Military Intelligence (Pakistan)

The Directorate for Military Intelligence, known as "Military Intelligence" (MI), is the intelligence arm of the Pakistan Army. It is headquartered at the General Headquarters (Pakistan Army) in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Unlike the Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), the MI is composed entirely of uniformed Army officers and soldiers whose primary mission is to determine the military capability and any other information related to, military forces of hostile countries. Besides it is also tasked with gathering offensive counter-insurgency intelligence, identifying and eliminating sleeper cells, foreign agents and other anti-state elements within Pakistan, including investigation of military espionage.[1]

Military Intelligence of Pakistan
Flag of the Pakistani Army
Military Intelligence of Pakistan
Active1948-present
CountryPakistan
BranchPakistan Army
TypeIntelligence
Garrison/HQGHQ, Rawalpindi
Nickname(s)MI
Commanders
Director GeneralMajor General Sarfraz Ali

Historical overview

The agency (MI) was created by Major General Robert Cawthom, who also served as its first Director. Major General Cawthom later established the ISI Directorate in the 1950s. Prior to the successful imposition of the coup d'état against the government of President Major General (retired) Iskander Mirza, the MI's Director General Major General Syed Shahid Hamid reported to the then-Commander-in-Chief (Chief of Army Staff) Field Marshal Ayub Khan.[1] The MI reported that Martial Law was promulgated in the entire country, both East-Pakistan and West-Pakistan.[1]

In the 1980s, MI's activities included operations in Sindh against the Pakistan Communist Party (CPP) and Indian intelligence operatives.[1]

The MI was also active during the Kargil war where Major General Jamshed Gulzar Kiani led a series of Intelligence-Based Operations (IBOs) against the enemy. However, the MI staged another coup d'état against the democratically elected government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. The MI played a significant and integral role in bringing General Pervez Musharraf, Chief of Staff of the Pakistan Army and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, to political power.

Organization

The MI works in coordination with Air Intelligence (AI) of the Pakistan Air Force and Naval Intelligence (NI) of the (Pakistan Navy). It reports to the DG MI. All the appointed officers and enlisted personnel are from the Army. MI is one of the five main intelligence services in Pakistan. It is tasked with monitoring the military capabilities of its adversaries, counter-espionage operations, identifying and eliminating sleeper cells and foreign agents; the MI also keeps a close eye on the activities of officers within the Pakistan Army.[2] The MI was headed by a Pakistan Army three-star general, Lieutenant General Syed Asim Munir Ahmed Shah .[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Military Intelligence". globalsecurity.org. Global Security.org. 2000. Retrieved June 3, 2011.
  2. ^ a b https://fas.org/irp/world/pakistan/mi/index.html
Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan)

Mohammad Ayub Khan (Urdu: محمد ایوب خان‎; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974), HPk, NPk, HJ, MBE military dictator and the second President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from the first President Iskander Mirza through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969.

Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as commander of the 14th Division in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers. From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported President Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958. Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President.After appointing General Musa Khan as an army c-in-c in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. In 1965 ended with the Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence.

In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974.

His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh.

Directorate of Military Intelligence

Directorate of Military Intelligence or Military Intelligence Directorate may refer to:

Directorate of Military Intelligence (India)

Directorate of Military Intelligence (Ireland)

Directorate of Military Intelligence (Nepal)

Directorate of Military Intelligence (Sri Lanka)

Directorate of Military Intelligence (United Kingdom)

Military Intelligence Directorate (Israel)

Military Intelligence (Pakistan)

Military Intelligence Directorate (Syria)

Government of Pakistan

The Government of Pakistan (Urdu: حکومتِ پاکستان‎) is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established by the parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.Effecting the Westminster system for governing the state, the government is mainly composed of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, in which all powers are vested by the Constitution in the Parliament, the Prime Minister and the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts and amendments of the Parliament, including the creation of executive institutions, departments and courts inferior to the Supreme Court. By constitutional powers, the President promulgates ordinances and passes bills.

The President acts as the ceremonial figurehead while the people-elected Prime Minister acts as the chief executive (of the executive branch) and is responsible for running the federal government. There is a bicameral Parliament with the National Assembly as a lower house and the Senate as an upper house. The most influential officials in the Government of Pakistan are considered to be the federal secretaries, who are the highest ranking bureaucrats in the country and run cabinet-level ministries and divisions. The judicial branch systematically contains an apex Supreme Court, Federal Shariat Court, high courts of five provinces, district, anti-terrorism, and the green courts; all inferior to the Supreme Court.The full name of the country is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. No other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases. The "Pakistan Government" or "Government of Pakistan" are often used in official documents representing the federal government collectively. Also, the terms "Federal" and "National" in government institutions or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government. As the seat of government is in Islamabad, "Islamabad" is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government.

List of militaries by country

This is a list of militaries by country, including the main branches and sub-branches.

Military Intelligence (disambiguation)

Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to commanders in support of their decisions.

Military Intelligence may also refer to:

Military Intelligence (Czech Republic), military intelligence service of the Czech Republic

Military Intelligence (Pakistan), intelligence arm of the Pakistan Army

Military intelligence

Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions. This aim is achieved by providing an assessment of data from a range of sources, directed towards the commanders' mission requirements or responding to questions as part of operational or campaign planning. To provide an analysis, the commander's information requirements are first identified, which are then incorporated into intelligence collection, analysis, and dissemination.

Areas of study may include the operational environment, hostile, friendly and neutral forces, the civilian population in an area of combat operations, and other broader areas of interest. Intelligence activities are conducted at all levels, from tactical to strategic, in peacetime, the period of transition to war, and during a war itself.

Most governments maintain a military intelligence capability to provide analytical and information collection personnel in both specialist units and from other arms and services. The military and civilian intelligence capabilities collaborate to inform the spectrum of political and military activities.

Personnel performing intelligence duties may be selected for their analytical abilities and personal intelligence before receiving formal training.

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