Mihály Vörösmarty

Mihály Vörösmarty (archaically English: Michael Vorosmarthy[1] 1 December 1800 – 19 November 1855) was an important Hungarian poet and dramatist.

Mihály Vörösmarty
Vorosmarty Mihály
SpouseLaura Csajághy


He was born at Puszta-Nyék (now Kápolnásnyék), of a noble Roman Catholic family. His father was a steward of the Nádasdys. Mihály was educated at Székesfehérvár by the Cistercians and at Pest by the Piarists. The death of the elder Vörösmarty in 1817 left his widow and numerous family extremely poor. As tutor to the Perczel family, however, Vörösmarty contrived to pay his own way and go through his academical course at Pest.[2]

The activities of the diet of 1825 enkindled his patriotism and gave a new direction to his poetry. He had already begun a drama entitled Salomon. He flung himself ever more recklessly into public life until he fell in love with Etelka Perczel, who socially was far above him. Many of his lyrics concern this unrequited love. Meanwhile, his patriotism found expression in the heroic epic Zalán futása ("The Flight of Zalán", 1824), which, while dealing with the Hungarian past, also dealt with contemporary political concerns.[3] This new epic marked a transition from the classical to the romantic school.[2]

Henceforth Vörösmarty was hailed by Károly Kisfaludy and the Hungarian romanticists as one of their own. He had forsaken the law for literature, and his financial situation deteriorated. Between 1823 and 1831 he composed four dramas and eight smaller epics, partly historical, partly fanciful. Of these epics he always regarded Cserhalom (1825) as the best, but later criticism preferred A két szomszédvár ("Two Neighbouring Castles", 1831).[2]

Vorosmarty Mihaly Bonyhad

When the Hungarian Academy was established on 17 November 1830 he was elected a member of the philological section, and ultimately succeeded Károly Kisfaludy as director with an annual pension of 500 florins. He was one of the founders of the Kisfaludy Society, and in 1837 started two periodicals: the Athenaeum and the Figyelmező. The first was the chief bellettristic periodical, and the second was a critical periodical.[2]

From 1830 to 1843 he devoted himself mainly to the drama, including Csongor és Tünde ("Csongor and Tünde", 1830), a five-act play inspired by Albert Gergei's Prince Árgirus and by A Midsummer Night's Dream; and Vérnász ("Blood Wedding", 1833), which won the Academy's 200-gulden prize.[2] Csongor és Tünde was described by György Lukács in 1911 as the best Hungarian play of the nineteenth century. He also published several volumes of poetry. His song Szózat ("Appeal", 1836) was to become a second national anthem, and he wrote Az elhagyott anya ("The Abandoned Mother", 1837) and Az uri hölgyhöz ("To the Noble Lady", 1841). His marriage in 1843 to Laura Csajághy inspired him to compose a new cycle of love poems. They had five children, including Béla and Ilona. In 1848, in conjunction with Arany and Petőfi, he contributed to a translation of Shakespeare's works.[2]

His statue on Vörösmarty tér

With the support of Lajos Kossuth and Imre Cseszneky, he was elected to represent Jankovác at the diet of 1848, and in 1849 was made one of the judges of the high court. The national catastrophe (the fall of the revolution of 1848-49) profoundly affected him. For a short time he was an exile, and when he returned to Hungary in 1850 he was already in serious decline. In 1854 he wrote his last poem, A vén cigány ("The Old Gypsy"). He moved back to Pest to be close to doctors, and died there, in the same house where Károly Kisfaludy had died twenty-five years before. He was buried in Kerepesi Cemetery. His funeral, on 21 November, was a day of national mourning. His penniless children were provided for by a national subscription collected by Ferenc Deák, who acted as their guardian.[2]


  • A monument by Ede Kallós, constructed in the 1900s, stands in Budapest in the square which bears his name.
  • Mihály Vörösmarty stamp was issued by Hungary on 5 May 1937 showing his portrait.[4]
  • Another stamp was issued by Hungary on 28 July 1955 in the Poets series.[5]


  1. ^ Author, and sold: Poetry of the Magyars: Preceded by a Sketch of the Language and Literature of Hungary and Transylvania -PAGE: 173
  2. ^ a b c d e f g  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainBain, Robert Nisbet (1911). "Vörösmarty, Mihály" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 213.
  3. ^ Bak, János M. (2015). "From the Anonymous Gesta to the Flight of Zalán by Vörösmarty". In Bak, János M.; Geary, Patrick J.; Klaniczay, Gábor (eds.). Manufacturing a Past for the Present: Forgery and Authenticity in Medievalist Texts and Objects in Nineteenth Century Europe. Brill. p. 103.
  4. ^ colnect.com/en/stamps/list/country/6955-Hungary/year/1937
  5. ^ colnect.com/en/stamps/list/country/6955- Hungary/year/1955/page/3

External links

Aurora (literary journal)

Aurora was a literary journal founded by Károly Kisfaludy in 1821. It was crucial in the development of Romanticism in Hungarian literature, and in establishing Pest as a literary centre. The magazine adopted a progressive literary approach.Kisfaludy began collecting contributions in 1820, but it was not until the autumn of 1821 that the first issue appeared (bearing the date 1822). He himself wrote prolifically for his own magazine: short stories, poems, and folk songs. It began as an annual but by its end it was appearing at six-month intervals. Its circulation was approximately 1000.

Hungarian writers who travelled abroad to cultivate links with German and English literati could point to Aurora as evidence of the existence of a new and vital literary culture which would transcend the neoclassicism of elder figures like Ferenc Kazinczy. Béla Bartók also published articles on music in the magazine.Upon Kisfaludy's death in 1830, József Bajza took over the magazine. A dispute with the printer led in 1834 to the brief appearance of a rival version of the magazine with a different editor.

Censorship took its toll on Aurora, and in 1837 the magazine ceased publication. Its social role was taken by a new magazine, the Athenaeum (1837-43), edited by Bajza and Vörösmarty and appearing twice or thrice a week.

The main members of the Aurora circle were Károly Kisfaludy, József Bajza, Ferenc Toldy,

and Mihály Vörösmarty. The circle's influence was limited in the 1840s and after the failure of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 they ceased to be literary leaders in Hungary.

Béla Vörösmarty

Béla Vörösmarty (23 April 1844 – 9 October 1904) was a Hungarian jurist and politician, son of poet Mihály Vörösmarty and Laura Csajághy and brother of Ilona Vörösmarty.

Csokonai Theatre

The Csokonai Theatre is the oldest and largest theatre in Debrecen, Hungary. Designed by Antal Szkalnitzky with Moorish styled ornamentations, the theatre opened on Kossuth Lajos utca in 1865, with Róza Laborfalvi as Gertrude in a performance of József Katona's 1819 play Bánk bán.Inside, the theatre is richly decorated, and outside are sculptures of Sándor Petőfi, Ferenc Kazinczy, Mihály Vörösmarty, Károly Kisfaludy, Ferenc Kölcsey, and Mihály Csokonai Vitéz, after whom the theatre was named in 1916.Among the important actors that have performed in the theatre are Lujza Blaha, Kornélia Prielle, Csortos Gyula, Kálmán Rózsahegyi, László Mensáros, István Dégi, László Márkus, Zoltán Latinovits, József Szendrő, and Géza Hofi.

Danube Promenade

The Danube Promenade (Hungarian: Dunakorzó) is located on the Pest side of Budapest, Hungary. On the bank of the Danube, this promenade extends from the Széchenyi Chain Bridge to the Erzsébet Bridge.


Enikő is a Hungarian female given name, which was created by Hungarian poet Mihály Vörösmarty in the 19th century, and derived from the name Enéh, which means a "young hind" (female deer). In Hungarian mythology, Enéh or Eneth was the mother of Hunor and Magor, who were the fathers of the Hungarian and the Hun nations. The name Enikő may refer to:

Enikő Barabás (born 1986), Romanian rower

Enikő Berkes (born 1975), Hungarian ice dancer

Enikő Bollobás (born 1952), Hungarian literary scholar

Enikő Eszenyi (born 1961), Hungarian actress

Enikő Győri (born 1968), Hungarian politician

Enikő Mihalik (born 1987), Hungarian model

Enikő Muri (born 1990), Hungarian singer

Enikő Somorjai (born 1981), Hungarian ballerina

Enikő Szabó (born 1979), Hungarian athlete

György Zádor

György Zádor (Duka, July 3, 1799-Pest, August 17, 1866) was a Hungarian jurist and writer. He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Kisfaludy Society.

György Zádor went to schools in Pápa, Kőszeg, Győr and to the University in Pest, where he met Mihály Vörösmarty and he started publishing using Fenyéri Gyula as his nom de plume.

Ilona Vörösmarty

Ilona Vörösmarty (2 May 1846 – 13 December 1910) was a Hungarian noblewoman, the second child and the daughter of poet Mihály Vörösmarty and Laura Csajághy.

János Kardos

János Kardos, also known in Slovene as Janoš Kardoš (around February 13, 1801 in Újtölgyes, Kingdom of Hungary, today Noršinci, Slovenia – August 12, 1875 in Őrihodos, Austria-Hungary, today Hodoš, Slovenia) was a Hungarian Slovenian Lutheran priest, teacher, and writer.

He worked and lived in Hodoš, in what was then known as the Slovene March and is today referred to as Prekmurje. After finishing studies in theology in Vienna, he returned to his homeland and wrote and translated several ecclesiastical books and schoolbooks. Kardos was the first to translate works by Hungarian writers and poets from Hungarian into the Prekmurje dialect. Among others, he translated works by Sándor Petőfi, János Arany, Mór Jókai, Sándor Kisfaludy, and Mihály Vörösmarty.

Kerepesi Cemetery

Kerepesi Cemetery (Hungarian: Kerepesi úti temető or Kerepesi temető, official name: Fiumei úti nemzeti sírkert, i.e. "Fiume Road National Graveyard") is the most famous cemetery in Budapest. It is one of the oldest cemeteries in Hungary which has been almost completely preserved as an entity.

Kálmán Széll

Kálmán Széll de Duka et Szentgyörgyvölgy (8 June 1843 – 16 August 1915) was a Hungarian politician who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 1899 to 1903.


Kápolnásnyék is a village in Fejér county, Hungary.

List of Hungarian writers

Below is an alphabetical list of notable Hungarian writers.


"Maamme" (Finnish: [ˈmɑːmːe]) or "Vårt land" (Finland Swedish: [ˈvoːrt ˈlanːd]; both meaning "Our Land") is Finland's national anthem. The music was composed by the German immigrant Fredrik Pacius, with (original Swedish) words by Johan Ludvig Runeberg, and with this music it was performed for the first time on 13 May 1848. Originally it was written for the 500th anniversary of Porvoo and for that occasion it was Runeberg himself who wrote the music. The poem has been influenced by the "Szózat" (Appeal) of Mihály Vörösmarty,

both in style and content.The melody of "Maamme" is also used for the national anthem of Estonia with a similarly themed text, "Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm" ("My Fatherland, My Happiness and Joy", 1869). It is also considered to be the ethnic anthem for the Livonians as "Min izāmō" ("My Fatherland").

Matthias Fountain

Matthias Fountain (Hungarian: Mátyás kútja, German: König Mathias Brunnen) is a monumental fountain group in the western forecourt of Buda Castle, Budapest. Alajos Stróbl’s Neo-Baroque masterpiece is one of the most frequently photographed landmark in the Hungarian capital. It is sometimes called the ’Trevi Fountain of Budapest’.


Nadap is a village in Fejér county in central Hungary, with population of 460. Lying among low Velence Hills, it is the point of departure for sightseeing tours on the countryside. The obelisk in the vicinity, called "ancient mark of Nadap" serves as a geodetic point of reference at elevation of 173.8 m. Mihály Vörösmarty was christened in the Catholic church of Saint Rosalia in the village, and the christening basin is still preserved in the church.


The "Szózat" (in English: "Appeal" or "Summons") is a Hungarian patriotic song. It is considered as a second national anthem of Hungary, beside the Himnusz. Usually only its first two stanzas are sung at national celebrations. The official anthem is sung at the beginning of ceremonies, and Szózat is sung at the end.

It was written in 1836 by Mihály Vörösmarty, and was set to music in 1840 by Béni Egressy for the award of András Bartay, head of the national theatre. It was first performed at 10th May 1843, in the National Theatre. There was a long debate in that era whether Szózat or Himnusz would be chosen as the national anthem.

The title of Vörösmarty's work defines the situation: it is a speech, oration of a raconteur (the poet) to the Hungarian people. Although the Szózat of Vörösmarty touches similar thoughts as the poems of Ferenc Kölcsey, even as continuing his train of thought, its intonation is entirely different. Himnusz (Hymn) is a prayer, but Szózat acts rather like a speech, addressing the listener/reader by the narrator in the role of an orator. Furthermore, as a prayer, Himnusz becomes almost a begging for the last verse, while Szózat is much more uplifting, unfaltering, inspiring for patriotism and loyalty. However, it also reckons with the concerns of Himnusz, sees the death of the nation as a possibility: 'Or it will come, if it must come, The glorious death'. At the same time it finds possible the coming of a better era: 'There yet shall come … that better, fairer day'. The poem deals with the past in three, with the future in six verses.

It was translated to English by Watson Kirkconnell, Canadian writer, academic.


Tihany is a village on the northern shore of Lake Balaton on the Tihany Peninsula (Hungary, Veszprém County). The whole peninsula is a historical district.

The center of the district is the Benedictine Tihany Abbey, which was founded in 1055 AD by András (Andrew) I, who is buried in the crypt. The founding charter of this abbey is the first extant record of Hungarian language, preserved in Pannonhalma Benedictine Archabbey. The church itself was rebuilt in baroque style in 1754. The still functioning abbey is a popular tourist attraction due to its historical and artistic significance. It also has the best view of Lake Balaton.

The abbey also features as a footnote in Habsburg history - the last Habsburg Emperor of Austria, Charles I was briefly held prisoner here following his second attempt to regain the throne of Hungary.

Tihany is famous for the echo, existing since the 18th century. There were poems written for this echo, like by Mihály Csokonai Vitéz and Mihály Vörösmarty, but the most famous is by János Garay, summing up the legend of the place. The echo has since abated, due to changes in the landscape. The other part of the legend concerns with the "goats' nails", washed ashore from Balaton, which are in fact corners of prehistoric clams. According to the story, there was a princess with golden-haired goats, but she was too proud and hard of heart and was punished (cursed by the king of the lake): her goats were lost in Balaton, only their nails remained, and she was obliged to answer to every passers-by. A stone, remembering the Shouting Girl, is still to be seen near the village.

On the shores of Lake Balaton stands the former summer residence of the Habsburg imperial family, which remained in the private ownership of the family until the end of the Second World War. It was since used as a hotel, but is now in private hands and not accessible to the public.

Tihany's inhabitants have the highest per capita income, and the village has the highest housing prices in the whole of Hungary.


Tünde [ˈtyndɛ] is a Hungarian feminine given name, derived from Hungarian tündér meaning "fairy". This name was coined by the Hungarian poet Mihály Vörösmarty in the 19th century in his work Csongor és Tünde (Csongor and Tünde).

With Csongor and Tünde, Vörösmarty has given new life to the fairy-tale forest whose last visitor was Shakespeare. Moving on Vörösmarty’s stage are fairies, imps, witches and cosmic deities. This fairy world naturally performs its dance on the poet’s magic carpet of language. (Antal Szerb)

June 1 is the Hungarian name day for Tünde.

People with the name "Tünde" include:

Tünde Vaszi (b. 1972), Hungarian, Olympic longjumper

Vörösmarty tér

Vörösmarty tér or Vörösmarty square is a public square in the Budapest city centre at the northern end of Váci utca.At the centre of the square facing west is a statue of poet Mihály Vörösmarty. Behind the monument is a fenced park and a fountain flanked by stone lions. At the north end of the square is the Café Gerbeaud and stairs to the southern terminus of the Budapest Metro's venerable yellow line (M1). The square is also a business area, including offices for Ibusz and Aeroflot. The British Embassy is located at the square.

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