the Moscow Military District, the Northern Fleet and the Baltic Fleet to form the new Western Military District.

List of Soviet Army divisions 1989–91

This article is an (incomplete) listing of Soviet Ground Forces divisions in 1990, and corresponding information about their later status in 2006. The primary source is Table 2.5, pages 104–106, V.I. Feskov, K.A. Kalashnikov, V.I. Golikov, The Soviet Army in the Years of the Cold War 1945–91, Tomsk University Publishing House, Tomsk, 2004. However, it is not totally accurate, as some other information from it has been shown to be incorrect. Alternate information and corrections are welcome.

The Soviets maintained their units at varying degrees of readiness in peacetime, and divided their ground units into two broad readiness categories:

Развернутая - Ready (expanded, filled up) A unit was considered Ready, if it could conduct combat operations with little or no mobilisation.

Неразвернутая - Not ReadySome divisions are referred to as 'Reserve' (there is a Russian article for reserve unit at ru:Запасная часть). The Russian word for reserve (ru:Запас) literally translates as 'Spare'. The personnel went on the reserve rolls, and for officers and NCOs this means they add 'v zapase' to their rank (e.g. kapitan v zapase). The unit itself changes readiness status from A, to either B (Б), V (В) or G (Г). This means a higher degree of equipment conservation, lower training and operational performance, etc.

The abbreviation VKhVT means Weapons and Equipment Storage Base.

Moscow Military District

The Moscow Military District was a military district of the Soviet Armed Forces and the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. In 2010 it was merged with the Leningrad Military District, the Northern Fleet and the Baltic Fleet to form the new Western Military District.

Polish Land Forces

The Land Forces (Wojska Lądowe) are a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland. They currently contain some 77,000 active personnel and form many components of European Union and NATO deployments around the world. Poland's recorded military history stretches back a millennium – since the 10th century (see List of Polish wars and History of the Polish Army), but Poland's modern army was formed after the country regained independence following World War I in 1918.

Russian Ground Forces

The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation (Russian: Сухопутные войска Российской Федерации, tr. Sukhoputnye voyska Rossiyskoy Federatsii) are the land forces of the Russian Armed Forces, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992. The formation of these forces posed economic challenges after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and required reforms to professionalize the Ground Forces during the transition.

Since 1992, the Ground Forces have withdrawn thousands of troops from former Soviet garrisons abroad, while remaining extensively committed to the Chechen Wars, peacekeeping, and other operations in the Soviet successor states (what is known in Russia as the "near abroad").

Soviet Air Forces

The Soviet Air Forces (Russian: Военно-воздушные силы, tr. Voyenno-Vozdushnye Sily (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union. The other was the Soviet Air Defence Forces. The Air Forces were formed from components of the Imperial Russian Air Service in 1917, and faced their greatest test during World War II. The groups were also involved in the Korean War, and dissolved along with the Soviet Union itself in 1991–92. Former Soviet Air Forces' assets were subsequently divided into several air forces of former Soviet republics, including the new Russian Air Force. "March of the Pilots" was its song.

Soviet Army

The Soviet Army (SA; Russian: Советская Армия [СА], Sovetskaya Armiya [SA]) (RA; Ukrainian: Радянська Армія [РА], radyansʹka Armiya [РА]) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not fully abolished until 25 December 1993. Until 25 February 1946, it was known as the Red Army, established by decree on 15 (28) January 1918 "to protect the population, territorial integrity and civil liberties in the territory of the Soviet state." The Strategic Missile Troops, Air Defense Forces and Air Forces (ranking first, third and fourth within Soviet Armed Forces; Ground Forces holding second place) were part of the Soviet Army in addition to the Ground Forces.

United States Army Military District of Washington

The United States Army Military District of Washington (MDW) is one of nineteen major commands of the United States Army. Its headquarters are located at Fort Lesley J. McNair in Washington, D.C. The missions of the units in the Military District of Washington include ceremonial tasks as well as a combat role in the defense of the National Capital Region.

Besides Fort McNair, the following installations are included under the umbrella of the MDW's command:

Joint Base Myer–Henderson Hall, Virginia

Fort Belvoir, Virginia

Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia

Fort Meade, MarylandUnits assigned to the Military District of Washington include:

1st Battalion, 3rd Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard)

4th Battalion, 3rd Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard)

12th Aviation Battalion (TDA), Davison Army Airfield, Fort Belvoir. Includes the 911th Engineer Company

The United States Army Band "Pershing's Own"The Military District of Washington also represents the U.S. Army in the Joint Force Headquarters National Capital Region (JFHQ-NCR), as well as oversight of all ceremonial operations in Arlington National Cemetery.

The current Commanding General of the Military District of Washington is Major General Michael L. Howard. The Military District of Washington Chief of Staff, and liaison to the JFHQ-NCR, is Colonel Mark A. Bertolini. The Commanding General, Chief of Staff, and Command Sergeant Major of the Military District of Washington hold the same positions at the JFHQ-NCR, which supervises military planning for defense of the National Capital Region.

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

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