Milas

Milas (Ancient Greek: Μύλασα, Mylasa) is an ancient city and the seat of the district of the same name in Muğla Province in southwestern Turkey. The city commands a region with an active economy and very rich in history and ancient remains, the territory of Milas containing a remarkable twenty-seven archaeological sites of note.[3] The city was the first capital of ancient Caria and of the Anatolian beylik of Menteşe in mediaeval times. The nearby Mausoleum of Hecatomnus is classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[4]

Milas is focused on agricultural and aquacultural processing, related industrial activities, services, transportation (particularly since the opening of Milas-Bodrum Airport), tourism and culture. The centre lies about 20 km from the coast and is closer to the airport than Bodrum itself, with many late arrival passengers of the high season increasingly opting to stay in Milas rather than in Bodrum where accommodation is likely to be difficult to find.

Milas district covers a total area of 2167 km2 and this area follows a total coastline length of 150 km, both to the north-west in the Gulf of Güllük and to the south along the Gulf of Gökova, and to these should be added the shores of Lake Bafa in the north divided between the district area of Milas and that of Aydın district of Söke.

Along with the province seat of Muğla and the province's southernmost district of Fethiye, Milas is among the prominent settlements of south-west Turkey, these three centers being on a par with each other in terms of all-year population and the area their depending districts cover. Five townships have their own municipalities, and a total of 114 villages depend on Milas, distinguishing the district with a record number of dependent settlements for a very wide surrounding region. Milas center is situated on a fertile plain at the foot of Mount Sodra, on and around which sizable quarries of white marble are found and have been used since very ancient times.

Milas
District
Panorama of Milas plain.
Panorama of Milas plain.
Location of Milas within Turkey.
Location of Milas within Turkey.
Milas is located in Turkey
Milas
Milas
Location of Milas within Turkey.
Coordinates: 37°19′N 27°47′E / 37.317°N 27.783°ECoordinates: 37°19′N 27°47′E / 37.317°N 27.783°E
Country Turkey
RegionAegean
ProvinceMuğla
First citedIn early-7th century BC context as Mylasa in connection with King Gyges of Lydia's seizure of the Lydian throne, with help from the Carian chieftain Arselis
Carians to Menteşe Turkish period (14th century)Cited as Mylasa and variants
Turkish period (14th century) to the presentCited as Milas and the capital of the Beylik of Menteşe, after 1420 an Ottoman sanjak, after 1923 a district and its center under the Turkish Republic
Municipalities5
Government
 • MayorMuhammet Tokat (Republican People's Party)
Area
 • District2,110.25 km2 (814.77 sq mi)
Population
 (2012)[2]
 • Urban
55,348
 • District
128,006
 • District density61/km2 (160/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Area code(s)(+90) 252
Licence plate48
WebsiteMilas Municipality
Prefecture of Milas
Smallscale Mausolus Mausoleum (Gumuskesen) Monument Milas Turkey
Gümüşkesen chambered tomb monument in Milas, built during the city's Roman Period and modelled on the Mausoleum of Mausolus

Etymology

The name Mylasa, with the old Anatolian ending in -asa is evidence of very early foundation. On the basis of the -mil syllable found also in the name the Lycians called themselves Trmili, a theory connects the name of Mylasa with the passage of the Lycians from Miletus, also claimed to be a Lycian foundation under the name Millawanda by Ephorus, to their final home in the south. But there is nothing else to suggest a Lycian origin for the name Mylasa.[5] Stephanus of Byzantium in his Ethnica says that the city took its name from a certain Mylasus, son of Chrysaor and a descendant of Sisyphus and Aeolus, an explanation some sources deem unsubstantial for a Carian city.[6]

History

The city's earliest historical mention is at the beginning of the 7th century BC, when a Carian leader from Mylasa by name Arselis is recorded to have helped Gyges of Lydia in his contest for the Lydian throne. The same episode is at the origin of the accounts surrounding the beginning of the cult for and the erection of the statue of Labrandean Zeus in the neighboring sanctuary of Labranda, held sacred by peoples across western Anatolia, with the statue holding the labrys brought over by Arselis from Lydia. Labrandean Zeus (sometimes also named "Zeus Stratios") was one of the three deities proper to Mylasa, all named Zeus but each bearing indigenous characteristics. Of these, the cult of Zeus Carius (Carian Zeus) was also notable in being exclusively reserved, aside from the Carians, to their Lydian and Mysian kinsmen. One of the finest temples was also the one dedicated to Zeus Osogoa (originally, just Osogoa), traceable to times when the Carians had been a maritime folk and which recalled to Pausanias the Acropolis of Athens.[7]

Persian period

Under Achaemenid rule Mylasa was the chief city of Caria. A ruler appointed by the Persian Emperor (satrap) ruled the city in varying degrees of allegiance to the emperor. The first dynasty of ruler under the Achaemenid Empire was the Lygdamid dynasty (520-450 BCE). Between 460-450 BC, Mylasa was a regionally prominent member of the Delian League, like most Carian cities, but the Persian rule was restored towards the end of the same century.

MapaTopográficoDeAsiaMenor-Caria
Map of Milas and neighbouring ancient cities in Caria

Hecatomnid dynasty

The Hecatomnids, the dynasty founded by Hecatomnus, were officially satraps of the Persian Empire but Greek in language and culture, as their inscriptions and coins witness. Mylasa was their capital and the mausoleum of Hecatomnus can still be seen today which served as an architectural precedent from which the later mausolea of the dynasty developed. During the long and striking reign of Mausolus, they became virtual rulers of Caria and of a sizable surrounding region between 377-352 BC. During Mausolus's reign the capital was moved to Halicarnassus, but Mylasa retained its importance. Mausolus was the builder of the famous Ancient Wonder of the World, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.

In the 1st century BC the two major, and antagonistic, politicians of the city were Euthydemos (in Greek Εὐθύδημος) and Hybreas (Ὑβρέας) and, when the first died, the second spoke at his funeral coining the proverbial phrase ”You are a necessary evil: we can live neither with you nor without you”.

Roman period

In 40 BCE Mylasa suffered great damage when it was taken by Labienus in the Roman Civil War. In the Greco-Roman period, though the city was contested among the successors of Alexander, it enjoyed a season of brilliant prosperity, and the three neighbouring towns of Euromus, Olymos and Labranda were included within its limits. Mylasa is frequently mentioned by ancient writers. At the time of Strabo the city boasted two remarkable orators, Euthydemos and Hybreas. Various inscriptions tell us that the Phrygian cults were represented here by the worship of Sabazios; the Egyptian, by that of Isis and Osiris. There was also a temple of Nemesis. An inscription from Mylasa[8] provided one of the few certain data about the life of Cornelius Tacitus, identifying him as governor of Asia in 112-13.

Christian era

Among the ancient bishops of Mylasa was Saint Ephrem (fifth century), whose feast was kept on January 23, and whose relics were venerated in neighbouring city of Leuke. Cyril and his successor, Paul, are mentioned by Nicephorus Callistus[9] and in the Life of Saint Xene. Michel Le Quien mentioned the names of three other bishops,[10] and since his time the inscriptions discovered refer to two others, one anonymous,[11] the other named Basil, who built a church in honour of Saint Stephen.[12] The Saint Xene referred to above was a Roman noblewoman who, to escape the marriage which her parents wished to force upon her, donned male attire, left her country, changed her name from Eusebia to Xene ("stranger"), and lived first on the island of Cos, then at Mylasa. Since the Fourth Crusade, Mylasa has remained a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church, Mylasensis; the seat has been vacant since the death of the last bishop in 1966.[13]

Turkish era

Beys of Menteşe

Milas and the surrounding region (the Byzantine theme of Mylasa and Melanoudion) was taken over by the Turks under the command of Menteşe Bey in the late thirteenth century, who gave his name to the beylik (Menteşe) that established its capital in the city. The administrative center of his descendants was the castle of Beçin located in the contemporary dependant township of the same name at a distance of 5 km (3 mi) from Milas and which was easier to defend.

Ottoman rule

Milas, together with the entire Beylik of Menteşe was taken over by the Ottoman Empire in 1390. However, just twelve years later, Tamerlane and his forces overcame the Ottomans in the Battle of Ankara, and returned control of this region to its former rulers, the Menteşe Beys, as he did for other Anatolian beyliks. Milas was brought back under Ottoman control, this time in 1420 by the Sultan Mehmed I. One of the first acts of the Ottomans was to transfer the regional administrative seat to Muğla.

At the turn of the twentieth century, according to 1912 figures, Milas' urban center had a population of 9,000, of whom some 2,900 were Greek, a thousand or so Jewish, and the remaining majority were Turkish.[14] The Greeks of Milas were exchanged with Turks living in Greece under the 1923 agreement for the exchange of Greek and Turkish populations between the two countries, while the sizable Jewish community remained as a presence till the 1950s, at which time they emigrated to Israel; Jews formerly of Milas still visit frequently to this day.

Sights of interest

Bafa lake3
Shores of Lake Bafa under the western flank of Mount Beşparmak, the ancient Mount Latmus.

The Mausoleum of Hecatomnus was discovered in 2010 when men were arrested for illegal digging for antiquities. A marble sarcophagus and numerous frescoes were discovered in the tomb, although it was believed many relics had already been taken from the tomb and sold on the black market.[15] Recently a golden crown from the tomb has been identified and agreed to be returned to Turkey.[16] The tomb is very important for understanding of Carian art and craftsmanship as it was built by their best architects and sculptors and was a predecessor of the magnificent Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.

The walls surrounding the temenos of one of the temples dedicated to one of the Zeus (probably Zeus Osogoa and built in the first century BC) are still visible, as well as a row of columns.

The eighteenth-century English traveller Richard Pococke relates, in his Travels, having seen the temple of Augustus here; its materials have since partially been taken by Turks to build a mosque.

One of the two ancient symbols of the town is "Baltalıkapı" (Gate with an axe), a well-preserved Roman gate called as due to the eponymous double-headed axe (labrys) carved into a keystone.

Sketch of Gümüşkesen Tomb at Milas 1866
Sketch of Gümüşkesen, 1866

There is also a two-storied monumental Roman tomb dating from the 2nd century AD, called "Gümüşkesen" today and which gives its name to a whole quarter of Milas, and referred to as "Dystega" in some dated sources. This monument is most likely a simplified copy of the famous tomb of Mausolus in Halicarnassus.

There are a number of historical Turkish buildings in Milas, dating from both the Menteşe and the Ottoman periods. A number of old houses built in the nineteenth or early twentieth century that have been preserved in their original appearance are also worthy of mention. Among the three most important mosques of Milas, The Great Mosque dating from 1378 and Orhan Bey Mosque dating from 1330 were built when Milas was the capital of the Turkish principality of Menteşe. The slightly more imposing Firuz Bey Mosque was built shortly the first incorporation of Milas into the Ottoman Empire and bears the name of the city's first Ottoman administrator.

Milas Temple of Augustus.jpeg
Temple of Augustus (Uzunyuva)

Milas carpets and rugs woven of wool have been internationally famous for centuries and bear typical features. In our day, they are no longer produced in the city of Milas, but rather in a dozen villages around Milas. For the whole territory of Milas district, up to 7000 weavers' looms remain active, either full-time or at intervals following the demand, which remains quite lively both in Turkey and abroad.

Beçin Castle, the capital of Menteşe Beys, is situated at the dependent township of Beçin, at a distance of 5 kilometers from Milas city. The fortress has been restored in 1974, and the compound includes two mosques, two medreses, a hamam, the remains of a Byzantine chapel as well as traces from earlier periods.

At a distance of 14 km. from Milas center, set on a steep hillside and surrounded by pine forests is the ancient Carian cult center of Labranda, its name echoing once again the eponymous tradition of labrys. The ruins, including a temple, banqueting halls and tombs, were excavated by a Swedish team in early 20th century, as well as the views over the valley, attract the interest of rather few adventurous visitors prepared for the climb.

Gökçeler Canyon and İncirliin Cave inside the canyon are visitor attractions.

Notable people from Milas

Picture gallery

Milas Baltalı Kapı 038

Milas Baltalı Kapı East side

Milas Baltalı Kapı 037

Milas Baltalı Kapı West side

Milas Baltalı Kapı 4967

Milas Baltalı Kapı Axe

Milas Chimney 4938

Milas Chimney

Typical chimney Milas Turkey

Typical chimneys of local style

Milas Çöllüoğlu Hanı 4908

Milas Çöllüoğlu Hanı

Milas Cultural Centre 3512

Milas Cultural Centre

Milas Ulu Camii 5013

Milas Ulu Camii

Milas Ulu Camii 5012

Milas Ulu Camii Script above entrance

Milas Ulu Camii 3518

Milas Ulu Camii interior

Milas Firuz Paşa Camii 5205

Milas Firuz Paşa Camii From garden

Milas Firuz Paşa Camii 5209

Milas Firuz Paşa Camii Front

Milas Firuz Paşa Camii 5211

Milas Firuz Paşa Camii Main entrance

Milas Aga Mosque 4945

Milas Aga Mosque

Milas Aga Mosque 4947

Milas Aga Mosque

Milas Belen Camii 4922

Milas Belen Camii

Milas Belen Camii 4924

Milas Belen Camii Kitabe

Milas Zeus Karios Temple 5201

Milas Zeus Karios Temple

Milas Zeus Karios Temple 5203

Milas Zeus Karios Temple

Ancient column stork nest Milas Turkey

Stork nest on top of an ancient column

Backstreets traditional Turkish houses Milas Turkey

Backstreets of Milas

Milas Gumuskesen 4845

Gümüşkesen

Milas Gumuskesen 024

Gümüşkesen detail of ceiling

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^ Some of these are (with the names of modern-day settlements indicated in cases where ancient sites are found right within these); Beçin, Chalcetor, Euromus -originally Kyromus-, Heracleia by Latmus (Kapıkırı), Hydae -originally Kydae- (Damlıboğaz), Iasos (Kıyıkışlacık), Keramos/Ceramus (Ören), Kuyruklu Kale (Yusufça), Labranda, Olymus -originally Hylimus-.
  4. ^ Mausoleum and Sacred area of Hecatomnus: http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5729/
  5. ^ Antony G. Keen (1998). Dynastic Lycia: A political history of the Lycians and their relations with foreign powers, C. 545-362 ISBN 978-90-04-10956-8. Brill Publishers, Leiden. templatestyles stripmarker in |title= at position 104 (help)
  6. ^ George Ewart Bean (1989). Turkey beyond the Meander ISBN 978-0-7195-4663-1. John Murray Publishers Ltd, London. templatestyles stripmarker in |title= at position 27 (help)
  7. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece: VIII, x, 3.
  8. ^ The inscription was published in Bulletin de correspondance hellénique, 1890, pp. 621-623.
  9. ^ Nicephorus Callistus Xanthopoulos. Historia ecclesiastica: XIV, 52.
  10. ^ Michel Le Quien. Oriens Christianus, I, 921.
  11. ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum, 9271.
  12. ^ Bulletin de correspondance hellenique, XIV, 616.
  13. ^ Mylasa (Titular See); Catholic Encyclopedia: Mylasa".
  14. ^ According to the same sources, for the whole area covered by the subdistrict (kaza) of Milas, these figures were 28,500 for the whole population, 21,000 of which were Turkish and 3,500 to 7,000, according to varying sources, were Greeks. Data from Anagiostopoulou 1997 and Sotiriadis 1918.
  15. ^ The Tomb of Hecatomnus - Milas, Turkey: https://archive.archaeology.org/1101/topten/turkey.html
  16. ^ Golden crown of Hecatomnus to be returned to Turkey: https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2017/12/golden-crown-of-hecatomnus-to-be.html#H4j4Ai1DMFq2gekO.99

External links

Ab Talak

Ab Talak (Persian: اب تلك‎, also Romanized as Āb Talak) is a village in Milas Rural District, in the Central District of Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 30, in 7 families.

Anju, Iran

Anju (Persian: انجو‎, also Romanized as Anjū) is a village in Milas Rural District, in the Central District of Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 317, in 67 families.

Bagh Anar-e Milas

Bagh Anar-e Milas (Persian: باغ انارميلاس‎, also Romanized as Bāgh Anār-e Mīlās) is a village in Milas Rural District, in the Central District of Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 2,258, in 442 families.

Bar Aftab-e Milas

Bar Aftab-e Milas (Persian: برافتاب ميلاس‎, also Romanized as Bar Āftāb-e Mīlās, Bar Aftāb-e Mīlās, and Bar Aftāb Mīlās) is a village in Milas Rural District, in the Central District of Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 885, in 159 families.

Chahgah-e Milas

Chahgah-e Milas (Persian: چاهگاه ميلاس‎, also Romanized as Chāhgāh-e Mīlās) is a village in Milas Rural District, in the Central District of Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 471, in 92 families.

Chal Betan

Chal Betan (Persian: چالبتان‎, also Romanized as Chāl Betān and Chalbatan) is a village in Milas Rural District, in the Central District of Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 354, in 74 families.

Deh Now-e Milas

Deh Now-e Milas (Persian: دهنوميلاس‎, also Romanized as Deh Now-e Mīlās and Deh Now-ye Mīlās) is a village in Milas Rural District, in the Central District of Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 3,331, in 610 families.

Eslamabad, Lordegan

Eslamabad (Persian: اسلام اباد‎, also Romanized as Eslāmābād; also known as Eslāmābād-e Mīlās) is a village in Milas Rural District, in the Central District of Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 363, in 69 families.

Hoseynabad, Lordegan

Hoseynabad (Persian: حسين اباد‎, also Romanized as Ḩoseynābād) is a village in Milas Rural District, in the Central District of Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 473, in 92 families.

Karf-e Sofla

Karf-e Sofla (Persian: كرف سفلي‎, also Romanized as Karf-e Soflá) is a village in Milas Rural District, in the Central District of Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 126, in 28 families.

Khalilabad, Milas

Khalilabad (Persian: خليل اباد‎, also Romanized as Khalīlābād) is a village in Milas Rural District, in the Central District of Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 269, in 49 families.

Milas, Iran

Milas (Persian: ميلاس‎, also Romanized as Mīlās) is a village in Milas Rural District, in the Central District of Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 799, in 165 families.

Milas Museum

Milas Museum (Turkish: Milas Müzesi) is a museum of archaeology and ethnography in Muğla Province of Turkey.

It is situated in Milas ilçe (district) of Muğla Province at 37°18′48″N 27°47′03″E. It was established in 1987. The museum is in a two-story building with a 1.5 decares (0.37 acres) yard. Most of the exhibited items are from Stratonicea, Iasos, Damlıboğaz (Hydai), and Beçin. The number of exhibited items are 3,025 archaeological items, 164 ethnographic items and 1,174 coins.

Milas Rural District

Milas Rural District (Persian: دهستان ميلاس‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in the Central District of Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 34,258, in 6,493 families. The rural district has 50 villages.

Milas carpet

Milas carpets and rugs (also Milâs or Melas) are Turkish carpets and rugs that bear characteristics proper to the district of Milas in Muğla Province in southwestern Turkey. There are also a number of variants within the definition of Milas carpets. These variants are called under such names as Ada Milas, Patlıcanlı, Cıngıllı Cafer, Gemisuyu, and Elikoynunda, depending on the style, colors and other characteristics.

Milas–Bodrum Airport

Milas–Bodrum Airport (IATA: BJV, ICAO: LTFE) is an international airport that serves the Turkish towns of Bodrum and Milas. The airport is situated 36 km northeast of the town of Bodrum, and 16 km south of Milas.

Pataveh, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari

Pataveh (Persian: پاتوه‎, also Romanized as Pātāveh) is a village in Milas Rural District, in the Central District of Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 69, in 13 families.

Sar Qaleh, Lordegan

Sar Qaleh (Persian: سرقلعه‎, also Romanized as Sar Qal‘eh; also known as Sar Qal‘eh-ye Mīlās) is a village in Milas Rural District, in the Central District of Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 561, in 110 families.

Soltani, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari

Soltani (Persian: سلطاني‎, also Romanized as Solţānī) is a village in Milas Rural District, in the Central District of Lordegan County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 190, in 30 families.

Townships of Milas District, Turkey
Districts
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Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
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