Miguel López de Legazpi

Miguel López de Legazpi (Spanish pronunciation: [miˈɣel ˈlopeθ ðe leˈɣaθpi]; c. 1502 – August 20, 1572), also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo (The Elder), was a Spanish navigator and governor who established the first Spanish settlement in the East Indies when his expedition crossed the Pacific Ocean from the Viceroyalty of New Spain in modern-day Mexico, arrived in Cebu of the Philippine Islands, 1565. He was the first Governor-General of the Spanish East Indies which included the Philippines and other Pacific archipelagos, namely Guam and the Marianas Islands. After obtaining peace with various indigenous nations and kingdoms, he made Cebu the capital of the Spanish East Indies in 1565 and later transferred to Manila in 1571.[1] The capital city of the province of Albay bears his name.

Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi, en La Hormiga de Oro
Governor-General of Spanish East Indies
In office
April 27, 1565 – August 20, 1572
MonarchPhillip II
Preceded byInaugural Holder
Succeeded byGuido de Lavezaris
Personal details
Born
Miguel López de Legazpi[1]

c. 1502
Zumarraga, Gipuzkoa, Crown of Castile
DiedAugust 20, 1572 (aged 69–70)
Intramuros, Manila, Captaincy General of the Philippines
Resting placeSan Agustin Church, Manila

Mexico

In 1528, Hernán Cortés established settlements in North America and López de Legazpi traveled to Mexico (New Spain) to start a new life. This was due to the death of his parents and his dissatisfaction with his eldest sibling, who inherited the family fortune. In Tlaxcala, he worked with Juan Garcés and Juan's sister, Isabel Garcés. López de Legazpi would go on to marry Isabel and have nine children with her. Isabel died in the mid-1550s.

Between 1528 and 1559, he worked as a leader of the financial department council and as the civil governor of Mexico City.

Expedition to the Philippines

Itinerario legazpi
A route of the Spanish expeditions in the Philippines.

In 1564, López de Legazpi was commissioned by the viceroy, Luis de Velasco, to lead an expedition in the Pacific Ocean, to find the Spice Islands where the earlier explorers Ferdinand Magellan and Ruy López de Villalobos had landed in 1521 and 1543, respectively. The expedition was ordered by King Philip II of Spain, after whom the Philippines had earlier been named by Ruy López de Villalobos. The viceroy died in July 1564, but the Audiencia and López de Legazpi completed the preparations for the expedition.

On November 19 or 20, 1564, five ships and 500 soldiers, sailed from the port of Barra de Navidad, New Spain, in what is now Jalisco state, Mexico (other sources give the date as November 1, 1564, and mention 'four ships and 380 men'). Members of the expedition included six Augustinian missionaries, in addition to Fr. Andrés de Urdaneta, who served as navigator and spiritual adviser,[2] Melchor de Legazpi (son of Adelanto de Legazpi), Felipe de Salcedo (grandson of Miguel López de Legazpi), and Guido de Lavezarez (a survivor of the expedition of Ferdinand Magellan).

López de Legazpi and his men sailed the Pacific Ocean for 93 days. In 1565, they landed in the Mariana Islands, where they briefly anchored and replenished their supplies. There they fought with Chamorro tribes and burned several huts.

Arrival in the Philippines

A chief of Bohol island named Catunao gave information to Miguel López of Cebu, and accompanied López as a guide.[3] López de Legazpi's expedition anchored off the Indianized Rajahnate of Cebu on February 13, 1565, but did not put ashore due to opposition from natives.[4]:77

On February 22, 1565, the expedition reached the island of Samar and made a blood compact with Datu Urrao. The Spaniards then proceeded to Limasawa and were received by Datu Bankaw, then to Bohol, where they befriended Datu Sikatuna (or Catunao[5][6]) and Rajah Sigala. On March 16, 1565, López de Legazpi made a blood compact with Datu Sikatuna.[4]:77

On April 27, 1565, the expedition returned to Cebu and landed there. Rajah Tupas challenged the Spaniards, but was overpowered. The Spaniards established a colony, naming the settlements "Villa del Santisimo Nombre de Jesús" (Town of the Most Holy Name of Jesus) after an image of Sto. Niño in one of the native houses.[4]:77

Panay and Mindoro

In 1569, due to a scarcity of food provisions in Cebu, López de Legazpi transferred to Panay town on the island of Panay, where they were peacefully welcomed by the people in the Kedatuan of Madja-as. Subsequently, they founded a second settlement, then named Capiz and now the city of Roxas in Capiz province, located on the bank of the Panay River. In 1570, López de Legazpi sent Juan de Salcedo, his grandson who had arrived from Mexico in 1567, to Mindoro (former location of the Huangdom of Ma-i) to punish the Muslim Moro pirates who had been plundering Panay villages. Salcedo also destroyed forts on the islands of Ilin and Lubang, respectively South and Northwest of Mindoro[4]:79[7]

Luzon and the capture of Manila

In 1570, having heard of the rich resources in Luzon, López de Legazpi dispatched Martín de Goiti to explore the northern region. Landing in Batangas with a force of 120 Spaniards, de Goiti explored the Pansipit River, which drains Taal Lake.[4]:79 On May 8, they arrived in Manila Bay. There, they were welcomed by the natives. Goiti's soldiers camped there for a few weeks while forming an alliance with the Muslim leader, Rajah Ache, who was a vassal under the Sultan of Brunei. López de Legazpi wanted to use Manila's harbor as a base for trade with China. However, the Rajah's ally in northern shores of Manila Bay, historically known as the young Bambalito of Macabebe, asked Rajah Soliman (Old Ache) to revoke his alliance with the Spaniards. Rajah Matanda refused because of the "word of honor" of the Spaniards. Rajah Soliman had his conditions for Bambalito that if they were able to kill as least 50 Spaniards, he would revoke his alliance with López de Legazpi, and the Old Ache would help to expel the conquerors. Bambalito rode back to Macabebe and formed a fleet of two thousand five hundred moros consisting of soldiers from the villages along Manila Bay particularly from Macabebe and Hagonoy.[8] On May 30, 1570, Bambalito sailed to Tondo with Caracoas and encountered the Spaniards at Bangkusay Channel, headed by Martin de Goiti on June 3, 1571. Bambalito and his fleet had lost the battle, and after disputes and hostility had erupted between the two groups, the Spaniards occupied the Islamized states of Tondo and Maynila. Manila was prepared by Goiti for López de Legazpi who left Panay.

In the same year, more reinforcements arrived in the Philippines, prompting López de Legazpi to leave Cebu for Panay and then for Luzon. He recruited 250 Spanish soldiers and 600 native warriors to explore the regions of Leyte and Panay. The following year, he followed Goiti and Salcedo in Manila, after learning that the villages had been conquered.

During the early phase of the exploration of the northern part of the Philippines, López de Legazpi remained in Cebu and did not accompany his men during their conquest of Manila because of health problems and advanced age.

In Manila, López de Legazpi formed a peace pact with the native councils as well as the local rulers, Rajah Sulayman and Lakan Dula, Lakan and Rajah are same title of the native royalty. Both groups agreed to organize a city council, consisting of two mayors, twelve councilors and a secretary. López de Legazpi established a settlement there on June 24, 1571, and he also ordered the construction of the walled city of Intramuros. He proclaimed the town as the island's capital, and the seat of the Spanish government in the East Indies.[1]

Upon the defeat of Bambalito, Legazpi orders the exploration of the villages north of Manila. In September 1571, Goiti pacified Lubao and Betis, using riverine tributaries of Rio Chico, then he reached the settlements in Calumpit and Malolos on November 14, 1571 and other old villages mostly along Manila Bay. López de Legazpi had established a government on the islands and became the first Spanish governor of the Philippines.

Last years

López de Legazpi governed the Philippines for a year before dying suddenly of a stroke in Manila on August 20, 1572 after scolding an aide.[9][10] He died bankrupt, leaving a few pesos behind, due to having spent most of his personal fortune during the conquest. He was laid to rest in San Agustin Church, Intramuros.

By the time of López de Legazpi's death, the parts of the Visayas had passed to Spanish rule. The Spanish met strong resistance from Muslim sultanates on the island of Mindanao, the Zambal tribes of Zambales, and the Igorot of the Cordilleran mountains, as well as some Wokou pirates from China and Japan.

Letters to the King of Spain

During his final years, López de Legazpi wrote several letters to Philip II of Spain about his journey to the East Indies, and the conquest he had achieved. These were collectively known as the "Cartas al Rey Don Felipe II: sobre la expedición, conquistas y progresos de las islas Felipinas" (Letters to the King Lord Philip II: on the expedition, conquests, and progress of the Philippine Islands). The letters are still preserved today at the General Archive of the Indies in Seville, Spain.

Role of religion on the expedition

At the time of López de Legazpi's arrival, the natives of the archipelago practiced Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and animism. Part of the motivation of the Spaniards was to evangelize population and convert people to Roman Catholicism.

With the Augustinian, Franciscan and other friars, who had helped him established a government on the islands, López de Legazpi worked to convert the natives to the Christian religion. In 1609, Antonio de Morga, Alcalde of Criminal Causes, in the Royal Audiencia of New Spain wrote:

After the islands had been conquered by the sovereign light of the holy gospel which entered therein, the heathen were baptized, the darkness of their paganism was banished and they changed their own for Christian names. The islands also, losing their former name, took — with the change of religion and the baptism of their inhabitants — that of Filipinas Islands, in recognition of the great favors received at the hands of his Majesty Filipe the Second, our sovereign, in whose fortunate time and reign they were conquered, protected and encouraged, as a work and achievement of his royal hands.[11]

Legacy

The López de Legazpi and Urdaneta expedition to the Philippines effectively created the trans-Pacific Manila galleon trade, in which silver mined from Mexico and Potosí was exchanged for Chinese silk, porcelain, Indonesian spices, Indian gems and other goods precious to Europe at the time. The trade route formed an important commercial link between Latin America and the Asia-Pacific with the trade products even carried over to Europe via the Havana Galleons, while heavily financing the Spanish Empire.[12] The introduction of Western ingredients, goods, and imperialism brought about the 'Hispanization' of the islands.

For the next 333 years, from 1565 when Spain first established a colony in the country until the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898, the Philippines was a Spanish colony (including the years 1762–1764 when the British controlled Manila and the port city of Cavite but not the whole country).

Media portrayals

Gallery

Migel Lopez Legazpi jaiotetxea Zumarraga

Birthplace of Legazpi in Zumarraga, Gipuzkoa

Lopez de Legazpi

Statue of Legazpi outside of Fort San Pedro, Cebu City

Zumarraga - Plaza de Euskadi, monumento a Legazpi 2

Statue of Legazpi in Zumarraga, Spain

Manilajf8528 38

Legazpi-Urdaneta Monument in Manila

Manilajf8528 40

Miguel López de Legazpi and Andrés de Urdaneta, Manila

SanAgustinChurch,Manilajf0364 06

His mortal remains are in the San Agustin Church, Manila.[13]

SanAgustinChurch,Manilajf0364 07

Tomb of Miguel López de Legazpi, Manila[13]

Legazpi500peso

Legazpi on a 500 peso banknote, 1936

Miguel Lobos de Legazpi Monument in Legazpi City side view

Monument of Legazpi at the city hall of the Philippine city named after him

See also

Publications

  • De Morga, Antonio (2004). History of the Philippine Islands. Volume 1 and 2. Project Gutenberg.
  • López de Legazpi, Don Miguel (1564–1572). "Cartas al Rey Don Felipe II: sobre la expedicion, conquistas y progresos de las islas Felipinas". Sevilla, España.

References

  1. ^ a b c Karnow, Stanley (1989). "Miguel López de Legazpi". In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines. Random House. ISBN 978-0394549750. – On Miguel Lopez de Legazpi vs Manuel de Legazpi: Stanley Karnow erroneously used the name "Manuel de Legazpi" to refer to Miguel Lopez de Legazpi at the Cast of Principal Characters, The Spanish section of his book on page 446, however the Index and the entirety of the book solely used the name "Miguel Lopez de Legazpi"; Karnow also mistakenly used the year "1871" (as the founding year of Manila as a capital) at the Cast of Principal Characters, The Spanish section, but the rest of the book used "1571", specifically on pages 43–47, 49, and 485
  2. ^ "Blood Compact", Bohol Philippines History website
  3. ^ The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898 — Volume 12 of 55
  4. ^ a b c d e M.c. Halili (2004). Philippine History' 2004 Ed.-halili. Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9.
  5. ^ http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/docs/books/gutenberg/1/5/0/2/15022/15022.txt
  6. ^ "Philippine eLib Portal". www.elib.gov.ph. 2008-06-16. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  7. ^ Iloilo History Part 1 - Research Center for Iloilo Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Mann, Charles C. (2012). 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-307-27824-1. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  9. ^ Serag, Sebastian Sta. Cruz (1997). The Remnants of the Great Ilonggo Nation. Rex Bookstore, Inc. p. 160. ISBN 978-971-23-2142-9.
  10. ^ Stanley Karnow, In our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines, pg 47.
  11. ^ Antonio de Morga. "History of the Philippine Islands". Project Gutenburg. Retrieved 2004-12-01.
  12. ^ Charles C. Mann (2011), 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created, Random House Digital, pp. 19–25, ISBN 978-0-307-59672-7
  13. ^ a b http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SanAgustinChurch,Manilajf0364_08.JPG

External links

Government offices
New office Governor and Captain-General of the Philippines
1565–1572
Succeeded by
Guido de Lavezaris
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
El adelantado
1571–1572
Honorary disestablished
Barra de Navidad

Barra de Navidad is a small town located on the western coastline of the Mexican state of Jalisco.

The town of Barra de Navidad (Christmas Sandbar) with a population of 7000+ is a small farming and fishing community located on the east end of the Bahía de Navidad, 60 km north of Manzanillo. In recent years, the Jalisco state government has promoted Barra as a tourist attraction of the Costalegre. The beachfront fronting the sandbar arks toward San Patricio, Jalisco 4.5 kilometers to the west.

The history of "modern" Barra de Navidad dates back to the mid-16th century when the Spanish used it for ship building, repairs and a jumping off point to the Philippines. A monument has been erected as a memory to these journeys at the end of the jetty. Ruy López de Villalobos (1500–1544) fleet of six galleon ships, the Santiago, Jorge, San Antonio, San Cristobal, San Martin, and San Juan, left Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, Mexico with 370 to 400 men on November 1, 1542. On the early morning of November 21, 1564, armed with five ships and 500 soldiers, Miguel López de Legazpi and his sail-captain Andrés de Urdaneta sailed from the port of Barra de Navidad, New Spain, in what is now Jalisco state, Mexico.

The large lagoon behind Barra de Navidad is criss-crossed by small fishing boats gathering scallops and transporting visitors and locals from Barra to Isla Navidad and the Grand Bay Hotel, recently voted the Number One hotel/resort in Mexico by the Travel Channel. These boats (panga taxies) also carry passengers to and from the small Colima community of Colimilla where restaurants line the shore. In 2012 many of Barra de Navidad's seaside businesses were left in ruins after Hurricane Jova. The businesses recovered despite the damage and high tide. However, the number of visiting tourists has decreased substantially ever since.

Battle of Bangkusay Channel

The Battle of Bangkusay (Filipino: Labanan sa Ilog Bangkusay; Spanish: Batalla de Bangkusay), on June 3, 1571, was a naval engagement that marked the last resistance by locals to the Spanish Empire's occupation and colonization of the Pasig River delta, which had been the site of the indigenous polities of Maynila and Tondo.Tarik Sulayman, the chief of Macabebes, refused to ally with the Spanish and decided to mount an attack at Bangkusay Channel on Spanish forces, led by Miguel López de Legazpi. Sulayman's forces were defeated, and a chief was killed. The Spanish victory in Bangkusay and Legazpi's alliance with Lakandula of Tondo, enabled the Spaniards to establish themselves throughout the city and its neighboring towns.

Blood compact

Blood compact (Spanish: Pacto de sangre, Filipino: Sanduguan) was an ancient ritual in the Philippines intended to seal a friendship or treaty, or to validate an agreement. The contracting parties would cut their wrists and pour their blood into a cup filled with liquid, such as wine, and drink the mixture.

A famous example of the blood compact was the 1565 Sandugo between Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi and Datu Sikatuna, the chieftain of Bohol. Another blood compact was contracted between Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan and Rajah Humabon of Cebu.A similar ritual was practiced by initiates into the 19th century revolutionary group, the Katipunan. Though they did not consume their blood, they used it to sign their membership contracts.

Datu Sikatuna

Datu Sikatuna (or Catunao) as the Datu (chief of the Indianized Philippine polity) in the island of Bohol in the Philippines. His real name was "Katuna" but "Si" was added to his name as this is a nominative marker for a Filipino. He made a blood compact ("Sanduguan") and alliance with the Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi on March 16, 1565 near the modern town of Loay.There is a monument commemorating this pact called The Sandugo Blood Compact Site, which is located in the Bohol district of Tagbilaran City.

Felipe de Salcedo

Felipe de Salcedo was a Spanish explorer who was a member of the López de Legazpi expedition to the Philippines in the 16th century. He accompanied his brother Juan de Salcedo and grandfather Miguel López de Legazpi in 1564 for their colonization of the East Indies and the Pacific. He commanded 1 ship, out of 5 fleets that sailed from Mexico to the Philippines.

Guido de Lavezaris

Guido de Lavezaris (c. 1499? – d. 1581?) was the second Spanish Governor General of the Philippines. He succeeded Miguel López de Legazpi in 1572 as governor, and was succeeded by Francisco de Sande on August 25, 1575.

Jemo Island

Jemo Island Atoll (Marshallese: Jemo̧ or Jāmo̧, [tʲææ̯mʲæ͡ɒɒ̯]) is an uninhabited coral island in the Pacific Ocean, in the Ratak Chain of the Marshall Islands north-east of Likiep Atoll. The island is oval-shaped and occupies the southwestern end of a narrow submarine ridge that extends to the northeast for several kilometers. Its total land area is only 0.16 square kilometres (0.062 sq mi). The island is traditionally held as a food reserve for the family of Joachim and Lijon deBrum, passed down to Lijon debrum from Iroijlaplap Lobareo and is owned by the current Likiep land-owning families of Joachim and Lijon debrum, grandkids of Iroijlaplap Jortõka of Ratak Eañ.

First recorded sighting of Jemo Island by Europeans was by the Spanish expedition of Miguel López de Legazpi on 10 January 1565. It was charted as Los Pajaros (The Birds in Spanish).

Juan de Salcedo

Juan de Salcedo (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈxwan de salˈθeðo]; 1549 – March 11, 1576) was a Spanish conquistador. He was born in Mexico in 1549 and he was the grandson of Miguel López de Legazpi and brother of Felipe de Salcedo. Salcedo was one of the soldiers who accompanied the Spanish colonization of the Philippines in 1565. He joined the Spanish military in 1564 for their exploration of the East Indies and the Pacific, at the age of 15. In 1567, Salcedo led an army of about 300 Spanish and Mexican soldiers and 600 Visayan (Filipino) allies along with Martín de Goiti for their conquest of Islamic Manila (then under occupation by the Sultanate of Brunei). There they fought a number of battles against the Muslim leaders, mainly against Tarik Sulayman (ironically named from the Arabic طارق بن زياد Tāriq, Islamic conqueror of Spain before the Christian Spanish expelled the Muslims during the Reconquista). The Spanish officers, Mexican recruits and Filipino warriors coalesced in 1570 and 1571 to attack the Islamised areas of Luzon, for control of lands and settlements.

William Scott called Salcedo, "the last of the Conquistadores." In May 1572, Salcedo led an exploration expedition of 45 Spaniards northward. Leaving 30 of his men at Vigan, Salcedo proceeded to sail around the northern coast, and down the eastern shore, with 15 men in 2 open boats. He returned to Manila 3 months later with 50 pounds of gold.In 1574, Salcedo hurried back to Manila, when that city was threatened by Limahong and he fought with his 600 warriors (300 Mexicans and Spaniards plus 300 local Filipino Militia) against 6,500 Chinese pirates and Japanese Ronins. After the Spanish success in the Battle of Manila (1574), Salcedo pursued Limahong to Pangasinan in 1575. There the Spaniards besieged the pirates for four months, before Limahong made good his escape.Salcedo died in March 1576, probably of dysentery, at the age of 27.His body is interred at the San Agustin Church in Intramuros.

Legazpi

Legazpi or Legaspi may refer to:

Miguel López de Legazpi, Spanish conquistador who founded the Spanish colony in the Philippines

Martín de Goiti

Martín de Goiti (c. 1534 - 1575) was one of the soldiers who accompanied the Spanish colonization of the East Indies and the Pacific, in 1565. From his main base in Mexico City, he was the leader of the expedition to Manila, ordered by Miguel López de Legazpi in 1569. There, he fought a number of battles against the Muslim, Tariq Suleiman/Soliman (Arabic سليمان), the Hindu Rajah Matanda (Hindi ऋअज ंअतन्द), and the Taoist Lakandula (trad. Chinese 王 杜拉) of the kingdoms in Luzon; for control of the lands and its settlements. He is also known for his statesmanship by betrothing his sister to Batang Dula, the eldest son and successor apparent of Lakan Dula of Tondo (trad. Chinese"東都" pronounced Dongdu), the paramount ruler of Manila. Eventually their descendants unified the 3 royal houses of Tariq Suleiman, Rajah Matanda and Lakan Dula with the Basque Goiti family. The Dula y Goiti family eventually married with the Mendoza family who came over from Latin-America, who were Sephardic Hebrews that were practicing Catholics. Afterwards, the Dula y Goiti surname was shortened to Dulay. However, during the Spanish era, some descendants changed their surnames even further in order to avoid persecution and among which; the Salonga and Macapagal families are known descendants of these royal houses albeit only through a different family name.

Plaza Rajah Sulayman

Plaza Rajah Sulayman, also known as Rajah Sulayman Park, is a public square in Malate, Manila. It is bounded by Roxas Boulevard to the west, San Andrés Street to the south and Remedios Street to the north. The plaza is considered the center of Malate as it fronts the Malate Church, the main church of the district.

The square is named after Rajah Sulayman, the late 16th-century sovereign of the Kingdom of Maynila, who died in the Battle of Bangkusay Channel while resisting invading Spanish troops led by Miguel López de Legazpi.

Plaza de Armas (Manila)

The Plaza de Armas is a public square in Intramuros, Manila. It is one of two major plazas in Intramuros, the other being the central Plaza de Roma (also called "Plaza de Armas" at one point in its history), and is the central plaza of Fort Santiago. It is located north of Plaza Moriones (not to be confused with Plaza Moriones in Tondo), a larger plaza outside Fort Santiago which was once a military promenade before it was closed in the 1863 earthquake that devastated Manila. While Plaza Moriones in Intramuros is outside the walls of Fort Santiago, both plazas are often construed for the other.Historical evidence may suggest that the plaza is the site where the wooden palisade of Rajah Sulayman, on top of which Fort Santiago was built, was located, and was deliberately allocated by Miguel López de Legazpi as the smaller of two open squares in Intramuros, the other being the larger Plaza Mayor (today's Plaza de Roma). Military barracks and storehouses surrounded the plaza, the ruins of which stand today.Currently, the plaza is an open green area surrounded by trees. At the western side of the plaza is the Rizal Shrine, erected in honor of José Rizal, who was imprisoned there prior to his execution in 1896, when the building was still being used as military barracks. The Shrine includes a statue of Rizal which was erected at the center of the plaza. To the north is a cross erected in memory of World War II victims who were buried in a mass grave underneath by the Imperial Japanese Army, while the eastern side contains an eighteenth-century building which was converted into the Dulaang Raha Sulayman (Rajah Sulayman Theater), the venue of seasonal performances by the Philippine Educational Theater Association (PETA).

Plaza de Mexico (Manila)

Plaza de Mexico, also known simply as Plaza Mexico, is a historic riverside square in Manila, Philippines, located at the west end of Magallanes Drive and Riverside Drive in Intramuros bordering the Pasig River in the north. It is surrounded by the Aduana Building on the south, the Bureau of Immigration Building on the east and the ruins of the Bastión de Maestranza and Puerta de Almacenes on the west. The Pasig River Ferry has a station also named Plaza Mexico located northeast of the square behind the Immigration building. The square was named Plaza de Mexico in 1964 to commemorate the 4th centenary of the expedition of Miguel López de Legazpi and Andres de Urdaneta from New Spain (Mexico) and the historic Manila-Acapulco galleon trade relations between the two nations that lasted 250 years.

Located on this square is the monument to the IV Centenary of the Mexico–Philippines Maritime Expedition donated by the Mexican Secretary of The Navy Shipyards during the celebrations of the Year of Mexican-Philippine Friendship in 1964. On the other side of the square is a statue of Adolfo López Mateos, the President of Mexico who visited the city in 1962.

Sandugo

The Sandugo was a blood compact, performed in the island of Bohol in the Philippines, between the Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi and Datu Sikatuna the chieftain of Bohol on March 16, 1565, to seal their friendship as part of the tribal tradition. This is considered as the first treaty of friendship between the Spaniards and Filipinos. "Sandugo" is a Visayan word which means "one blood".The Sandugo is depicted in both the provincial flag and the official seal of the government in Bohol. It also features the image of the blood compact. The top of the seal explains the history behind the Sandugo event that occurred in Bohol, the fleet and the location where the Spaniards anchored and the place where the treaty was conducted which was dated on March 16, 1565.

Sandugo Festival

The Sandugo Festival is an annual historical celebration that takes place every year in Tagbilaran City on the island of Bohol in the Philippines. This festival commemorates the Treaty of Friendship between Datu Sikatuna, a chieftain in Bohol, and Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi. This 16th-century peace treaty occurred on March 16, 1565 through a blood compact or "sandugo".The Sandugo Festival is held every July. The Tagbilaran City Charter Day on July 1 kicks-off the month-long festival with a holy mass, diana, motorcade and program sponsored by the City Government of Tagbilaran. Among the major activities during the month is the Miss Bohol Sandugo Beauty Pageant, and the Sandugo Street Dancing Competition which is usually held on the 3rd or 4th Sunday of July, and organized by the Bohol Sandugo Foundation, Inc. (BSFI).

Singhapala

Singhapala (Baybayin: ᜐᜒᜅ᜔ᜑᜉᜎ, Filipino: Lungsod ng Singhapala, Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Singhapala, Old Malay: Kota Singhapala) was an ancient fortified city or a region, the capital of the Indianized Rajahnate of Cebu. The location of this ancient city is what is now the modern Barangay Mabolo in the northern district of Cebu City. Founded by Sri Lumay or Rajahmura Lumaya, a half-Tamil prince from Sumatra.

Tarik Sulayman

Tarik Sulayman, also spelled Tarik Soliman (from Arabic طارق سليمان Tāriq Sulaiman), is the most popular of several names attributed by Kapampangan historians to the individual that led the forces of Macabebe against the Spanish forces of Miguel López de Legazpi during the Battle of Bangkusay Channel on June 3, 1571. Aside from "Tarik Sulayman", this individual has also been associated with the names Bambalito or Bankau by some historians, while others simply consider him "nameless."The Spanish records do not identify that individual by name, so the attribution of the name Tarik Sulayman is based on genealogical records presented by the leader's supposed Kapampangan descendants during the 19th century.The Battle of Bangkusay happened because he refused to ally with the Spaniards as Lakandula had done, decided to mount an attack on the Spaniards, massing his forces at Bangkusay Channel. López de Legazpi got word of the impending attack and launched a preemptive strike. The Macabebe forces were defeated, and Tarik Sulayman himself was killed.The Spanish victory at Bangkusay and López de Legazpi's friendship with Lakandula enabled the Spaniards to establish themselves throughout the city and its neighboring towns.

Treaty of Cebu (1565)

The Treaty of Cebu is a peace treaty signed on 4 June 1565 between Miguel López de Legazpi, representing King Philip II of Spain, and Rajah Tupas of Cebu. The treaty effectively created Spanish suzerainty over Cebu.

Legazpi had sailed from Mexico on November 20, 1564 with a fleet of four ships: San Pedro (the flagship), San Pablo, San Juan de Letran and San Lucas and a force of several hundred conquistadors. The expedition reached the Philippines in January 1565 and went ashore in Samar, Leyte, Limasawa, Bohol, and Negros to make blood compacts, claim possession for Spain, and seize or barter foodstuffs.On April 15, 1565, the expedition anchored in Cebu, where Rajah Tupas had treated with Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 as representative of Rajah Humabon. An envoy went ashore seeking to make a pact with Tupas who, having heard of the return of the Spaniards, evacuated the town and relocated to the interior of the island. Unable to treat with Tupas, the Spanish envoy announced that the Cebuanos had submitted to Spanish suzerainty 40 years before and were rebellious Spanish subjects. The Spanish sacked the town and began construction of a stockaded camp and took possession of the whole island of Cebu in the name of Spain. Around May 8, Tupas presented himself at the Spanish fort and agreed to formalize a treaty. After some delay, the treaty was formalized on July 3, 1565.Historian William Henry Scott characterizes the treaty as "... actually the terms of an unconditional surrender. ... a kind of prototype of the unequal treaties which western nations were to fasten on Oriental peoples for the next three centuries."

Zumarraga, Gipuzkoa

Zumarraga ([s̻umaraɣa]) is a municipality in Gipuzkoa province of the Basque Country autonomous community of Spain.

In 1446 a battle took place there during the War of the Bands.It is the birthplace of Miguel López de Legazpi, conquistador who explored the Pacific Islands and the East Indies, and of Iñaki Urdangarín, the husband of Infanta Cristina of Spain.

Under the
Viceroyalty of New Spain
(1565–1821)
Under Spain
(1821–1898)

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