Milbanke Sound

Milbanke Sound is a sound on the coast of the Canadian province of British Columbia.[1]

Milbanke Sound Group
Satellite image of Milbanke Sound

Geography

Milbanke Sound extends east from Queen Charlotte Sound, with Price Island on the west, Swindle Island on the north, and the Bardswell Group of islands on the south.[2] Milbanke Sound is one of the open sea portions of the Inside Passage, with Seaforth Channel joining from the east and Finlayson Channel from the north.[3][4] Mathieson Channel also connects to Milbanke Sound from the north, and leads to Fiordland Conservancy.

On the islands surrounding the sound is a group of five volcanos called the Milbanke Sound cones.[5]

History

The Heiltsuk peoples traditionally occupied the land around Milbanke Sound.[6][7][8]

In late June, 1788, the British fur trader Charles Duncan, captain of the Princess Royal entered Milbanke Sound, which was then uncharted waters. He spent a few days trading with the Heiltsuk.[9] He named the sound after Vice Admiral Mark Milbanke.[10] Explorer George Vancouver sailed through the sound a few years later.[8][11] In 1805, a trading ship from Boston, the Atahualpa, was attacked by a group of Tlingit; the captain and some of the crew were killed.[12][13]

In 1833 the Hudson's Bay Company established Fort McLoughlin in the Milbanke Sound area.[14][15] William Fraser Tolmie was stationed there in 1833-1834. Tolmie wrote about the fur trade in the area, saying that it was conducted with the Coast Tsimshians and Heiltsuks, using a pidgin jargon composed of the Kaigani and Tshatshinni dialects of Haida and English. Chinook Jargon, commonly used elsewhere, was not widely known in Milbanke Sound at the time.[16] The fort operated for about ten years, and then was abandoned; the company later opened a small store at the same location.[17]

To improve the safety of the developing travel and shipping lanes, a lighthouse was built in 1898 at Robb Point on Ivory Island.[18]

In recent times archaeological investigations have been carried out in the Milbanke Sound area.[19][20]

Economy

The sound is popular with sports fishing enthusiasts.[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Milbanke Sound". Canadian Geographical Names. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  2. ^ British Columbia Pilot ...: The coast of British Columbia from Cape Caution to Portland Inlet, including the Queen Charlotte Islands and Dixon Entrance. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1930. p. 103.
  3. ^ Great Britain. Hydrographic Department (1935). The British Columbia Pilot: Comp. from Admiralty Surveys. p. v.
  4. ^ United States. Hydrographic Office (1952). Sailing Directions for British Columbia: The coast of British Columbia from Cape Caution to Portland Inlet, including the Queen Chalotte Island and Dixon Entrance. U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 62–65.
  5. ^ Charles A. Wood; Jurgen Kienle (ed) (27 November 1992). Volcanoes of North America: United States and Canada. Cambridge University Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-521-43811-7.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  6. ^ "Heiltsuk (Bella Bella)", The Canadian Encyclopedia
  7. ^ Historical Notes on the Bella Bella Heiltsuk, The Heiltsuk Cultural Education Centre
  8. ^ a b W. Kaye Lamb (15 May 2017). The Voyage of George Vancouver, 1791–1795: Volumes I–IV. Taylor & Francis. p. 1062. ISBN 978-1-317-01233-7.
  9. ^ Galois, Robert (2004). Voyage to the Northwest Side of America: The Journals of James Colnett, 1786-89. University of British Columbia (UBC) Press. pp. 9, 11, 17, 62, 99, 263–264, 329. ISBN 978-0-7748-0855-2. online at Google Books
  10. ^ V., Akrigg, G. P. (1997). British Columbia place names. Akrigg, Helen B. (3rd ed.). Victoria, BC: UBC Press. ISBN 0774806362. OCLC 41086359.
  11. ^ Barry Gough (15 June 2015). Juan de Fuca's Strait: Voyages in the Waterway of Forgotten Dreams. Harbour Publishing. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-55017-653-7.
  12. ^ Mary Malloy (1998). "Boston Men" on the Northwest Coast: The American Maritime Fur Trade 1788-1844. Limestone Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-895901-18-4.
  13. ^ Owen Matthews (12 November 2013). Glorious Misadventures: Nikolai Rezanov and the Dream of a Russian America. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 285–. ISBN 978-1-62040-241-2.
  14. ^ Jan Peterson (2002). Black Diamond City: Nanaimo, the Victorian Era. Heritage House Publishing Co. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-894384-51-3.
  15. ^ "Our History: The Scots who helped build B.C.". Times Colonist, Jan Peterson / May 16, 2014
  16. ^ Wurm, Stephen A.; Peter Mühlhäusler; Darrell T. Tryon (1996). Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas. Mouton de Gruyter. p. 1198. ISBN 3-11-013417-9. online at Google Books
  17. ^ Barry Pritzker (1998). Native Americans: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Peoples. ABC-CLIO. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-87436-836-9.
  18. ^ Jim Gibbs (January 1986). Lighthouses of the Pacific. Schiffer Pub. p. 245. ISBN 978-0-88740-054-4.
  19. ^ Archaeological Investigations in the Hecate Strait-Milbanke Sound Area, Archaeological Survey of Canada
  20. ^ "Angling at B.C.'s Top Fishing Resorts". Vancouver Sun, David Y. Wei and Suzanne L. Clouthier , May 16, 2016
  21. ^ "Great Fishing on the Wild Central Coast of British Columbia". Sports Fishing Magazine, Doug Olander. September 15, 2014

External links

Coordinates: 52°19′N 128°33′W / 52.317°N 128.550°W

Calvert Island (British Columbia)

Calvert Island is an island on the coast of the Canadian province of British Columbia. It is located east of Queen Charlotte Sound in the Central Coast region, about 100 kilometres (62 mi) north of the town of Port Hardy, which is at the north end of Vancouver Island.

A number of smaller islands lie just north of Calvert Island, across Kwakshua Channel, the largest of which is Hecate Island. Hakai Passage separates the islands around Calvert Island from those around Hunter Island to the north. To the east Fitz Hugh Sound, part of the Inside Passage, separates Calvert Island from the mainland. The mouth of Rivers Inlet is east of the southern end of Calvert Island.

Calvert Island is 32 kilometres (20 mi) long and ranges in width from 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) to 16 kilometres (9.9 mi). It is 334.27 square kilometres (129.06 sq mi) in area. The island reaches 1,045 metres (3,428 ft) in elevation. Hecate Island is 47.78 square kilometres (18.45 sq mi) in area.

Calvert Island was named in 1788 by Charles Duncan, captain of the fur trading vessel Princess Royal. The name probably honors the Calvert family, and perhaps specifically Lord Cecil Calvert, second Baron of Baltimore. The name was retained by George Vancouver and published as such on his maps.

Campbell Island (British Columbia)

Campbell Island is an island in the Canadian province of British Columbia, located west of Denny Island and north of Hunter Island, near Milbanke Sound. The Inside Passage waterways of Lama Passage and Seaforth Channel meet at the northern end of Campbell Island.

The communities of Bella Bella and Campbell Island, just north of Bella Bella, are located on Campbell Island. The same location is believed to have been that of Fort McLoughlin, an early Hudson's Bay Company post in the days of the Maritime Fur Trade, with the name McLoughlin Bay since conferred on the bay and a lake and a creek just south of where the settlement of Bella Bella is today (Old Bella Bella was on nearby Denny Island).

Campbell Island was probably named by Captain Pender during his 1866–69 surveys of the area, likely for a Dr. Campbell for whom also Campbell Point, on Loughborough Inlet, and Campbell River may also have been named. Dr. Samuel Campbell was ship's surgeon aboard HMS Plumper from 1857 to 1861.

Don Peninsula

The Don Peninsula is a peninsula in British Columbia, Canada. It extends southwest between the Mathieson and Spiller Channels in the Milbanke Sound area. Later discovered to be a peninsula, it was first charted as an island.

Dufferin Island

Dufferin Island is an island on the Central Coast of British Columbia, Canada. It is located on the south side of Seaforth Channel just northwest of Bella Bella. Dufferin Island was named in 1876 by Captain Chatfield and the officers of HMS Amethyst after Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood.Dufferin Island is part of a volcanic area called the Milbanke Sound Group which includes several monogenetic cinder cones. Holocene basaltic lava flows from Dufferin Island overlie adjacent beach deposits.

Finlayson Channel

Finlayson Channel is a channel of the British Columbia Coast, Canada. It is a northern extension of Milbanke Sound. To its west are Swindle and Sarah Islands, to its east Roderick, Susan and Dowager Islands. It was first charted in 1793 by James Johnstone, one of George Vancouver's lieutenants during his 1791-95 expedition.

Finngal Island

Finngal Island is a small island on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada, located south of Dufferin Island. It consists of columnar basalt lava flows and is part of a volcanic group called the Milbanke Sound Group.

Heiltsuk Nation

The Heiltsuk Nation is a First Nations government in the Central Coast region of the Canadian province of British Columbia, centred on Campbell Island in the community of Bella Bella, British Columbia. The Heiltsuk people speak the Heiltsuk language, and were, like their language, and along with the neighbouring Haisla and Wuikinuxv (Owekeeno) peoples, incorrectly known in the past as the "Northern Kwakiutl". The Heiltsuk were also known as the Bella Bella, after their core community.

The present day Heiltsuk First Nation is an amalgamation of 5 tribal groups who inhabited an area approximately 6000 square miles of the Central Coast of British Columbia. The Heiltsuk peoples lived off of both land and sea in the region between Milbanke Sound and Fisher Channel. Heiltsuk territories include numerous inlets, islands, peninsulas, mountains and valleys. Rivers and streams cascade into the sea through heavy forests and dense undergrowth.‘‘Oral traditions of the present-day Heiltsuk maintain that the first generation of their ancestors were "set-down" by the Maker in various places within Heiltsuk territory and were living here before the time of a Great Flood.’ Geological evidence shows people have been living there continuously for the past 14,000 years. 1,400 of the 2,200 Heiltsuk membership live on Campbell Island, which is approximately 78 nautical miles from the British Columbia mainland, and 98 nautical miles from Vancouver Island.

The 1997 Supreme Court of Canada decision in R. v. Gladstone found that the Heiltsuk have an Aboriginal right to trade in Herring. This was the first decision recognizing a commercial Aboriginal right in Canada. Despite winning the decision, the dispute over Heiltsuk access to herring, and management of the stock have persisted. The 2015 herring season saw a crisis develop between the Heiltsuk and Canada, including occupation of a DFO office. The crisis ended when the commercial herring gillnet fleet departed without fishing.

A fire destroyed the only food store in the village recently. As a stop-gap measure the United Church became the "United Store" while a new building was constructed. This response occurred very quickly and managed to provide services to the community during a difficult time.

The Heiltsuk have been opposed to the Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipelines proposal, with some well-publicized hearings in Bella Bella.The Heiltsuk became involved in early efforts in the 1990s to conserve the Great Bear Rainforest. On January 29, 2016, in the Heiltsuk community of Bella Bella—along with representatives from other First Nations, industry, government and NGOs—they celebrated the completion of the final accord to protect the largest coastal temperate rainforest in the world.Archeologist Alisha Gauvreau, a PhD student from the University of Victoria and a scholar with the Hakai Institute, discovered a site on Triquet Island on British Columbia's Central Coast which appears to confirm Heiltsuk oral tradition. The archeological team have excavated a settlement in the area — in traditional Heiltsuk Nation territory — and dated it to 14,000 years ago, during the last ice age where glaciers covered much of North America.

Helmet Peak (British Columbia)

Helmet Peak is a monogenetic cinder cone of the Milbanke Sound Group in British Columbia, Canada. The basaltic tuff breccias on Lake Island and Lady Douglas Island originated from Helmet Peak on Lady Island.

Ivory Island

Ivory Island Lightstation is located 14 miles northwest of Bella Bella on the junction of Seaforth Channel and Milbanke Sound on the Inside Passage of British Columbia.

Kitasu Hill

Kitasu Hill is a young, basaltic cinder cone on southwestern Swindle Island on the coast of the Canadian province of British Columbia. It is located 17 km (11 mi) southwest of Klemtu and south of Kitasu Bay. Kitasu Hill produced lava flows that extend to the north. It is the most prominent volcano of the Milbanke Sound Group.

Lady Douglas Island

Lady Douglas Island is an island in the North Coast region of the Canadian province of British Columbia. It is located off the south coast of Dowager Island.Lady Douglas Island is part of a volcanic area called the Milbanke Sound Group which includes monogenetic cinder cones. Basaltic tuff breccias on Lady Douglas Island originated from Helmet Peak on the north end of Lake Island.

Lake Island (British Columbia)

Lake Island is an island on the coast of the Canadian province of British Columbia. It is located between Mathieson Channel and Lady Trutch Passage, and is flanked by Dowager Island (to the northwest), Lady Douglas Island (to the west), and a long finger shaped peninsula of the Canadian mainland to the east. Lake Island is not a lake island, as it is in an inlet of the Pacific Ocean, and lies only some 6 kilometres from the open sea.

Lake Island is part of a volcanic area called the Milbanke Sound Group and includes monogenetic cinder cones. Basaltic tuff breccias on Lake Island originated from Helmet Peak.

Mathieson Channel

Mathieson Channel is a channel of the British Columbia Coast. It is a northern extension of Milbanke Sound. To its west are Pooley, Roderick, Susan and Dowager Islands, to its east the Don Peninsula. It was first charted in 1793 by James Johnstone, one of George Vancouver's lieutenants during his 1791-95 expedition.

Milbanke

Milbanke may refer to:

People:

Sir John Milbanke, 10th Baronet, VC (1872–1915), British Army officer and a recipient of the Victoria Cross

Elizabeth Milbanke Lamb, Viscountess Melbourne (1751–1818), political hostess, wife of Whig politician Peniston Lamb, 1st Viscount Melbourne

Ralph King-Milbanke, 2nd Earl of Lovelace (1839–1906), British author of Astarte: A Fragment of Truth concerning the first Lord Byron

Noel Anthony Scawen Lytton-Milbanke, 4th Earl of Lytton, 4th Earl of Lytton OBE (1900–1985), British Army officer, Arabian horse fancier and writer

Annabella Milbanke (1792–1860), known as Lady Byron, wife of poet George Gordon Byron, more commonly known as Lord Byron

Mark Milbanke (1724–1805), British naval officer and colonial governor

Ada King-Milbanke, 14th Baroness Wentworth (1871–1917), British peerBaronetage:

Milbanke baronets, a title in the Baronetage of EnglandGeography:

Milbanke Sound, on the coast of the Canadian province of British Columbia, extending east from Queen Charlotte Sound

Milbanke Sound Group, enigmatic group of five small basaltic volcanoes in the Kitimat Ranges of the Coast Mountains in British Columbia, Canada

Milbanke Sound Group

The Milbanke Sound Group, also called the Milbanke Sound Cones, is an enigmatic group of five small basaltic volcanoes in the Kitimat Ranges of the Coast Mountains in British Columbia, Canada. Named for Milbanke Sound, this volcanic group straddles on at least four small islands (three of which are uninhabited), including Swindle, Price, Lady Douglas and Lake Island. Not much is known about this group of volcanoes and they remain undated. However, they all likely formed in the past 10,000 years after the last glacial period as evidenced by a small amount of erosion. The age of the most recent volcanic activity is also unknown. Most of the Milbanke Sound Cones are covered by mature forest. Kitasu Hill and Helmet Peak are the only two cones that are officially named.

This group of volcanoes is unlike many other volcanic groups in Canada as it resides on islands instead of on the mainland. The volcanoes form a northwest-southeast trend along the British Columbia Coast. To the west the Milbanke Sound Group is bounded by the Pacific Ocean and elsewhere it is surrounded by adjacent islands that form an archipelago. Although not related, the Milbanke Sound Group is close to the remains of a much older magmatic feature that was formed during the Tertiary period.

Price Island

Price Island is an island on the coast of the Canadian province of British Columbia. It is located at the southeastern end of Hecate Strait and the northeastern end of Queen Charlotte Sound. The southernmost point of Price Island, called Day Point, is used to delineate the boundary between Hecate Strait and Queen Charlotte Sound. Milbanke Sound is just to the south of Price Island. Laredo Sound is just north. Swindle Island lies just north of Price Island. The main Inside Passage route crosses Milbanke Sound and enters Finlayson Channel just east of Price Island. Price Island is located within the Kitimat-Stikine Regional District.

Price Island is 23 kilometres (14 mi) long and 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) wide. It is 122 square kilometres (47 sq mi) in area.Price Island was named in 1866 by Captain Daniel Pender of the Royal Navy, after Captain John Adolphus Pope Price, also of the Royal Navy.Price Island is part of a volcanic center called the Milbanke Sound Group which includes several monogenetic cinder cones. Holocene basaltic lava flows from Price Island overlie adjacent beach deposits.

Seaforth Channel

Seaforth Channel is a channel in the Central Coast region of the Canadian province of British Columbia which is part of the Inside Passage - the 950 miles (1,530 km) passage between Seattle, Washington and Juneau, Alaska. The marine highway goes through Seaforth Channel on the way to Milbanke Sound, one of the open sea portions of the Inland Passage. Seaforth Channel which is part of the Prince Rupert/Port Hardy BC ferry route, extends in a westerly direction from Denny Island to Milbanke Sound between Denny Island, Campbell Island and the Wright group of islands on the south. In October 2016 a Texas-owned tug/barge transiting the Canadian waters of the Inside Passage without a local pilot was hard grounded on a reef at the entrance to Seaforth Channel in October 2016. More than 100,000 litres of fuel contaminated the

coast, coves and shores 20 kilometres west of Bella Bella, the core community of the Heiltsuk Nation as well as the environmentally sensitive Great Bear Rainforest - Canada's contribution to the Queen's Commonwealth Canopy (QCC), a network of forest conservation programs. Clean up response and salvage was criticized by the Heiltsuk, B.C. Premier Christy Clark and Prime Minister Justin Trudeau. In November in Vancouver the Prime Minister announced a $1.5B ocean protection plan to "create a marine safety system, restore marine ecosystems and undertake research into oil spill cleanup methods."

Swindle Island

Swindle Island is an island on the North Coast of the Canadian province of British Columbia. It is located south of Princess Royal Island on the Inside Passage shipping route. The small First Nations community of Klemtu is located on its eastern side across from Cone Island. Price Island lies just south of Swindle Island. Both are located within the Kitimat-Stikine Regional District. Swindle Island′s southernmost extermity is Jorkins Point, which lies at the confluence of Milbanke Sound and Finlayson Channel.

Swindle Island is part of a volcanic center called the Milbanke Sound Group which includes several monogenetic cinder cones. Kitasu Hill on the western side of Swindle Island is a young basaltic cinder cone that produced lava flows that extend to the north.

Volcanic group

A volcanic group (or, equivalently, a volcanic complex) is a collection of related volcanoes or volcanic landforms. The term is also used in a different sense when it denotes a suite of associated rock strata largely of volcanic origin; see group (stratigraphy) for details.

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