Mikhail Dmitriyevich Skobelev (29 September 1843 – 7 July 1882) was a Russian general famous for his conquest of Central Asia and heroism during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. Dressed in white uniform and mounted on a white horse, and always in the thickest of the fray, he was known and adored by his soldiers as the "White General" (and by the Turks as the "White Pasha"). During a campaign in Khiva, his Turkmen opponents called him goz zanli or "Bloody Eyes". British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery wrote that Skobelev was the world's "ablest single commander" between 1870 and 1914 and called him a "skilful and inspiring" leader.
Mikhail Dmitriyevich Skobelev
|Born||29 September 1843|
Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
|Died||7 July 1882 (aged 38)|
Moscow, Russian Empire
|Service/||Imperial Russian Army|
|Years of service||1861–1882|
|Rank||General of the Infantry|
|Awards||Order of St. George|
Order of St. Vladimir
Order of Saint Anna
Skobelev was born in Saint Petersburg on 29 September 1843. His mother was Russian philanthropist Olga Skobeleva, and his father was Russian general Dmitry Ivanovich Skobelev. After graduating from the General Staff Academy as a staff officer, he was sent to Turkestan in 1868 and, with the exception of an interval of two years, during which he was on the staff of the grand duke Michael in the Caucasus, remained in Central Asia until 1877.
During the Khivan campaign of 1873 he commanded the advanced guard of General Lomakin's column from Kinderly Bay, in the Caspian Sea, to join General Verevkin, from Orenburg, in the expedition to the Khanate of Khiva, and, after great suffering on the desert march, took a prominent part in the capture of the Khivan capital. Later, dressed as a Turkoman, he intrepidly explored in a hostile country the route from Khiva to Igdy on the old riverbed of the Oxus. In 1875, he was given an important command in the expedition against the Khanate of Kokand under General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman, showing great capacity in the action of Makram, where he outmanoeuvered a greatly superior force and captured 58 guns, and in a brilliant night attack during the retreat from Andijan, when he routed a large force with a handful of cavalry.
He was promoted to major-general, decorated with the Order of St George, and appointed the first governor of the Ferghana Oblast. In the Turkish War of 1877 he seized the bridge over the Siret at Barboşi (nowadays a neighborhood of Galaţi, where the Siret flows into the Danube) in April; in June they crossed the Danube with the 8th corps. Skobelev commanded the Caucasian Cossack Brigade in the attack of the Green Hills at the second battle of Pleven. An infantry division under Skobelev's command assailed the Grivitsa redoubt to the north. Schakofsky managed to take two redoubts, but by the end of the day the Ottoman forces succeeded in repulsing all the attacks and retaking lost ground. Russian losses amounted to 7,300, and the Ottomans' to 2,000.
At the captured Lovetch on 3 September, the general distinguished himself again in desperate fighting on the Green Hills during the third battle of Pleven in which Skobelev took two southern redoubts. The Romanian 4th division led by General George Manu took the Grivitsa redoubt after four bloody assaults, personally assisted by Prince Carol. The next day the Turks retook the southern redoubts, but could not dislodge the Romanians, who repelled three counterattacks. From the beginning of September, Russian losses had amounted to roughly 20,000, while the Ottomans lost 5,000.
Promoted to be a lieutenant-general, and given the command of the 16th Division, he took part in the investment of Pleven and also in the fight of 9 December, when Osman Pasha surrendered, with his army. In January 1878 he crossed the Balkans in a severe snowstorm defeating the Turks at Sheynovo, near Shipka capturing 36,000 men and 90 guns.
Skobelev returned to Turkestan after the war, and in 1880 and 1881 further distinguished himself by retrieving the disasters inflicted by the Tekke Turkomans: following the Siege of Geoktepe, it was stormed, the general captured the fort. Around 8,000 Turkmen soldiers and civilians, including women and children were slaughtered in a bloodbath in their flight, along with an additional 6,500 who died inside the fortress. The Russians massacre included all Turkmen males in the fortress who had not escaped, but they spared some 5,000 women and children and freed 600 Persian slaves. The defeat at Geok Tepe and the following slaughter broke the Turkmen resistance and decided the fate of Transcaspia, which was annexed to the Russian Empire. The great slaughter proved too much to stomach reducing the Akhal-Tekke country to submission. Skobelev was removed from his command because of the massacre. He was advancing on Ashkhabad and Kalat i-Nadiri when he was disavowed and recalled to Moscow. He was given the command at Minsk. The official reason for his transfer to Europe was to appease European public opinion over the slaughter at Geok Tepe. Some have suggested that he was suffering from delusions of grandeur and showing signs of political ambition.
In the last years of his life, Skobelev engaged actively in politics, supporting the ideas of Russian nationalism and militant Pan-Slavism. He has also been credited as one of the earliest promoters of the concept "Russia for Russians". At the beginning of 1882, he made speeches in Paris and in Moscow, predicting a desperate strife between Slavs and Germans. He was at once recalled to St Petersburg. He was staying at a Moscow hotel and on his way to his estate in the country when he died suddenly of a heart attack on 7 July 1882. In Russia he was a very popular man at the time of his death, and not surprisingly, his death aroused suspicion among many. After all, he was a relatively young (38) and vigorous man. Skobelev's early death deprived Russia of a great military leader. This became especially evident during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05. The Russian generals commanding in that war were men of Skobelev's generation, but none of them had his military genius or charisma.
After Skobelev's death, in Moscow a monument was raised in his honour on a major square on Tverskaya Street (across from the city hall, where today stands the statue of Yuri Dolgorukiy, the founder of Moscow), which was given his name, and the town of Fergana in Uzbekistan was renamed Skobelev.
Today, his name still lives, even beyond the Russian Federation: shortly after the end of the Turkish War of 1877, the Bulgarians constructed a park in Pleven, Skobelev Park, on one of the hills where the major battles for the city took place. The park is also a location of the Panorama Pleven's Epopee 1877 memorial, where in one of the scenes of the gigantic 360 degree panoramic painting the White General is displayed charging with his horse and bare sword, leading the infantry Russian attack on the Turkish positions.
Shortly after the entrance of the park, the bust of the famous general can be seen, watching over the city. The park contains memorials with the names of the Russian and Romanian soldiers that died for the liberation of Pleven, and is decorated with non-functional arms donated by Russia: cannons, cannonballs, gatling guns, rifles, and bayonets.
Events from the year 1881 in RussiaAndrey Borisovich Sholokhov
Andrey Borisovich Sholokhov (Russian: 'Андре́й Бори́сович Шо́лохов) is the founder and editor-in-chief of the Russian newspaper "University News", online newspaper vuzvesti.ru and almanacs "The high school of XXI". An author of a series of books on General Mikhail Skobelev, he is an honored worker of the Culture of Russia and the winner of a government award in the education field.
He was born on 23 September 1950 in Moscow in a family of a professor of Fine Arts and an engineer. In 1972 he graduated from the Moscow State University of Printing Arts from the editorial-publishing department and in 1982 he graduated from Military-polytechnic Academy from the journalistic department.Since 1973 works as a journalist in newspapers, magazines, publishing houses. Since 1994, he is the editor-in-chief of "University News".Battle of Geok Tepe
For Lomakin's defeat at the same place in 1879 see Battle of Geok Tepe (1879)
The Battle of Geok Tepe in 1881 was the main event in the 1880/81 Russian campaign to conquer the Tekke Turkomans. Its effect was to give the Russian Empire control over most of what is now Turkmenistan, thereby nearly completing the Russian conquest of Central Asia.
The battle is also called Denghil-Tepe or Dangil Teppe. Sources are inconsistent, but Denghil-Tepe seems to have been the name of the fort and also the name of a small hill or tumulus in the northwest corner of the fort. Geok Tepe ('Blue Hill') seems to refer to the general area, the modern town, a nearby village and a mountain to the south. Skrine says that fort enclosed a square mile or more, with mud walls 18 feet thick and 10 feet high on the inside and a 4-foot dry ditch on the outside, although other dimensions are given. The area was part of the Akhal Oasis where streams coming down from the Kopet Dagh support irrigation agriculture.Battle of Lovcha
The Battle of Lovcha, or Loftcha (today Lovech), was a battle of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) which occurred during the siege of Plevna. Russian forces successfully reduced the fortress at Lovcha, which had protected Plevna's communication and supply lines.
In July 1877, shortly after the siege of Plevna began, the garrison's commander, Osman Pasha, received 15 battalions of reinforcements from Sofia. He chose to use these reinforcements to fortify Lovcha, which protected his lines of support running from Orchanie to Plevna.
After the failure of the first two attempts to storm the city of Plevna, the Russians brought up significant reinforcements, and the investing army now totaled 100,000. Intent on cutting Osman's communications and supply lines, General Alexander Imerentinsky was sent out with 22,703 Russian troops to seize Lovcha.
On September 1 Generals Alexander Imerentinsky, Mikhail Skobelev, and Vladimir Dobrowolski reached Lovcha and attacked the city. Fighting continued for the next two days. Osman marched out of Plevna to the relief of Lovcha, but on September 3, before he could reach Lovcha, it fell to the Russians. Survivors of the battle withdrew into Plevna and were organized into 3 battalions. After the loss of Lovcha, these additional troops brought Osman's force up to 30,000, the largest it would be during the siege. The Russians settled on the strategy of a complete investment of Plevna, and with the loss of its major supply route, the fall of Plevna was inevitable.Battle of Svistov
The Battle of Svistov was a battle of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. It was fought between the Ottoman Empire and Imperial Russia on 26 June 1877. It occurred when Russian general Mikhail Ivanovich Dragomirov crossed the Danube River in a fleet of small boats and attacked the Turkish fortress. The next day, Mikhail Skobelev attacked, forcing the Turkish garrison to surrender. In result, the Russian military became ready to attack Nikopol.Charles Thomas Marvin
Charles Thomas Marvin (1854–1890), writer on Russia.
Marvin was born at Plumstead, Kent, in 1854, and was in 1868 employed in a warehouse in Watling Street, city of London. At the age of sixteen he went to Russia to join his father, who was assistant-manager of some engineering works on the Neva. He remained in Russia for six years (1870–6), and acquired a good knowledge of the language. During eighteen months he was the correspondent of the ‘Globe’ at Saint Petersburg. Returning to London, he on 10 Jan. 1876, after passing the civil service examination, was appointed a temporary writer in the custom-house, and in May was transferred to inland revenue, Somerset House, and thence to the post-office. He afterwards returned to the custom-house. On 16 July 1877 he entered the foreign office, and here, although only a writer, with 88l. a year, he was on 29 May 1878 entrusted to make a copy of the secret treaty with Russia. The same evening he furnished to the ‘Globe,’ from memory, a summary of the document. On 1 June Lord Salisbury, in the House of Lords, said that this summary was ‘wholly unworthy of their lordships' confidence.’ On 14 June the ‘Globe’ printed the complete text of the treaty from Marvin's extremely retentive memory. On 26 June he was arrested, and on 16 July discharged, as he had committed no offense known to the law. In 1878 he published ‘Our Public Offices, embodying an Account of the Disclosure of the Anglo-Russian Agreement, and the unrevealed Secret Treaty of 31 May 1878.’ During the Russo-Turkish war in 1878 he contributed to twenty publications.
In 1880 he published his first book on the Russo-Indian question, ‘The Eye-witnesses' Account of the disastrous Campaign against the Akhal Tekke Turcomans,’ which was adopted by the Russian government for the military libraries, and commended by General Mikhail Skobelev. In 1881 he printed ‘Merv the Queen of the World and the Scourge of the Man-stealing Turcomans. With an Exposition on the Khorassan Question,’ in which he predicted that the next Russian advance would be pushed to Panjdeh. In 1882 he was sent to Russia by Joseph Cowen, M.P., to interview the principal generals and statesmen on the Russo-Indian question. On his return he wrote ‘The Russian Advance towards India: Conversations with Skobeleff, Ignatieff, and other Russian Generals and Statesmen on the Central Asian Question.’ The following year he proceeded to the Caucasus, and explored the Russian petroleum region. An account of this was published in 1884, in ‘The Region of the Eternal Fire: an Account of a Journey to the Petroleum Region of the Caspian.’ The best-known of his works is, however, ‘The Russians at the Gates of Herat,’ 1885, a book of two hundred pages, written and published within a week, which circulated sixty-five thousand copies.
He died at Grosvenor House, Plumstead Common, Kent, on 4 Dec. 1890, and was buried in Plumstead new cemetery on 10 Dec.General Staff Academy (Imperial Russia)
The General Staff Academy (Russian: Академия генерального штаба, or Akademiya general'nogo shtaba) was a Russian military academy, established in 1832 in St.Petersburg. It was first known as the Imperial Military Academy (Императорская военная академия), then in 1855 it was renamed Nicholas General Staff Academy (in commemoration of Emperor Nicholas I) and in 1909 - Imperial Nicholas Military Academy (Императорская Николаевская военная академия).
The academy trained Imperial Russian Army officers with higher military education and military land surveyors. It admitted officers of all arms of military service up to the rank of stabbs-captain inclusive. The academy offered two principal courses, one additional course and had a geodesic department. Those who graduated from the additional course used to join the General Staff. The alumni had the right to an accelerated promotion to the next rank and commanding posts. The academy used to employ some of the best military theoriticians and historians, such as Alexei Baiov, Mikhail Dragomirov, Heinrich Leer, Dmitry Maslovsky, Nikolai Medem, Dmitry Milyutin, Alexander Myshlayevsky, Alexander Puzyrevsky and others. From 1832 to 1918, the General Staff Academy trained 4,532 General Staff officers and contributed significantly to the development of military theory. Some of the scientific works and charters prepared by the academy were even used during the first years of the formation of the Red Army.
Among academy's most famous alumni were Abdolhossein Teymourtash, Nikolai Obruchev, Fyodor Radetsky, Mikhail Skobelev, and Nikolai Stoletov. Many of its alumni would become leaders of the White movement, such as Aleksandr Kolchak and Pyotr Wrangel. Some others would take the side of the Bolsheviks as military experts and become prominent Soviet military leaders and politicians, such as Mikhail Bonch-Bruevich, Jukums Vācietis, Sergei Kamenev, Boris Shaposhnikov, Vladimir Egoryev, and others. Most of these commanders were executed in the 1930s. Also several Estonian military leaders, such as Johan Laidoner, Jaan Soots and Andres Larka, came from General Staff Academy. One of its graduates, Mykola Kapustiansky, would become a General in the army of the Ukrainian National Republic and later a founder of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists.
In March 1918, the General Staff Academy was transformed into the Red Army Military Academy. In the summer of that same year, the academy was evacuated to Kazan, where its staff would join the army of Admiral Kolchak. In 1921, the General Staff Academy was disbanded. The term was reintroduced in 1936, when the Voroshilov Military Academy of the USSR Army General Staff was established.Harmanli massacre
Harmanli massacre refers to the battle between Russian and Turkish forces and the ensuing mass death of Muslim civilians near Harmanli in early 1878, during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878).
After Suleiman Pasha's defeat at Plovdiv, his scattered troops retreated through the Rhodope Mountains and down the Maritsa valley, accompanied by large and chaotic groups of Turkish refugees. The column of refugees numbered approximately 150,000 or 200,000, people, consisting of an immense caravan with over 20,000 wagons, were retreating from Plovdiv. After the Russian success at the Battle of Sheynovo, the South Russian Detachment proceeded to Adrianople and encountered this column in the vicinity of Harmanli.
On 16–17 January 1878, a reconnaissance Russian squadron east of Harmanli encountered a large column of Turkish refugees, about 30,000 of them - armed, accompanied by scattered Ottoman army detachments. The front of the column consisted of regular Ottoman army detachments.On 17 January a Russian squadron entered Harmanli and let through the town's railroad station a train in which Ottoman generals travelled to peace talks with the Russian chief commander Nikolay Nikolayevich. Shortly after the train left Harmanli, Turks from the column set the railway bridge on the Maritsa river on fire and used carts from the column to block the road bridge. Russian forces cleared the road bridge and proceeded further on the road to Cisr-i Mustafapaşa (now Svilengrad). After the incident, the Russian field commander expressed his astonishment of the Turks' actions in a telegram to the commanding officer - General Mikhail Skobelev, given the central Ottoman authorities' efforts to conclude a truce (which was ultimately done on 19 January). On 19 January a Russian regiment received orders to clear the surroundings of Harmanli of the armed refugees and the remaining Ottoman forces in order to free up the road to Adrianople. Based on the Russian version of the events, upon approaching the column, the Russian forces were shot at by Turks hiding behind carts. During the Turks' flight, some of them encountered and burnt down the Christian village Devraliy. Based on the Turkish version of the events, the column was attacked by Russian troops. The column broke up and dispersed, the able-bodied portion of the caravan fled toward the mountains, the old, the sick and the very young who were left behind perished in the freezing weather. The old men who remaining in the carts were massacred by the Russians. A group of Muslims were overtaken at Sarambey (present day Septemvri) by Russian troops who seized all of their possessions and carried off the young women. The greater part of the caravan was also plundered by the Bulgarians of neighbouring villages, massacring the remaining refugees who were not strong enough to flee into the mountains.After the column's dispersing, the Russian commander General Mikhail Skobelev arrived at the scene, accompanied by Western military correspondents. The French journalist Dick de Lonlay described the aftermath of the battle. General Skobelev ordered a small Russian detachment to collect the remaining supplies and surviving refugees (including children) and bring them back to Harmanli. Children were handed to Harmanli's mayor who took care of their feeding. The ameliorative measures taken by the Russians were recorded in Skobelev's telegram to the commander of the Russian 30th Infantry Division. Surviving refugees who arrived in Harmanli were allowed to receive their children and property back and go to Adrianople.List of equestrian statues in Russia
This is a list of equestrian statues in Russia.Mikhail Chernyayev
Mikhail Grigorievich Chernyayev (Russian: Михаил Григорьевич Черняев) (3. November / 22 October 1828, Tubyshki, Mogilev Governorate – 16 August 1898) was a Russian general, who, together with Konstantin Kaufman and Mikhail Skobelev, directed the Russian conquest of Central Asia during the reign of Csar Alexander II.Monument to the Tsar Liberator
The Monument to the Tsar Liberator (Bulgarian: Паметник на Цар Освободител, Pametnik na Tsar Osvoboditel) is an equestrian monument in the centre of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. It was erected in honour of Russian Emperor Alexander II who liberated Bulgaria from Ottoman rule during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78.
The Neoclassical memorial's author is Italian sculptor Arnoldo Zocchi, who won the project in competition with 31 other artists from 12 countries (and with a total of 90 artists from 15 countries being interested) in the end of the 19th century. Bulgarian architect Nikola Lazarov participated in the monument's architectural design. The foundation stone was laid on 23 April 1901, St George's Day, in the presence of Knyaz Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, and the monument was completed on 15 September 1903.
Ferdinand also attended the monument's inauguration on 30 August 1907 together with his sons Boris and Kiril, Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia, son of Alexander II, together with his wife and his son, as well as other notable figures.
Erected of black polished granite from Vitosha, the Monument to the Tsar Liberator consists of a pedestal, a middle part with figures and a massive Neo-Renaissance cornice finished with the sculpture of the Russian Tsar on a horse. The bronze wreath at the foot was donated by Romania in memory of the Romanian soldiers that died during the war.
The main bronze bas-relief in the middle part depicts a group of Russian and Bulgarian soldiers led by the goddess of victory (Nike in Greek mythology and Victoria in Roman mythology), who raises her sword high above. Portraits of Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaievich, Count Ignatiev and the generals Joseph Vladimirovich Gourko and Mikhail Skobelev surround the group. Other bas-reliefs feature scenes from the Battle of Stara Zagora, the signing of the Treaty of San Stefano and the opening ceremony of the Constituent National Assembly in Veliko Tarnovo, as well as portraits of Petko Slaveykov, Stoyan Zaimov, Ivan Vazov, Stefan Stambolov and other prominent figures from the period.
The Monument to the Tsar Liberator is on Tsar Osvoboditel Boulevard, facing the National Assembly of Bulgaria and with the Radisson SAS hotel behind it.Pleven Panorama
Pleven Epopee 1877, more commonly known as Pleven Panorama, is a panorama located in Pleven, Bulgaria, that depicts the events of the Russian-Turkish War of 1877–78, specifically the five-month Siege of Plevna (Pleven Epopee) which made the city internationally famous and which contributed to the Liberation of Bulgaria after five centuries of Ottoman rule.
The panorama was created by 13 Russian and Bulgarian artists and was constructed in honor of the 100th anniversary of the Pleven Epopee and was officially unveiled on 10 December 1977. The panorama expanded the already existing Skobelev Park, which is located on the site where three of the four major battles which led to the liberation of Bulgaria took place. In the first three years after its opening, 2.5 million people visited the panorama. The monument is one of nearly 200 built by the people of Pleven in tribute to the battle and to the nearly 35,000 lives lost.Sergei Belosselsky-Belozersky
Prince (Knyaz) Sergei Konstantinovich Belosselsky-Belozersky (Russian: Сергей Константинович Белосельский-Белозерский) (1867–1951) was a Russian aristocrat, general and member of the International Olympic Committee.
Prince Sergei was a member of the Belosselsky-Belozersky family and was in 1916 one of the largest landowners in Russia. He was the son of general Konstantin Esperovich Belosselsky-Belozersky (1843-1920) and Nadezhna Dmitrovna Skobeleva (1847-1820, the sister of general Mikhail Skobelev). Sergei graduated from the Imperial Cadet Corps in 1887 and was gazetted as a cornet in the Life Guards. He was attached to the Russian embassies in Berlin and Paris. He left military service in 1894 but returned in 1895. between 1896 and 1905 he served as aide de camp to Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia. From 1908 he commanded the 3rd Novorossiysk dragoon regiment and from 1913 the Uhlans (Lancers) of the Imperial Guard. He owned an estate on Krestovsky Island, where in 1908 Nicolai, the brother of Felix Yusupov was killed in a duel with a jealous husband.
During World War I he commanded the 2nd Guards Cavalry Division and the 3rd Don Cavalry Division. From 1915 he served on the Caucasus front under General Nikolai Baratov. On 1 January Grigory Rasputin's body was found in the Malaya Neva near Bolshoy Petrovsky Bridge.
In 1917 he joined the white movement and served on the staff of White Finnish leader, Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim during the Russian Civil War. He was subsequently a staff officer in the North Western Army of General Yudenich. After the end of the Civil war Prince Sergei settled in England and died in Tonbridge in 1951.
Prince Sergei was a keen sportsman. He was one of the founders of the St Petersburg Sports Club and was Russian representative on the International Olympic Committee between 1900 and 1908.
Prince Sergei married Susan Tucker Whittier (1874-1934) and had two children
Sergei Sergeivich Belosselsky-Belozersky (1895-1978)
Andrei Sergeivich Belosselsky-Belozersky (1909 -1961)Siege of Plevna
The Siege of Plevna, or Siege of Pleven, was a major battle of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, fought by the joint army of Russia and Romania against the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman defense held up the main Russian advance southwards into Bulgaria for five months, encouraging other great powers actively to support the Ottoman cause. Eventually, superior Russian and Romanian numbers forced the garrison to capitulate. The Russian-Romanian victory on 10 December 1877 was decisive for the outcome of the war and the Liberation of Bulgaria.Skobelev
Skobelev may refer to:
Fergana, a city in Uzbekistan, called Skobelev between 1907 and 1920
Skobelev Park, a museum park in the vicinity of Pleven, BulgariaStatue of Yuriy Dolgorukiy, Moscow
The Statue of Yuriy Dolgorukiy is an equestrian statue which commemorates the founding of Moscow in 1147 by Yuriy Dolgorukiy (1099 – 1157). Dolgorukiy was the Grand Prince (Velikiy Knyaz) of the Kievan Rus' (Kiev) and a member of the Rurik dynasty. On 6 June 1954, the statue was erected in Tverskaya Square (then called "Soviet Square"), located in front of the building of the Moscow Mayor (then, the "Mossovet"). The sculptors were Sergei Mikhailovich Orlov, A. P. Antropov, and Nicholay Lvovich Shtamm. The architectural design was by Viktor Semenovich Andreyev. The statue replaced one of the general, Mikhail Skobelev.The Death of Achilles
The Death of Achilles (Russian: Смерть Ахиллеса) is the fourth novel in the Erast Fandorin historical detective series by Boris Akunin. Its subtitle is детектив о наемном убийце ("a detective novel about a murderer-for-hire"). It was originally published in Russian in 1998; the English translation was released in 2006.Treaty of Akhal
The Treaty of Akhal was a treaty signed by Persia and Imperial Russia on 21 September 1881. The treaty marked Persia's official recognition of Khwarazm's annexation by the Russian Empire. Although Persia had won a clear victory in the last Ottoman–Persian War (1821–23) over their Ottoman arch rivals, it had been considerably weakened by years of ineffective rulers, the defeat against Russia in 1813 and 1828 in which they lost all of the Caucasus, and with the increasing occupation by Great Britain of Egypt, during the years of 1873 to 1881, and on top of that the decaying Ottoman Empire, Imperial Russia stepped up its campaign to wrest full control over Central Asia. See The Great Game. Hence forces led by Generals Mikhail Skobelev, Ivan Lazarev, and Konstantin Kaufman spearheaded the campaign, with Persia unable to react. The immobilized Naser al-Din Shah Qajar sent foreign secretary Mirza Sa'eed Khan Mo'tamen ol-Mulk to meet Ivan Zinoviev and sign a treaty in Tehran.
By virtue of this treaty, Persia would henceforth cease any claim to all parts of Turkestan and Transoxiana, setting the Atrek River as the new boundary. Hence Merv, Sarakhs, Eshgh Abad, and the surrounding areas were transferred to Russian control under the command of General Alexander Komarov in 1884.William Kinnaird Rose
William Kinnaird Rose (1845–1919), was a Scottish journalist, war correspondent, investigator and editor of the Brisbane Courier.
Rose was born in Glasgow in 1845 and educated at Kilmarnock Academy, Ayr Academy and at Edinburgh University.
After graduation from university. Rose acted as special commissioner of the London Daily Telegraph investigating the condition of Scotch agricultural labourers.
During the Russo-Turkish wars of the late 19th century, Rose served as a correspondent for the newspaperThe Scotsman and served on the staff of Russian General Mikhail Skobelev. Rose was present during the Siege of Plevna, the capture of the Gravitza redoubt, and most of the other battles in that conflict. He was several times wounded.
After coming home from Eastern Europe, Rose returned to Edinburgh University for three years to study law
In 1879, Rose returned to Eastern Europe as a special commissioner to investigate the conditions of Christians living under Ottoman Turkish rule in Roumelia, Macedonia, Albania and Armenia. During his stay in Europe, Rose narrowly escape assassination in Albania, and was temporarily imprisoned in Rome on a charge of possessing forged notes given him by a dealer in antiquities.Back in England, Rose's report was a subject of debate in both Houses of Parliament.
In 1884, on the advice of Sir Thomas McIlwraith, Rose moved to Queensland in Australia. In December 1884, he was admitted to the Bar Association in that city. In 1885, Rose was appointed a commissioner to inquire into the Polynesian labour traffic. Rose's report was critical of this method of supplying labour to the Queensland sugar plantations. At the beginning of 1888, Rose became editor-in-chief of the Courier. In 1891, Rose returned to England.