The Mid-Atlantic, also called Middle Atlantic states or the Mid-Atlantic states, form a region of the United States generally located between New England and the South Atlantic States. Its exact definition differs upon source, but the region usually includes New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Washington, D.C., Virginia, and West Virginia. When discussing climate, Connecticut is sometimes included in the region, since its climate is closer to the Middle Atlantic than the New England states.  The Mid-Atlantic has played an important role in the development of American culture, commerce, trade, and industry.
In the late 19th century, it was called "the typically American" region by Frederick Jackson Turner. Religious pluralism and ethnic diversity have been important elements of Mid-Atlantic society from its settlement by Dutch, Swedes, English Catholics, and Quakers through to the period of British rule, and beyond to the current day. After the American Revolution, the Mid-Atlantic region hosted each of the historic capitals of the United States, including the current federal capital, Washington, D.C.
In the early part of the 19th century, New York and Pennsylvania overtook Virginia as the most populous states and the New England states as the country's most important trading and industrial centers. Large numbers of German, Irish, Italian, Jewish, Polish, and other immigrants transformed the region, especially coastal cities such as New York City, Newark, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C., but also interior cities such as Pittsburgh, Rochester, Albany, and Buffalo.
New York City, with its skyscrapers, subways, and headquarters of the United Nations, emerged in the 20th century as an icon of modernity and American economic and cultural power. By the 21st century, the coastal areas of the Mid-Atlantic were thoroughly urbanized.
The Northeast Corridor and Interstate 95 link an almost contiguous sprawl of suburbs and large and small cities, forming the Mid-Atlantic portion of the Northeast megalopolis, one of the world's most important concentrations of finance, media, communications, education, medicine, and technology.
The Mid-Atlantic is a relatively affluent region of the nation, having 43 of the 100 highest-income counties in the nation based on median household income and 33 of the top 100 based on per capita income. Most of the Mid-Atlantic states rank among the 15 highest-income states in the nation by median household income and per capita income.
The Mid-Atlantic is home to some of the most prestigious universities in the nation and world including Columbia University and Princeton University, which rank among the top 3 universities in the United States and top 10 universities in the world.
|Largest city||New York City|
|• Total||191,308.5 sq mi (495,487 km2)|
|• Density||300/sq mi (120/km2)|
|• Total||$2.962 trillion (2007)|
There are differing interpretations as to the composition of the Mid-Atlantic, with sources including in the region a number of states from New York to South Carolina. A United States Geological Survey publication describes the Mid-Atlantic Region as all of Maryland, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, along with the parts of New Jersey, New York, and North Carolina that drain into the Delaware and Chesapeake Bays and the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds. Sometimes, the nucleus is considered to be the area centered on the Washington metropolitan area, including Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, and West Virginia.
Virginia and especially West Virginia, are atypical of this region in a few ways. They are the only states to lie primarily within the Southern American dialect region, and the major religious tradition in both states is Evangelical Christian, 30% in Virginia and 39% in West Virginia. Although a few of West Virginia's eastern panhandle counties are considered part of the Washington, D.C. MSA, the major portion of the state is rural, and there are no major or even large cities.
Shipping and trade have been important to the Mid-Atlantic economy since the beginning of the colonial era.
The explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to see the region in 1524. Henry Hudson later extensively explored that region in 1611 and claimed it for the Dutch, who then created a fur-trading post in Albany in 1614. Jamestown, Virginia was the first permanent English colony in North America, it was established seven years earlier in 1607.
From early colonial times, the Mid-Atlantic region was settled by a wider range of European people than in New England or the South. The Dutch New Netherland settlement along the Hudson River in New York and New Jersey, and for a time, New Sweden along the Delaware River in Delaware, divided the two great bulwarks of English settlement from each other. The original English settlements in the region notably provided refuge to religious minorities, Maryland to Roman Catholics, and Pennsylvania to Quakers and Anabaptist Pennsylvania Dutch. In time, all these settlements fell under English colonial control, but the region continued to be a magnet for people of diverse nationalities.
The area that came to be known as the Middle Colonies served as a strategic bridge between the North and South. The New York and New Jersey campaign during the American Revolutionary War saw more battles than any other theater of the conflict. Philadelphia, midway between the northern and southern colonies, was home to the Continental Congress, the convention of delegates who organized the American Revolution. The same city was the birthplace of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the United States Constitution in 1787, while the United States Bill of Rights was drafted and ratified, and the first Supreme Court of the United States sat for the first time, in the first capital under the Constitution at New York City.
While early settlers were mostly farmers, traders, and fishermen, the Mid-Atlantic states provided the young United States with heavy industry and served as the "melting pot" of new immigrants from Europe. Cities grew along major ports, shipping routes, and waterways. Such flourishing cities included New York City and Newark on opposite sides of the Hudson River, Philadelphia on the Delaware River, and Baltimore on the Chesapeake Bay.
|MSA||2016 Estimate||2010 Census|
|1||New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA||20,153,634||19,567,410|
|6||Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC||1,726,907||1,676,822|
|8||Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY||1,132,804||1,135,509|
|1||New York, NY||8,537,673|
|5||Virginia Beach, VA||425,602|
|8||Jersey City, New Jersey||264,152|
|9||Buffalo, New York||259,902|
Note: The Mid-Atlantic region is also home to the nation's capital, Washington, D.C..
|Nonpartisan||Federalist||Democratic-Republican||National Republican||Democratic||Whig||Know Nothing||Republican||Constitutional Union||Progressive|
|Presidential electoral votes in the Mid-Atlantic states since 1789|
|Year||Delaware||District of Columbia||Maryland||New Jersey||New York||Pennsylvania||Virginia||West Virginia|
|1789||Washington||No election||Washington||Washington||Deadlocked||Washington||Washington||No election|
|1792||Washington||No election||Washington||Washington||Washington||Washington||Washington||No election|
|1796||Adams||No election||Adams||Adams||Adams||Jefferson||Jefferson||No election|
|1800||Adams||No election||Jefferson||Adams||Jefferson||Jefferson||Jefferson||No election|
|1804||Pinckney||No election||Jefferson||Jefferson||Jefferson||Jefferson||Jefferson||No election|
|1808||Pinckney||No election||Madison||Madison||Madison||Madison||Madison||No election|
|1812||Clinton||No election||Madison||Clinton||Clinton||Madison||Madison||No election|
|1816||King||No election||Monroe||Monroe||Monroe||Monroe||Monroe||No election|
|1820||Monroe||No election||Monroe||Monroe||Monroe||Monroe||Monroe||No election|
|1824||Crawford||No election||Jackson||Jackson||Adams||Jackson||Crawford||No election|
|1828||Adams||No election||Adams||Adams||Jackson||Jackson||Jackson||No election|
|1832||Clay||No election||Clay||Jackson||Jackson||Jackson||Jackson||No election|
|1836||Harrison||No election||Harrison||Harrison||Van Buren||Van Buren||Van Buren||No election|
|1840||Harrison||No election||Harrison||Harrison||Harrison||Harrison||Van Buren||No election|
|1844||Clay||No election||Clay||Clay||Polk||Polk||Polk||No election|
|1848||Taylor||No election||Taylor||Taylor||Taylor||Taylor||Cass||No election|
|1852||Pierce||No election||Pierce||Pierce||Pierce||Pierce||Pierce||No election|
|1856||Buchanan||No election||Fillmore||Buchanan||Frémont||Buchanan||Buchanan||No election|
|1860||Breckinridge||No election||Breckinridge||Lincoln||Lincoln||Lincoln||Bell||No election|
|1864||McClellan||No election||Lincoln||McClellan||Lincoln||Lincoln||No election||Lincoln|
|1868||Seymour||No election||Seymour||Seymour||Seymour||Grant||No election||Grant|
|Year||Delaware||District of Columbia||Maryland||New Jersey||New York||Pennsylvania||Virginia||West Virginia|
The Mid-Atlantic is home to 30 professional sports franchises in major leagues:
Notable golf tournaments in the Mid-Atlantic include the Barclays, Quicken Loans National and Atlantic City LPGA Classic. The US Open, held at New York City, is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, whereas Washington Open is part of the ATP World Tour 500 series.
Notable motorsports tracks include Watkins Glen International, Dover International Speedway and Pocono Raceway, which have hosted Formula One, IndyCar, NASCAR, World Sportscar Championship and IMSA races. Also, the Englishtown and Reading drag strips such have hosted NHRA national events. Pimlico Race Course at Baltimore and Belmont Park at New York host the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes horse races, which are part of the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing.
The Mid-Atlantic United States flood of 2006 was a significant flood that affected much of the Mid-Atlantic region of the eastern United States. The flooding was very widespread, affecting numerous rivers, lakes and communities from upstate New York to North Carolina. It was widely considered to be the worst flooding in the region since Hurricane David in 1979. It was also one of the worst floodings in the United States since Hurricane Katrina in August 2005. At least 16 deaths were related to the flooding.63rd Cavalry Division (United States)
The U.S. Army's 63rd Cavalry Division, Organized Reserve, was created from the perceived need for additional cavalry units. It numbered in succession of the Regular Army Divisions, which were not all active at its creation.
The 63rd Cavalry Division was located in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The division was composed of personnel from Tennessee, Louisiana, Georgia, North Carolina, Texas, Oklahoma, & Colorado.Atlantic Metropolitan Hockey League
The Atlantic Metropolitan Hockey League is a youth ice hockey organization, based in Florham Park, New Jersey, that operates in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic United States. The AMHL operates the Atlantic Youth Hockey League and formerly the Atlantic Junior Hockey League and Metropolitan Junior Hockey League.Capital Geographical Union
The Capital Geographic Union is the Geographical Union (GU) for rugby union teams playing in the Maryland, Virginia and Washington, D.C. It is an association of youth, high school, collegiate, and adult men's and women's rugby teams in the Mid-Atlantic United States under USA Rugby.Carex interior
Carex interior is a species of sedge known by the common name inland sedge. It is native to much of North America from Alaska to northern Mexico to the mid-Atlantic United States. It grows in wet habitat, most often in calcareous soils. This sedge produces clumps of stems approaching a meter in maximum height, with a few leaves at each stem. The inflorescence is an open array of star-shaped spikes of flowers covered with gold scales. The fruit is coated in a toothed, red-tipped perigynium.Choptank River
The Choptank River is a major tributary of the Chesapeake Bay and the largest river on the Delmarva Peninsula. Running for 71 miles (114 km), it rises in Kent County, Delaware, runs through Caroline County, Maryland and forms much of the border between Talbot County, Maryland on the north, and Caroline County and Dorchester County on the east and south. It is located north of the Nanticoke River and its mouth is located south of Eastern Bay. Cambridge, the county seat of Dorchester County, and Denton, the county seat of Caroline County, are located on its south shore.
Its watershed area in Maryland is 1,004 square miles (2,600 km2), of which 224 square miles (580 km2) is open water, so it is 22% water. The predominant land use is agricultural with 418 square miles (1,080 km2), or 48% of the land area.
The $155 million Hyatt Regency Chesapeake Bay Golf Resort, Spa & Marina is situated on the east shore in Cambridge, MD. Completed in 2002, the resort is the only of its kind in the Mid-Atlantic United States. However, Hyatt has been struggling to make bond payments on the property.Colonial States Athletic Conference
The Colonial States Athletic Conference (CSAC) is an NCAA Division III collegiate athletic conference in the Mid-Atlantic United States. There are currently nine full member institutions as of 2018. The conference's membership, as with most Middle Atlantic conferences, was shaken as a result of the formation of the Landmark Conference and its ensuing domino effect. The conference, founded in 1992 as the Pennsylvania Athletic Conference, changed its name in 2008.The CSAC experienced another shakeup in 2018 when five members departed the conference to join with two other institutions to form a new Division III conference that eventually became the Atlantic East Conference. In July 2018, the CSAC added two new members, and another new member is set to join in 2019.Cuisine of the Mid-Atlantic states
The cuisine of the Mid-Atlantic states encompasses the cuisines of the states of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Northern Maryland. The influences on cuisine in this region of the United States are extremely eclectic owing to the fact that it has been and continues to be a gateway for international culture as well as a gateway for new immigrants.Hot milk cake
Hot milk cake is a traditional two-layer cake, possibly from the Mid-Atlantic United States. It has mocha-flavored icing, and is moist and delicate.It is served every year since 1991 at the Anne Arundel County Historical Society's annual Strawberry Festival at Baltimore-Washington International Airport.It is also a traditional quick one-layer cake served in the South, topped with fruit, powdered sugar icing, or boiled coconut.
Hot milk cake gets its distinctive flavor from the scalded milk that is the liquid component of the batter. It differs from traditional sponge cakes in that it contains baking powder as leavening, and the eggs are beaten together whole instead of whipped as yolks and whites separately.International Junior Hockey League
International Junior Hockey League was an independent Tier III Junior A ice hockey league. The League had teams in New England and Mid Atlantic United States.Lake Needwood
Lake Needwood is a 75-acre (300,000 m2) reservoir in Derwood, Maryland, USA. Located east of Rockville, in the eastern part of Montgomery County, it is situated on Rock Creek. The lake was created to provide flood control. It also protects the water quality of the creek by functioning as a retention basin to trap sediment from storm-water runoff.
The lake is part of Rock Creek Regional Park. Visitors can rent pedal boats, rowboats, and canoes, and a flat-bottom pontoon boat, the Needwood Queen, is available for rides. Also, the picnic areas surrounding the lake are popular locations for various events. Other park features include a visitors center and snack bar, hiking and biking trails, playgrounds, an archery range and Needwood Golf Course. About one mile (1.6 km) southeast is Lake Needwood's sister lake, Lake Frank.
The Rock Creek Trail begins at Lake Needwood and can be followed along the course of Rock Creek, ending at the Potomac River in Washington, D.C.Middle Atlantic Conferences
The Middle Atlantic Conferences (MAC) is an umbrella organization of three athletic conferences that competes in the NCAA's Division III. The 17 member colleges are in the Mid-Atlantic United States.
The organization is divided into two main conferences: the MAC Commonwealth and the MAC Freedom. A third conference, named the Middle Atlantic Conference (singular), draws members from both the Commonwealth and Freedom conferences and sponsors sports that only a certain set of members participate in, such as track & field and cross country.Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools
The Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools (Middle States Association or MSA) is a voluntary, peer-based, non-profit association that performs peer evaluation and regional accreditation of public and private schools in the Mid-Atlantic United States and certain foreign institutions of American origin. The MSA has until at least 2013 comprised three separate commissions:
Middle States Commission on Higher Education (MSCHE)
Middle States Commission on Elementary Schools (MSCES)
Middle States Commission on Secondary Schools (MSCSS)The MSCES and the MSCSS operate together as an organization sometimes known as the MSA-CESS. The accreditation of post-secondary schools by the MSCSS is limited to those that do not confer degrees, or that offer technical programs.MSCHE's headquarters are in Center City, Philadelphia.Music of the Mid-Atlantic United States
The Mid-Atlantic music scene consists of mostly unsigned bands from Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Washington, D.C., North Carolina, South Carolina, and West Virginia. However, there have been some success stories of bands that worked hard over the years to achieve commercial success such as Jimmie's Chicken Shack, Good Charlotte, SR-71, and Nothingface.
Every year at the HFStival, the concert features a local music stage which was started and initially run by the influential, but now defunct, regional indie label Fowl Records. Many of the artists from the Mid-Atlantic Music Scene have showcased their talents on this stage.NBC Sports Washington
NBC Sports Washington is an American regional sports network that is owned by NBCUniversal and Monumental Sports & Entertainment, and operates as an affiliate of NBC Sports Regional Networks. Headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, the channel broadcasts regional coverage of sports events throughout the Mid-Atlantic United States, with a focus on professional sports teams based in Baltimore and Washington, D.C., as well as sports news and entertainment programming.
NBC Sports Washington is available on approximately 25 cable providers throughout Maryland, Virginia and the District of Columbia, as well as parts of Delaware, Pennsylvania, North Carolina and West Virginia; it is also available nationwide on satellite via DirecTV and Dish Network. The channel reaches more than 4.7 million households in the Mid-Atlantic region.Stotesbury Cup
The Stotesbury Cup Regatta, sponsored by the Schuylkill Navy, is the world's oldest and one of the largest high school rowing competitions. It is held annually in mid-May over a two-day period along the Schuylkill River near Boathouse Row in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Competing crews come from schools all over North America, though most hail from the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic United States.
The regatta has many different events (30 in 2011) in which high school crews compete for various cups and trophies. Events vary by sex, age, weight category, number of rowers, and style of rowing (whether sweeping with one oar per rower or sculling with two oars per rower). The regatta takes its name from the main event, the Men's Senior Eight race, in which crews of eight oarsmen and one coxswain compete for the Stotesbury Cup. The Stotesbury Cup in turn is named for Edward T. Stotesbury of Philadelphia, a prominent partner at J.P. Morgan & Co. and its Philadelphia affiliate, Drexel & Co. The Women's Senior Eights compete for the Robert Engman Trophy. The regatta has been running men's races since 1927; women's events were added in the mid-1970s. Powerhouse schools in men's events include Episcopal Academy, Christian Brothers Academy, St. Augustine Preparatory School, LaSalle High School, Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas, Holy Spirit, Atlantic City High School, St. Albans School (Washington, D.C.), St. Joseph's Prep, Gonzaga College High School, and Roman Catholic High School for Boys. Episcopal Academy, having dominated the Senior and Junior Four division from 2015-2016, made the Grand Final in the Men's Senior Eight in 2017. The same year, Gonzaga College High School was overtaken by Montclair High School for first place in the Men's Senior Eight. Meanwhile, in women's events, National Cathedral School (Washington, D.C.) has won the Senior Eight category twice (2016-2017) and finished second once (2014) in the last four years. Mount Saint Joseph Academy has also emerged in recent years with strong showings in the Lightweight Eight and Senior Eight categories and Bishop Eustace Preparatory School won the Senior Eight category for three consecutive years (2007-2009). Merion Mercy Academy having won Silver in 2016 in the Women's Senior Eight won Gold in both the Women's Senior Four and Lightweight Eight in 2017.Tornado outbreak of April 27–28, 2002
The Tornado outbreak of April 27–28, 2002 was a widespread outbreak that afectted areas of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri and Nebraska on April 27, 2002. More tornadoes were reported in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia on the following day, April 28.
Generally, tornado reports were widely scattered in each state, but significant to severe damage was noted in multiple states. Overall, the outbreak was responsible for 7 deaths, 256 injuries and a total in excess of $224 million in tornado damage, with wind and hail adding to the damage total.Tornadoes of 2002
This page documents the tornadoes and tornado outbreaks of 2002, primarily in the United States. Most tornadoes form in the U.S., although some events may take place internationally. The year had several large outbreaks that included the Veterans Day Weekend tornado outbreak and the Midwest to Mid-Atlantic United States tornado outbreak.Welsh Americans
Welsh Americans are an American ethnic group whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in Wales. In the 2008 U.S. Census community survey, an estimated 1.98 million Americans had Welsh ancestry, 0.6% of the total U.S. population. This compares with a population of 3 million in Wales. However, 3.8% of Americans appear to bear a Welsh surname.There have been several U.S. Presidents with Welsh ancestry, including Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, John Quincy Adams, James A. Garfield, Calvin Coolidge, and Richard Nixon. Jefferson Davis, President of The Confederate States of America P.G.T. Beauregard, U.S. Vice President Hubert Humphrey, and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton are also of Welsh heritage.The proportion of the population with a name of Welsh origin ranges from 9.5% in South Carolina to 1.1% in North Dakota. Typically names of Welsh origin are concentrated in the mid-Atlantic states, the Carolinas, Georgia and Alabama and in Appalachia, West Virginia and Tennessee. By contrast, there are relatively fewer Welsh names in New England, the northern Midwest, and the southwest.
United States articles