Middlesex Hospital

Middlesex Hospital was a teaching hospital located in the Fitzrovia area of London, England. First opened as the Middlesex Infirmary in 1745 on Windmill Street, it was moved in 1757 to Mortimer Street where it remained until it was finally closed in 2005. Its staff and services were transferred to various sites within the University College London Hospitals NHS Trust. The Middlesex Hospital Medical School, with a history dating back to 1746, merged with the medical school of University College London in 1987.

Middlesex Hospital
Middlesex Hospital
Uk london fitzrovia middlesexhospital
The hospital in September 2007, shortly before demolition (BT Tower in background)
Middlesex Hospital is located in City of Westminster
Middlesex Hospital
Location within Westminster
LocationFitzrovia, London, England
Care systemNHS England
Hospital typeGeneral
Affiliated universityUniversity College London
Emergency departmentNo
Founded1745, moved 1757, rebuilt 1928
ListsHospitals in England


The Middlesex Hospital; seen from the south. Engraving by J. Wellcome M0003347
Engraving of Middlesex Hospital seen from the south in 1830

Development of the hospital

The first Middlesex Hospital, which was named after the county of Middlesex, opened as the Middlesex Infirmary in Windmill Street in 1745.[1] The infirmary started with 15 beds to provide medical treatment for the poor.[1] Funding came from subscriptions and, in 1747, the hospital became the first in England to add 'lying-in' (maternity) beds.[1]

The foundation stone for the second Middlesex Hospital, in Mortimer Street, was laid by the hospital's president, the Earl of Northumberland, in 1755.[1] The central block of the new hospital opened in 1757.[1]

Over the years extra wings were added but, in 1924, it was decided that the building was structurally unsound and an entirely new building would be required.[1] The Duke of York, later King George VI, having visited the hospital on 26 June 1928 to lay the foundation stone of the new building, returned on 29 May 1935 to open the completed building.[1] The hospital had been completely rebuilt, on the same site and in stages, without ever being closed, paid for by more than £1 million of donations from members of the public.[2]

After coming under the management of the Bloomsbury Health Authority in 1980, the Middlesex Hospital became associated with various specialist hospitals in the local area.[1] In 1992 the local urology hospitals, St Paul's, St Peter's and St Philip's, were closed down with services transferred to new accommodation in the Middlesex Hospital.[1]

Middlesex Hospital Medical School

The Middlesex Hospital Medical School traced its origins to 1746 (a year after the foundation of the Middlesex Hospital), when students were 'walking the wards'. The motto of the medical school, 'Miseris Succurrere Disco', was provided by one of the deans, Dr William Cayley, from Virgil's Queen Dido aiding a shipwreck: 'Non ignara mali, miseris succurrere disco' ('Not unacquainted with misfortune myself, I learn to succour the distressed').[3]

At the establishment of the then London University (now University College London), the governors of the Middlesex Hospital declined permission of the former's medical students to use the wards of the Middlesex Hospital for clinical training. This refusal prompted the foundation of the North London Hospital, now University College Hospital, in 1834.[4]

The medical schools of the Middlesex Hospital and University College Hospital merged in 1987 to form the University College and Middlesex School of Medicine (UCMSM). UCMSM itself merged with the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine in 1998 to form the UCL Medical School.[5]

The Courtauld Institute of Biochemistry of the Middlesex Hospital Medical School was opened by Samuel Augustine Courtauld in 1928, the foundation stone having been laid on 20 July 1927. Its main entrance was in Riding House Street. Courtauld also endowed a Chair of Biochemistry.[1][6]

Closure and redevelopment

The Middlesex Hospital closed in December 2005.[1] The main hospital building in Mortimer Street was sold to developer Project Abbey (Guernsey) Ltd, a company controlled by Christian and Nick Candy and was demolished in 2008. The building was used, just before it was demolished, in the film Eastern Promises.[7] Candy and Candy failed in plans to redevelop the site into a 273-apartment luxury accommodation complex, named "NoHo Square", and transferred the property to the nationalised Icelandic bank, Kaupthing Bank.[8]

In 2010 the site was purchased by Clive Bush and Daniel Van Gelder's Exemplar Properties and Aviva Investors in July 2010.[9] Exemplar decided against retaining either the Candy and Candy designs or the NoHo Square name and instead appointed new architects in Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands and Sheppard Robson to prepare new designs. Following a public exhibition a planning application for their proposed scheme was submitted in September 2011.[10][11]

Planning consent for the new development, now called Fitzroy Place, was granted in February 2012.[12] The new development, which combines 295 homes with 240,000 sq ft of offices, including the regional headquarters for cosmetics multinational, Estée Lauder was completed in 2016.[13]

Fitzrovia Chapel

Fitzrovia Chapel interior 08
Interior of the restored chapel in September 2015

The former chapel of the Middlesex Hospital by John Loughborough Pearson is now the only surviving building of the Hospital. The chapel was completed after the architect's death under the supervision of his son, Frank, also an architect. The chapel was structurally complete by the mid 1920s and the surrounding hospital then demolished and rebuilt around it between 1928 and 1929. The chapel was not formally opened until 1929 by which time much of the lavish interior decoration of marbles and mosaic in a mix of Italian gothic and romanesque styles had been added, giving it the appearance it broadly retains today. The chapel is a Grade II* Listed building.[14]

The fabric of the chapel was allowed to decline in the closing decades of the Middlesex Hospital, with water ingress through the roof causing substantial damage to the fabric of the building.[15] The chapel fabric and interior was subject to a £2m restoration and the building re-endowed with maintenance funds by Exemplar Properties. Never consecrated, named or dedicated, the chapel was given the name "Fitzrovia Chapel".[15]

Paintings of Frederick Cayley Robinson

For nearly 100 years, four giant paintings welcomed visitors to the reception area of The Middlesex Hospital. The Acts of Mercy were painted in 1912 by Frederick Cayley Robinson, a distinctive yet elusive British artist, after being commissioned by Sir Edmund Davis, one of the governors of the hospital. Prior to the demolition of the hospital, the art was purchased by The Wellcome Library.[16]

Notable patients

People reported to have died there include:

People who have been treated here include:

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Middlesex Hospital". Lost Hospitals of London. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  2. ^ "Hospitals". Derelict London. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  3. ^ Tournoy, Gilbert (2006). Humanistica Lovaniensia: Journal of Neo-Latin Studies. Leuven University Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-9058675712.
  4. ^ "UCLH trust chronology". University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  5. ^ "History". UCL Medical School. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
  6. ^ "Courtauld Institute of Biochemistry". Nature. 130 (3274): 163–164. 1 July 1932. doi:10.1038/130163d0. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  7. ^ "Middlesex Hospital – The Filming Location of Eastern Promises". Abandoned Spaces. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
  8. ^ Keilthy, Paul (31 October 2008). "Noho Square Deal in Ruins". West End News. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  9. ^ Hipwell, Diedre (18 July 2010). "Aviva wins Noho Square scheme". The Independent. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  10. ^ Morby, Aaron (26 September 2011). "New plan for former NoHo Square London site". Construction Enquirer. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  11. ^ Bar-Hillel, Mira (22 September 2011). "Noho Square finally looks poised for redevelopment". The Evening Standard. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  12. ^ Loeb, Josh (9 February 2012). "Middlesex Hospital site gets go-ahead to build 300 homes – Permission granted for £750million scheme". Camden New Journal.
  13. ^ "2 Fitzroy Place launches in style". Exemplar. 10 February 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  14. ^ Historic England. "MIDDLESEX HOSPITAL THE CHAPEL (1223496)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  15. ^ a b "Archifacts Sheet – Fitzrovia Chapel" (PDF). Open House London. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  16. ^ "Acts of mercy. Oil paintings by Frederick Cayley Robinson, 1915-1920". COPAC. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  17. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 21. Oxford University Press. 2004. p. 955. ISBN 978-0-19-861371-8.Article by Michael Holroyd.
  18. ^ Sikov, Ed (2002). Mr Strangelove: A Biography of Peter Sellers. Sidgwick and Jackson. pp. 381–382. ISBN 978-0-233-99883-1.
  19. ^ "Winston Churchill: Aspects in Focus". All about shipping. 24 September 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2019.

External links

Coordinates: 51°31′08″N 0°08′16″W / 51.5190°N 0.1377°W

Barbara Fawkes

Barbara Noel Fawkes, OBE, FRCN (25 December 1914 – 4 October 2002) was a British nurse and nursing educator. She served as Chief Education Officer, General Nursing Council for England and Wales from 1959 to 1974.

She trained as a nurse and midwife at the Middlesex Hospital, London, which was evacuated to Buckinghamshire during World War II. In 1954 she received a Red Cross scholarship to study education and administration at Columbia University, where she was graduated, earning her B.Sc. She went on to tour Commonwealth hospitals in Canada, Australia and New Zealand. She left the Middlesex Hospital in 1956 to begin her career in nursing education, which she began as chief education officer with the General Nursing Council, from which she retired in 1974.

In 1984 she organised the International Cancer Nurses Conference in Melbourne, Australia, for which services she was later awarded an honorary fellowship in the Royal College of Nursing of New South Wales (NSW).

Brian Windeyer

Professor Sir Brian Wellingham Windeyer (7 February 1904 – 26 October 1994) was Professor of Therapeutic Radiology at the Middlesex Hospital Medical School, University of London, from 1942–69, Dean of school from 1954–67 and Vice-Chancellor of the University of London from 1969–72.

Central Middlesex Hospital

Central Middlesex hospital (CMH) is in the centre of the Park Royal business estate, on the border of two London boroughs, Brent and Ealing. It is managed by the London North West University Healthcare NHS Trust.

Charles Dodds

Sir Edward Charles Dodds, 1st Baronet MVO FRS FRSE FRCP LLD (13 October 1899 – 16 December 1973) was a British biochemist.

Cleveland Street Workhouse

The Cleveland Street Workhouse is a Georgian property in Cleveland Street, Marylebone, built between 1775 and 1778 for the care of the sick and poor of the parish of St Paul Covent Garden under the Old Poor Law. From 1836, it became the workhouse of the Strand Union of parishes. The building remained in operation until 2005 after witnessing the complex evolution of the healthcare system in England. After functioning as a workhouse, the building became a workhouse infirmary before being acquired by the Middlesex Hospital and finally falling under the NHS. It the last century it was known as the Middlesex Hospital Annexe and the Outpatient Department. It closed to the public in 2005 and it has since been vacated. On 14 March 2011 the entire building became Grade II Listed.

Diana Beck

Diana Jean Kinloch Beck (29 June 1900 – 3 March 1956) was an English neurosurgeon and possibly the first female neurosurgeon. She established the neurosurgery service at Middlesex Hospital in London, where she gained a public profile for operating on A. A. Milne.

Farokh Udwadia

Farokh Udwadia is an Indian physician. He graduated from the University of Bombay (MBBS) with a Distinction in Medicine and several other subjects in 1953. He received his MD from the University of Bombay in 1956 (where he graduated as valedictorian). He completed his advanced training at the Brompton Hospital and Middlesex Hospital, London and was on the house staff of City Hospital and Northern General Hospital, Edinburgh, in Professor John Crofton's Unit. He is an elected fellow of the National Academy of Medical Sciences.

Fitzrovia Chapel

The Fitzrovia Chapel is situated in Pearson Square, in the centre of the Fitzroy Place development bordered by Mortimer Street, Cleveland Street, Nassau Street and Riding House Street in Fitzrovia, London. It was originally part of the now demolished Middlesex Hospital, built in 1891 by John Loughborough Pearson, and completed in 1929 by his son Frank Loughborough Pearson after the rest of the hospital was demolished and rebuilt around the chapel. The chapel is a Grade II* listed building. Historic England describes the style as "Italian Gothic". All the internal surfaces are decorated, with much use of polychrome marbles and mosaics.

Frank Dickens (biochemist)

Frank Dickens FRS (15 December 1899 – 15 June 1986) was a biochemist, best known for his work at the Courtauld Institute of Biochemistry with Edward Charles Dodds on the pentose phosphate pathway which generates NADPH.

London Buses route 110

London Buses route 110 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, England. It runs between West Middlesex Hospital and Hounslow.

Middlesex Hospital (Connecticut)

Middlesex Hospital is a non-profit, acute care community hospital in Middletown, Connecticut.

Its service area includes Middlesex County, Connecticut and the lower Connecticut River Valley region. In 2015 Middlesex became the first hospital in Connecticut to join the Mayo Clinic Care Network.

Middlesex Hospital (disambiguation)

Middlesex Hospital may refer to:

Middlesex Hospital, a teaching hospital located in the Fitzrovia area of London, England, closed 2005

North Middlesex Hospital, a District General Hospital (DGH) in Edmonton in the London Borough of Enfield

West Middlesex Hospital, an acute NHS hospital in Isleworth, west London

South Middlesex Hospital, a hospital in Isleworth, closed 1991

Middlesex Hospital in New Brunswick, New Jersey, now Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital

North Middlesex University Hospital

North Middlesex University Hospital, known locally as North Mid, is a district general hospital in Edmonton, in the London Borough of Enfield. The hospital is managed by North Middlesex University Hospital NHS Trust.

South Middlesex Hospital

The South Middlesex Hospital was a hospital in Isleworth, London. Opened by the Duke of Cambridge as the Mogden Isolation Hospital in July 1898, it served its own borough and that of Richmond, retaining its name until 1938 when it was then renamed South Middlesex Fever Hospital but continued under local authority control.

When the National Health Service was formed it became, in 1948, simply 'South Middlesex Hospital' – still dealing with acute and infectious diseases under the North West Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board. Then from 1974 until its closure in 1991 it was administered by the North West Thames Regional Health Authority. The hospital has been demolished and the site is now occupied by a Tesco superstore.

Theodore Dru Alison Cockerell

Theodore Dru Alison Cockerell (1866–1948) was an American zoologist, born at Norwood, England, and brother of Sydney Cockerell. He was educated at the Middlesex Hospital Medical School, and then studied botany in the field in Colorado in 1887–90. Subsequently, he became a taxonomist and published numerous papers on the Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Mollusca, as well as publications on paleontology and evolution.

Tony Barber (bassist)

Anthony 'Tony' Barber (born 20 April 1963, North Middlesex Hospital, Edmonton, London, England) is a former bassist of the British pop-punk band Buzzcocks.He was a member of post-punk band Lack of Knowledge between 1979 and 1985 and Boys Wonder between 1987 and 1988. He joined Buzzcocks in 1992. He also played on The T4 Project's 2008 album entitled Story-Based Concept Album.He has also released solo material under the name Airport, including the Lift Off with Airport album in 2001 on the Poptones label.Barber has also produced records for P.P. Arnold and the Soul Destroyers, Denim, and Idha as well as played live in such groups as The Alarm, Alternative TV, The Creation, Rich Kids, Go-Kart Mozart, and U.K. Subs.Barber is a supporter of animal welfare efforts. During a January 2009 radio interview on Pets In The City on Pet Life Radio, he spoke candidly about his life as a musician, the numerous punk rock musicians he played with over the years, and his production work with a number of new bands. Barber also talked about his involvement in animal rescue efforts.

UCL Medical School

UCL Medical School is the medical school of University College London (UCL) and is located in London, United Kingdom. The School provides a wide range of undergraduate and postgraduate medical education programmes and also has a medical education research unit and an education consultancy unit.

UCL has offered education in medicine since 1834. The currently configured and titled medical school was established in 2008 following mergers between UCLH Medical School and the medical school of the Middlesex Hospital (in 1987) and The Royal Free Hospital Medical School (in 1998).

The School's clinical teaching is primarily conducted at University College Hospital, The Royal Free Hospital and the Whittington Hospital, with other associated teaching hospitals including the Eastman Dental Hospital, Great Ormond Street Hospital, Moorfields Eye Hospital, the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery and the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital and Luton and Dunstable University Hospital.

The School is currently ranked 4th in the UK by the Complete University Guide 2016, 3rd by the Guardian University Guide 2016, and 10th in the world by the QS World University Rankings.

University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (UCLH) is an NHS foundation trust based in London, United Kingdom. It comprises University College Hospital, University College Hospital at Westmoreland Street, the UCH Macmillan Cancer Centre, the Eastman Dental Hospital, the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, the Royal London Hospital for Integrated Medicine and the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital.

The Trust has an annual turnover of around £940 million and employs approximately 8,180 staff. Each year its hospitals treat over 500,000 outpatients appointments and admit over 100,000 patients. In partnership with University College London, UCLH has major research activities is part of the UCLH/UCL Biomedical Research Centre and the UCL Partners academic health science centre. Its hospitals are also major teaching centres and offer training for nurses, doctors and other health care professionals in partnership with City, University of London, Kings College London, London South Bank University and UCL Medical School.

West Middlesex University Hospital

West Middlesex University Hospital (WMUH) is an acute NHS hospital in Isleworth, west London, operated by Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. It is a teaching hospital of Imperial College School of Medicine and a designated academic health science partner (Imperial College Academic Health Sciences Partnership). West Middlesex University Hospital serves patients in the London Boroughs of Hounslow, Richmond upon Thames and Ealing. The hospital has over 400 beds and provides a full range of clinical services including accident and emergency, acute medicine, care of the elderly, surgery and maternity.


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